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System Analysis and Design

Introduction to System Analysis


and Design

- Dr. Mahmoud Abu-Arra


- Mr. Ahmad Al-Ghoul
Learning Objectives
 Discuss How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Identify various types of information systems
and explain who uses them
 Explain Information System Users and Their
Needs

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Introduction
 You might assume that several different types of information
systems would be needed to satisfy all of an organization systems
needs. Your assumption would be correct.
 There are several different types or classes of information systems.
In the past, these types are divided based on the user group the
system served, but today, it makes more sense to identify a system
by its functions.
 As a system analyst, part of your job will be to determine which
kind of system will best address the organizational problem or
opportunity on which you are focusing.
 Corporate organizational structure has changed in recent years.
Many companies reduced the number of management levels and
delegated responsibility to operational personal. A system analyst
must understand the organizational model in order to know the
information system users and their needs

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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 In the past, IT managers divided systems
into categories based on the user group
the system served
 Office systems ( administrative staff )
 Operational systems ( operational
personal )
 Decision support systems ( middle
managers, and knowledge workers )
 Executive information systems (top
managers)
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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Today, it makes more sense to identify a system by its
functions, rather than by users, because the technology
and new modern companies, users need more functions
to be more flexible and to do their jobs more efficient.
 Enterprise computing systems
 Refers to information systems that support company wide
operations and data management requirement.
 The main objective is to integrated company's primary functions
( production, sales, services, inventory control, accounting ).
 enterprise computing systems improves efficiency, reduce
costs, help managers make decisions, improve data security,
reliability, data redundancy, by imposing company wide
framework for data access and storage.
 Enterprise computing systems examples
 Wal-mart’s inventory control system
 American airlines’ reservation system

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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Enterprise computing systems
 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP)
 In many large companies, applications called enterprise
resource planning (ERP) systems provide cost effective
support for users and managers throughout the company
 ERP systems are computer-based systems aimed at meeting
this need that enable the management of all of a firm’s
resources on an organization-wide basis
 A potential disadvantage of ERP is that ERP systems
generally impose an overall structure that might or might not
match the way a company operates.

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How Business Uses Information Systems
 Transaction processing systems (TP)
 an information system that captures and processes data about
business transactions.
 It gathers data from the firm’s physical system and environment
and enters it into its database
 The software also transforms the data into information for the
firm’s managers and other individuals in the firm’s environment
 TP systems perform a series of tasks whenever a specific
transaction occurs.
 TP systems typically involve large amount of data and are mission-
critical systems, because the enterprise cannot function without
them
 TP systems protect data integrity by ensure that if any single
element of transaction fails, the system does not process the rest of
the transaction
 an example of TP system include
 customer order processing
 accounts receivable
 warranty claim processing.

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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Business support systems
 Provide job related information support to users at all levels.
 These systems can analyze transactional data, generate
information needed to manage and control business processes.
 Business support systems was called Management Information
Systems ( MIS ), because these systems were manager
oriented, now-a days all users need information to perform their
job.
 Typical MIS modules are report-writing software, and models that
can simulate firm operations
 Business support systems transform the data in frontline systems,
such as transaction processing systems into information useful to
managers
 An important feature of business support system is decision
support capability, by creating computer model and applying a set
of variables
 Business support systems helps users to take suitable decisions, so
it can answer ( what if ) questions.
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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Knowledge management systems
( Expert Systems )
 An information system that captures the expertise
of workers and then simulates that expertise to the
benefit of none experts.
 A knowledge base consist of a large Data Base
that allow users to find information by entering
keywords or questions in normal languages.
 A knowledge management system uses inference
rules, which are logical rules that identify data
patterns and relationship.
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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 User productivity systems
 Technology that improves productivity
 Word processing, e-mail, voice mail, fax, video
conferencing, and database management, are some
examples of user productivity systems
 User productivity systems also include groupware
 Group ware programs run on a company intranet
that enable users to share data, collaborate on
projects, and work in teams.

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How Business Uses Information
Systems
 Information systems integration
 Most large companies require systems that
combine transaction processing, business
support, knowledge management, and user
productivity features. Thus as analyst, you will
likely employ specific methodologies,
techniques, and tools to build the specific
system.

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Information System Users and
Their Needs
 A systems analyst must understand the
company’s organizational model in order
to recognize who is responsible for specific
processes and decisions, how processes
will connect, what data and information
the process needs, and to be aware of
what information is required by whom.

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Information System Users and
Their Needs
 Top managers
 Has a global view, develop a long range plans which
define the company's overall mission and goals,
Provides initiative for the project, and has a strategic
concern.
 Top managers focus on the overall business
enterprise and use IT to set the company’s course
and directions
 Top managers needs information from outside the
company, such as economic forecasts, technology
trends, competitive threats, and governmental issues

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Information System Users and
Their Needs
 Middle Managers and Knowledge
Workers
 Provide direction, necessary resources, and
performance feedback to supervisors.
 Middle managers need more detailed information
than top managers.
 Knowledge workers also used business support
systems, knowledge management systems, and user
productivity systems.
 They provide support for the organization’s basic
functions.
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Information System Users and
Their Needs
 Supervisors and Team Leaders
 They usually manage a group of operational
users and are responsible for their performance
 supervisors carry out day-to-day functions, they
make necessary decisions.
 Supervisors need decision support information,
knowledge management systems, and user
productivity systems.

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Information System Users and
Their Needs
 Operational Employees
 are the clerical, operational, and administrative people
most likely to have the most day-to-day contact with
the new system.
 Operational employee rely on TP systems to enter
and receive data they need to perform their jobs
 Usually have local view.
 Carry out the function of the system.
 Has a physical view of the system.

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Sequence Summary
 In this Sequence we have
 Discussed how business uses information systems
 Distinguished between dividing systems based on
the user group the system served and dividing
systems by there functions, rather than by users
 Described different types of information systems
 Explained information system users and their needs

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Reference
[1] System Analysis and Design, Sixth Edition
Authors: Gary B. Shelly, Thomas J. Cashman and Harry J. Rosenblatt ,
Publisher: SHELLY CASHMAN SEWIES.

[2] Modern Systems Analysis and Design Third Edition


Authors: Jeffrey A. Hoffer , Joey F. George, Joseph S. Valacich
Publisher: prentice hall

[3] Systems analysis and design methods


Authors: Jeffrey L.; Bentley, Lonnie D., Dittman, Kevin
Publisher: McGraw-Hill

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