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SOIL NAILING FOR SLOPE

STRENGTHENING AND ITS


DESIGN
Vanessa Fernandes

Dr. Purnanand Savoikar

Goa Engineering College,Goa

2nd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON


Advances in concrete,structural & Geotechnical
Engineering
26th -28th February 2018
BITS PILANI -RAJASTHAN
CONTENTS
 Introduction

 `Literature survey

 Applications of soil nailing

 Soil nailing for slope strengthening

 Design of soil nailing

 Case studies

 Conclusions

 References 2
INTRODUCTION
 Soil nailing is the technique used in slope stabilization
and excavation with the use of passive inclusions,
usually steel bars, termed as soil nail.

 It consists of passive reinforcement which is encased


in grout to provide corrosion protection and
improved load transfer to ground.

 The concept of soil nailing emerged in 1960 when


underground tunnels were supported with use of
anchorage systems aided by steel bars.

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 The components of soil nail wall include the
reinforcement bars, nail head, grout and centralizers.

 The favourable ground conditions for soil nailing


include stiff to hard fine grained soils, dense to very
dense granular soils and weathered rock with no
weakness plane.

 The function of soil nailing is to strengthen or


stabilize the existing steep slopes and excavations as
construction proceeds from the top to bottom.

 Soil nailing improves the stability of slope or


excavation.

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LITERATURE SURVEY
 Yean- Chin,T. and Chee-Meng,C.(2004) conducted a
study on soil nailing concerning the issues on design and
construction in order to ensure safety of the slopes.
 It was concluded that soil nailing is effective slope
stabilisation method especially for remedial works involving
failed slopes.
 In order to have a good performance proper design and
construction of soil nailing is essential.
 Javia,V.,Verma,A.K.and Bhatt,D.R.(2013) conducted
analysis using model tests to find the effect of nailed angle on
the stability of nailed cuts .
 For this purpose nailed open cut of height 40cm was made in
model tank.
 Experimental results showed that horizontally driven nails
have more factor of safety than vertically driven nails in sand.
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LITERATURE SURVEY
 From the guidelines of FHWA a soil nail wall of height
1m was designed.
 In order to investigate the behaviour and wall
deformations of soil nail wall laboratory plate load test
and finite element analysis was performed.
 The settlement of the soil nail wall decreases with the
increase in the relative density of sand was proved from
the laboratory study conducted on the soil nail.
 From the finite element analysis of the soil nail wall the
variation of bending moments and shear forces along
the nails were obtained.
 The results showed that both the BM and SF and
concentrated near the face of the wall.

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APPLICATIONS OF SOIL
NAILING
1) Retaining walls: For excavations associated with
foundations of buildings, underground car parks and cut
and cover construction for transportation system.

2) Slope stabilisation: For cuts required for new or


widened railway lines or roads.

3) Stabilising tunnel portals: To provide excavation


stability to tunnel portals and adjacent slopes.

4) Construction and retrofitting of bridge abutments

5)Temporary or permanent excavation in an urban


environment.
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SOIL NAILING FOR SLOPE
STRENGTHENING
 Since the slope is susceptible to failure during
remedial works the design and construction of
slope remedial works pose high risk to
geotechnical engineers.
 The soil nailing technique can be carried out on
slope surface with minimum earthworks and this
technique poses lower risk during construction.
 When the slope is unstable or in a failed state the
common method of repairing the unstable slope
is to excavate the offending soils and use geogrids
to rebuild the slope.
 This method is costly and acquires more space.
Hence soil nailing technique is used to stabilise
and strengthen the slopes.
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SOIL NAILING FOR SLOPE
STRENGTHENING

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DESIGN OF SOIL NAILING
Initial design considerations
1. Wall Layout :Establish the layout of the soil
nail wall including wall height, length of the
wall, back slope, wall face batter.

 Wall face batter ranges from 0 to 10º.

 The evaluation of wall layout also includes


developing longitudinal profile of the wall and
locating wall appurtenances( eg traffic
barriers,utilities,drainage systems)
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2)Soil nail vertical and horizontal
spacing
 In both horizontal Sh and vertical Sv
directions same nail spacing can be
adopted.
 Nail spacing ranges from 1.25 to 2m
(commonly 1.5m) for conventional drilled
and grouted soil nails and 0.4m for driven
nails.
 Soil nail spacing in horizontal and vertical
direction must be such that each nail has an
influence area of Sh×Sv<4m2

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3) Soil nail pattern on wall face: The soil
nail pattern on wall face may be adopted as
one of the following :

a) Square / rectangular pattern.

b) Irregular(at limited locations) depending


upon the ease of construction and site specific
constraints.

4) Soil nail inclination : Soil nails are


installed at an inclination ranging from 0 to
0.3º from horizontal with a inclination of 10 to
25
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5) Soil nail length and distribution :
 The length of the soil nail wall can be
uniform or variable where different nail
lengths may be use for individual soil nail
levels.
 For most applications uniform nail pattern
is recommended.
6) Load and load combinations : Soil
nail walls are subjected to the following
different loads during their service life i.e.
DL,LL,IL,EQ
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Preliminary design : 1) Determine
maximum axial tensile force:
Tmax = Ka (qs+h)Sh × Sv
2) Determine minimum length and nail
diameter:
 Select reinforcement bar diameter as
20mm
 Minimum length is taken as 0.6 times
height of wall.
3) Check for failure modes: a)Global
stability

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 Minimum recommended FOS for global
stability.

b)Sliding stability:Minimum recommended


FOS for sliding stability.

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c) Soil nail pull-out failure : Minimum
recommended FOS for pull-out failure.

d) Nail tensile strength failure: Minimum


recommended FOS for pull-out failure.

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Design Calculations
 Vertical height of wall H=8m
 Face batter:  =0, back slope angle =0
 Nailing type: Driven
 Soil nail spacing Sh=Sv =0.5
 Soil nail inclination i=25º
 Soil nail materials: Grade Fe415, fy=415 Mpa
 Soil properties: Dense to very dense sand,
Cohesion c=0 KPa , =27º,  =16 KN/m3
 Surcharge qs =0.0KPa

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Parameters of soil nail wall (Source: Google
image)
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Allowable axial force carrying
capacity of nails at different levels

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FSp and FSt of soil nails at different
levels

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Summary of factors of safety
for various failure modes
Failure modes Remarks Factor of safety
Global,FSG - 1.36
Sliding,FSsl - 1.65
Pull-out resistance,FSp Minimum 1.17
Nail bar tensile strength, FSt Maximum 11.01
Facing flexure Temporary facing 17.78
Facing punching FSFP Temporary facing 15.32

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Summary of temporary facing
design (All dimensions in mm)
Element Description Temporary facing
General Thickness, h 50
Facing type Shotcrete
Concrete grade M20
Reinforcement Type Welded wire mesh (WWM)
Steel grade Fe 415
Denomination 102×102×-MW19×MW19
Other Type Waler bars 2-10 b/w
reinforcement
Bearing plate Type Square
Steel Fe250
Dimensions 225×225×25

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CASE STUDY 1
 The problem of slip failure was observed at the site
situated near hospital at Ponda,Goa.

 The region in this area is covered with Lateritic soil.

 A vertical cut of 14 m height and a pipeline of


diameter 0.75 m passing over the vertical cut were
the two major issues of concern.

 Frequent landslides occur as the soil has very low


shear strength parameters.

 Soil retention works with soil nailing considering the


need to protect the vertical cut was suggested for the
above problem
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Soil nail wall before construction (Source:
Maccaferri, Slope protection at Ponda, Goa)

Soil nail wall during construction (Source:


Maccaferri, Slope protection at Ponda, Goa)

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Hospital building near vertical cut ( Maccaferri,
Slope protection at Ponda,Goa)

Soil nail wall after construction (Source:


Maccaferri, Slope protection at Ponda, Goa) 25
CASE STUDY 2
 The proposed depth of excavation is 11 m and the area is
meant for Hotel complex.

 Two boreholes made in the site indicate that the soil up to 5


to 6 m is of cemented sand type followed by disintegrated
rock.

 SPT value up to about 5.5 m is 15 and there is no ground


water table within the proposed depth of excavation.

 Site observations indicated that the excavations are stable up


to depth of 3 to 4 m beyond which there is a tendency for
collapse.

 One of the important conditions that favour soil nailing for


excavation stability is the requirement of stability of vertical
cuts of depth of about 1 to 2 m before nailing.
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 To facilitate the soil nailing, Torsteel rods of 20
mm diameter are used as nails.

 The excavated slopes strengthened with soil


nailing shows that the sections are safe with
nailing as shown in the figure below.

Soil nailed wall(Source :Babu.S,‟Case studies


in soil nailing”,(2009)
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CONCLUSIONS
 Considerable time and costs savings can be done by
soil nailing technique.

 Soil nailing is used for many applications such as


retaining walls, slope stabilization, stabilizing tunnel
portals, construction and retrofitting of bridge
abutments.

 The important design advantage was that wall facing


pressures for soil nailed earth retention was approx.
1/3 to1/2 of tensioned ground anchor system.

 Soil nailing method is cheaper than geogrids.


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 With the increase in the height of soil nail wall the
F.O.S for global stability decreases.

 With the increase in the height of soil nail wall the


F.O.S for sliding stability decreases.

 With the increase in the height of soil nail wall the


F.O.S for nail pull-out failure decreases.

 With the increase in the height of soil nail wall the


F.O.S for nail tensile failure decreases.

 From the case studies it is concluded that soil


nailing technique should be used on a large scale in
India and in many infrastructure projects and it is a
very advantageous technique.
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REFERENCES
[1] Yean-Chin,T. and Chee-Meng,C.(2004),‟Slope stabilization using soil nails: Design assumptions and
construction realities.“

[2] Javia,V.,Verma,A.K.and Bhatt,D.R.(2013),‟An experimental study on horizontal and inclined soil nails in
sand”,International Journal of Global Research Analysis, Vol 2,No.4,pp.2277-8160

[3] Jaya,V.and Annie,J.(2011),‟A numerical investigation of nailed vertical soil wall using pseudostatic
approach",Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference,No.251

[4] Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transport,


Geotechnical Engineering Circular No 7, Soil nail walls. March 2003

[5] T. Armour and D. Cotton, “Recent advances in soil nailed earth retention,”, A joint conference, USA, 2003.

6] W. Kutscheke, F. Tarquina and W. Peterson, “Typical soil nailing practises in the United States,” Proceedings of
Deep foundations Institute,32nd Annual conference on Deep foundations, USA, 2007.

[7] H. Zhu, A. HO, H. Yin, H. Sun, H. Pei and C. Hong, “An optical fibre monitoring system for evaluating the
performance of a soil nailed slope,” International Journal of Smart structure system, Vol 9,pp.393-410. 20

[8] Babu.S,‟Case studies in soil nailing”,(2009)

[9]Federal highway administration,(2006)‟Hollow core soil nails-State of the practise


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THANK YOU !!!