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Welding

 Arc Welding
 Resistance Welding

 Oxyfuel Gas Welding

 Solid State Welding


Diversity of welding processes
WELDING

Solid state welding Fusion welding Soldering and brazing

Resistance welding Soldering


Cold welding Brazing
Friction welding
Electrical energy Chemical energy
Diffusion welding
Flash welding Oxyacetylene gas welding

Ultrasonic welding Oxyfuel gas welding

Explosion welding
Consumable electrode Non consumable Other processes
electrode
Gas metal arc welding Laser beam welding
Shielded metal arc welding Gas tungsten arc welding Thermit welding
Submerged arc welding Atomic hydrogen
Electron beam welding
welding
Flux cored arc welding
Plasma arc welding
Electrogas welding
Electroslag welding
Arc Welding
 Heat generated by an electric arc
 Pool of metal fuses components together
 Arc is sustained in a plasma (ionized gas)
Arc Welding

Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW) Gas Metal Arc (GMAW)


MIG

Flux Cored Arc (FCAW) Submerged Arc (SAW)


Arc Welding

Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW)


TIG

Plasma Arc (PAW)


Welding Rod Classification (ex. E-6010)

 The E- stands for electrode.


 The first two numbers indicate the tensile strength
 The next-to-last number gives the welding positions
 The last digit of the weld rod number indicates the
type of current for which the rod may be used (ac, dc
straight, dc reverse), the penetration, and the type of
flux around the rod.
 Example: E-6010 would have a tensile strength of
60,000 psi, could be used in all positions, has a
cellulose-sodium flux, could give deep penetration,
and must be used with dc reverse current.
Resistance Welding
Oxyfuel Welding
Solid State Welding
 Cohesive atomic forces attract
each other
 Little or no melting of metals

 Forge Welding
 Cold Welding

 Roll Welding

 Hot Pressure Welding

 Diffusion Welding

 Explosion Welding

 Friction Welding

 Ultrasonic Welding
WELDING TECHNOLOGY
APPLICATION IN POWER PLANT
TABLE OF CONTENT
 WELDING DEFINITION
 TYPES OF WELDING
 APPLICATION IN POWER PLANT
 TYPES OF JOINT
 DEFECT IN WELDING
 CONCLUSION
DEFINITION OF WELDING
 The process in which metals or plastics are
jointed by heating them to a suitable
temperature to cause them to melt and fused
into a single piece.
 Temp: 1000 °C to 3500°C
1830 deg F to 6330°F
TYPES OF WELDING
Welding process can be devided into two
major groups:
a) fusion welding and
 Arc welding (AW).
 Resistance Welding (RW)
 Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OGW).
 Other fusion welding process. Example: electron
beam welding and laser beam welding.
b) solid-state welding.
 Diffusion welding (DFW).
 Friction Welding (FRW).
Type of welding
 Manual Welding
 SMAW
 GTAW
2 parameters:

 Semi automatic Feed

 GMAW Speed

 Automatic
 Robotic welding
GAS METAL ARC WELDING
(GMAW)
 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) known
as MIG welding. It is an electric arc
welding process use a consumable wire
electrode and the work piece.
 The shielding gas then will stabilizes the
arc , shields the arc and allows smooth
transfer of metal from the weld wire to
the molten weld pool.
Gas Metal Arc Welding
(GMAW)
Is a process where a
continuously fed metal electrode
(wire) contacts the base metal
and produces heat .

The arc is shielded by an inert


gas or active gas.

Also known as MIG/MAG (Metal


Inert Gas / Metal Active Gas)
GMAW component diagram
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW).


ITEM
1)Main connection
2)Main current source
3)Wire electrode coil
4)Wire feed unit
5)Shielding gas cylinder
6)Welding current supply
7)Wire electrode
8)Shielding gas hose
9)Welding torch
10)Work piece clamp
11)Work piece
SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
(SMAW)
 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) known as
manual metal arc (MMA) welding or stick
welding. Uses a consumables electrode stick .
Filler metal rod coated with chemicals that
provide flux and shielding.

 The flux covering the electrode melts during


welding. The slag must be chipped off the
weld bead after welding.
MODE OF OPERATION
 The arc is formed between
electrode and the surface
of the metal.
 The intense heat melts
the metal and the
electrode, solidifies, and
forms a weld.
 Electrode coating forms
gaseous shielded.
 A slag is formed over the
weld bead must be
removed
GAS TUNSTEN ARC WELDING
(GTAW)
 Also known as Tungsten inert gas welding
(TIG)
 An arc is struck between a non consumable
tungsten electrode and the work piece
 Gas shielding to protect the molten pool
metal from contamination.
 Uses shielding gasses such as Argon, Helium,
Carbon dioxide, or mixture of gas
 Produces no slag

Welding paling mudah


Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (GTAW)
OR TIG
GTAW (TIG) Connections
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Is a process where a tungsten


electrode contacts the base
metal and produces heat and
filler rod were also utilized.

The arc is shielded by an inert


gas (argon gas).

Also known as TIG (Tungsten


Inert Gas Arc Welding)
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Gas tungsten arc welding.


MODE OF OPERATION
 An arc is maintained
between the end of
the tungsten
electrode and work
piece.
 The current is
controlled by the
power source setting.
 The operator must
control the arc length
and also the filler
metal.
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
(FCAW)

 Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) is an electric arc


welding ,uses an arc between a continuously fed
flux-filled electrode and weld pool.
 used shielded gas from a flux
 The FCAW process utilizes heat of an arc
between a continuously fed consumable flux
cored electrode and the work.
 The heat of the arc melts the surface of the
base metal and the end of the electrode.
MODE OF OPERATION
 The metal melted off
the electrode is
transferred across the
arc to the work piece.
 Shielding is obtained
from flux-cored
electrode.
 Additional shielding is
obtained from an
envelope of gas
supplied through a
nozzle to the arc area.
OXYACETYLENE GAS
WELDING
 Process which relies on the heat of a flame
to melt the material being welded.
 Flame is produce when oxygen and
acetylene mixed together in torch
 Operating parameter:
Flame temperature:2500°C to 3000°C
Rate of thickness : 0.5 mm upwards
Type of joint : All
Welding position : flat or vertical
EQUIPMENT
1) Oxygen cylinder
2) Acetylene cylinder
3) Branch-line back-
pressure valve
4) Oxygen hose
5) Acetylene hose
6) Welding torch/
Blowpipes
7) )Welding rod
8) Welding nozzle
9) Workpiece
10 )Welding flame
TYPE OF FLAME
 NeutralFlame

 Oxidising Flame

 Carburising Flame
APPLICATION IN POWER
PLANT
 GMAW
Applications
 Medium gauge
fabrication.
 Welding in tight spot,
i.e not accessible by
SMAW welding

Root welding using advanced GMAW


 GTAW Applications
 High quality weld in
stainless steel for nuclear
reactors and chemical plant
 High quality welds in
aluminum alloys
 Root run in combination
Pipes welding in power plant
weld using GTAW

New shroud was welded using


narrow-gap GTAW
 FCAW Applications
 Flux cored arc
welding (FCAW) is
used in UK power
plants to repair type IV
cracking/damage
found on ½ Cr ½ Mo
¼ V steam pipe lines
systems on fossil
power plants, where a
faster repair technique
would reduce outage
times and costs In-situ weld repair using FCAW
significantly.
 SMAW Applications
 Low rate production
 Oxyacetylene Gas Welding
Applications
 Pipe works
 Ventilation ducts
 Installation and repairs
 Surfacing
 Cutting
 Preheating
BASIC TYPES OF WELDED
JOINTS
DEFECT IN WELDING
 Two categories of defects:
 External Defects - Can be identified by a
visual inspection method
e.g. : Dye Penetrate and Magnetic Particle
Testing
 Internal Defects - Require a Non-
Destructive Testing (NDT) method
e.g. : X-Ray or Ultrasonic Testing
 The three main causes of defect:
 Welding operations carelessness or lack of
skill
 Adverse working conditions ( Hot - Cold)
 Poor Design or Lack of Preparation
Undercut
•A groove at the toe or root
of a weld .
Causes : - Excessive
amperage, too long an arc
length, Excessive weaving of
the electrode, too fast a rate
of travel & angle of
electrode too inclined to the
joint face.
Results :- A stress
concentration site and a
potential site for fatigue
crack initiation
Slag Inclusion

Refers to any non-metallic material in a completed weld


joint. These inclusions can create a weal point in the weld
deposit.
Causes : - failure to remove slag from previous runs,
insufficient amperage, incorrect electrode angle or size &
faulty preparation.
Results :- Slag inclusion reduce the cross sectional area
strength of the weld and serve as a potential site for
cracking.
Porosity A hole or cavity found internally or
externally in the weld. Porosity can
originate wet electrodes, electrode
flux breaking down or from
impurities on the surface of the
parent metal. It also known as
“Piping”, “Blow or Worm Holes”.
Causes : - Unclean parent metal
surface, incorrect electrode for
parent metal, inadequate gas
shielding of the the arc, & Parent
metals with a high % of sulfur and
phosphorus.
Results :- Severely reduces the
strength of the welded joint.
Surface porosity can allows a
corrosive atmosphere to attack the
weld metal which may cause
failure.
Lack of Fusion

A lack of bonding between the


weld metal and the parent
metal or between weld metal
passes.
Causes : - Small electrode
used on cold and thick steel,
insufficient amperage,
incorrect electrode angle and
manipulation, rate of travel too
fast & unclean surface
Results :- Weakens the welded
joint and becomes a potential
fatigue initiation site.
Incomplete Penetration
A failure of the weld metal to
penetrate into the root of the
joint.
Causes : - current too low,
insufficient root gap, & too large
an electrode size.
Results :- Weakens the welded
joint and becomes a potential
fatigue initiation site.
Welding Cracking
Planar (Two Dimensional)
discontinuities produced by the tearing
of parent or weld metal. Weld metal
cracking can occur in either the plastics
condition or by fracturing when cold.
Causes : - incorrect welding procedures
and techniques, weld size may be too
small for the parts being welded, base
metal may contain a high carbon
content, etc.
Misalignment

Normally defined as an unnecessary or unintentional variation in


the alignment of the parts being welded.
Causes : - poor assembly of the parts to be welded, inadequate
welds that break or insufficient & damping that results in
movement
Results :- Misalignment is a serious defect since failure to melt
both edges of the root will results in stress concentration sites
which in service may lead to premature fatigue failure of the
point.
CONCLUSION
 Welding is the best way to joint permanently
two or more metal to make them act as a single
metal
 Safety precaution is very important in welding as
the welder is exposed to dangerous materials
such as flames, heat and electricity.
 Welding is very important application in power
plant because most of repairs done in power
plant will surely include welding
Joints, Welds & Positions

 Five (5) types of joints,


 Five (5) types of welds and
 Five (5) positions (plate)
Joints, Welds & Positions

Corner

Five (5) joints:

Butt Lap

Edge “T”
Joints, Welds & Positions

Five types of welds

1. Surface
2. Groove
3. Fillet
4. Plug
5. Slot
1. Surface Welds
• Surface welds are welds were a material has
been applied to the surface of another
material.
• Two common applications are
for hard surfacing and padding
2. Groove Welds

Groove welds are used to fuse the sides or


ends of two pieces of metal.

The primary use of groove welds is to


complete butt joints.
3. Fillet Welds

Fillet welds have a triangular cross section and are used


to fuse two faces of metal that are at a 90 degree angle
to each other.

Lap Joint
Outside Corner T Joint
4. Plug Welds
Plug welds are used to attach two surfaces
together when a complete joint is not
required and the design does not allow for
any weld bead outside the dimensions of
the metal.

The holes can be made with a drill bit or punch.

The weld is completed by establishing the arc on the bottom plate and then
continuing to weld until the hole is full.
5. Slot Welds

Slot welds are identical to plug welds except for the


shape of the holes. For slot welds, slots are machined
or stamped in the upper plate.

They are complete the same as plug welds.


Positions
Five types of position

Flat
Horizontal

Vertical Up Vertical Down

Overhead
Welding Positions OVERHEAD

VERTICAL

HORIZONTAL INCREASING
DIFFICULTY

FLAT
UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WELDING POSITION
ON BUTT JOINTS.

HORIZONTAL POSITION VERTICAL POSITION OVERHEAD POSITION

FLAT POSITION

PLATES AND
PLATES VERTICAL PLATES AND AXIS
AXIS OF WELD
PLATES VERTICAL AND AXIS OF WELD OF WELD
HORIZONTAL AND AXIS OF WELD VERTICAL HORIZONTAL
HORIZONTAL
1G 3G 4G
2G
WELDING POSITIONS -- GROOVE WELDS -- PLATE.
PIPE OR TUBE HORIZONTAL FIXED
WELD FLAT, VERTICAL & OVERHEAD
POSITION:
5G.

0 45 0 + - 50
50
PIPE INCLINED FIXED ( 45 + - ) AND NOT
ROTATED DURING WELDING.
POSITION:
6G

WELDING POSITION -- PIPE WELDS.


WELDING POSITION FILLET WELD (F) – T JOINT …NO GROOVE

FLAT POSITION HORIZONTAL POSITION

1F 2F
DOWNHAND

AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL

AXIS OF WELD VERTICAL

VERTICAL POSITION OVERHEAD POSITION

3F 4F
WELDING POSITIONS ---
FILLET WELDS ---
PLATE
AXIS OF WELD VERTICAL AXIS OF WELD HORIZONTAL
Polarity
Polarity
Electrode Negative Electrode Positive

(-) (+)

Ions + - Electrons + -
Ions Electrons
+ - + -
+ - + -
(+) (-)
Work Piece Positive , Work Piece Negative;
base metal hotter electrode hotter

Straight Polarity DCEN Reverse Polarity DCEP


Thank you
SECOND GRADE
STEAM @ ICE ENGINE
PART B PAPER II
CONTOH SOALAN ICE/STEAM

1. DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLDERING, BRAZING AND


WELDING
2. ALL WELDING ON THE BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL ARE DONE
BY QUALIFIED WELDER. WHAT ARE THE STEPS INVOLVED IN
QUALIFYING WELDER. NAME THREE OF THE CODES WHICH CAN BE
USED TO QUALIFY WELDER
3. WITH THE AID OF DIAGRAMS, DESCRIBE THE FOLLOWING PROCESS
a. submerged arc welding
b. gas tungsten arc welding
c. gas metal arc welding
CONTOH SOALAN WELDING
ICE/STEAM ENGINE PART B PAPER II
DECEMBER 2010

a. Desccribe what is brazing


b. What is the different between soldering and brazing
BOILER REPAIR-WELDING GUIDLINES
1. Common types of repair for boilers with welded
construction are replacing sections of boiler tubes,
replacing tubes and stays, window weld, weld build-up of
wasted area, welding gage holes, and many others.
Under all conditions, only electric arc welding process
such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is accepted. GTAW is
normally used for root pass or on thin plate. Welding
process and procedures must be taken seriously since
any welding defects can lead to serious problems.
2. First of all, you must know that the owner shall obtain
approval from the Authorized Inspector responsible for
the jurisdictional inspection prior to making any repair
or replacement that affects the pressure retaining
capacity of a boiler. Only Authorized Inspectors licensed
by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health
(Malaysia) or the National Board may authorize and
document the repair forms
3. Recognized codes such as ASME Codes or BS codes
must be followed whenever applicable. The material
should comply with the original specifications or be
equal to them. The specifications can be obtained from
the boiler blueprints. Acceptable welded attachments,
weld form, and welding preparation outlined in the
blueprint should be adhered to. Only welders who are
experienced in Class 1 welded pressure vessel
construction shall be employed on boiler repair works
4. In welding cracks, carry out dye penetrant test or
magnetic particle inspection first to locate the cracks or
discontinuities. If defective areas need to be cropped by
flame cutting, a suitable final weld preparation of double V,
U, or J form should be made by careful chipping or
grinding. ASME Code Section IX AF-613 specifies that
preparation of plate edges, welding bevels, and chamfers
and similar operations involving the removal of metal shall
be by machining,
5. Where flame cutting or overheating has occurred on
boiler shell, hardness plot should be made to determine
the corresponding tensile strength by referring to the
published table
6. MPI should be used to ensure that there are no cracks
present before the welding is commenced. The design of
the repair should be such that there are no sharp
corners and the new insert plate should be of similar
quality and specification to that of parent material. This
method is called window weld (or window patching).
7. Areas to be welded should be preheated to a minimum
of 93oC for material thickness above ½" and up to 1½";
thicker plate requires higher preheat temperatures.
Maintain at that temperature throughout welding process

8. Insulation mattress could be made available to


protect the welded area from rapid cooling. After
welding, grind flush the weld, and carry out DPI or MPI
again.
9. Changes can occur in the metallurgical structure of
the base metal adjacent to the weld (heat affected zone
or HAZ). The changes can cause embrittlement or
degrade the material properties

10. Therefore, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is


necessary to restore the ductility of the material and
thus prevent stresses, shrinkage, and cracking.
Finally, because welding usually affects the pressure-
retaining parts of the boiler, the boiler shall be
subjected to a hydrostatic test of 1½ times the MAWP
for at least 15 minutes.