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Vice-President for Administration

Used and modified with permission


Course Requirements


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Course Content
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Review of the Basics of Ethics
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An overview
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|-# is defined as the art and
science that deals with the . of
human acts.
*  act that proceeds
from the deliberate free will of man.
# +  acts proper to man
as man.
? RELAT? T REAS  our acts
can be««
Good ± if it is in harmony with the
dictates of right reason
Evil ± if it is in opposition to the dictates
of reason
?ndifferent ±when it stand in no positive
relation to the dictates.
mhe etymology
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Ruth Benedict
«..all values are rooted in customs and
habits of a culture because the words
moral and ethics themselves were
essentially created to describe these
topics.
Ruth Benedict is among a group called
the **/## that believe
³whatever is normal and customary is
what is right, and whatever is abnormal
and deviant is wrong.´

Cultural relativism stresses acceptance


because it is a ³de facto´ of human
reality
*#0-# is a branch of
applied ethics that concerns itself
with activities in the field of nursing.
Nursing ethics shares many
principles with medical ethics, such
as beneficence, non-maleficence and
respect for autonomy. It can be
distinguished by its emphasis on
relationships, maintaining dignity and
collaborative care.
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ÿ Bioethics is the philosophical study of
the ethical controversies brought about
by advances in biology and medicine.

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ethical questions that arise in the
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ΠEthics or 'moral philosophy' is
concerned with questions of how
persons ought to act or if such
questions are answerable

3 Ethics is also associated with the


idea of Morality
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ÿ Bioethics addresses a broad range of


human inquiry ranging from debates
over the boundaries of life (eg
abortioneuthanasia) to the allocation of
scarce health care resources (eg rgan
donation health care rationing) to the
right to turn down medical care for
religious or cultural reasons
ΠBioethicists often disagree among
themselves over the precise limits of
their discipline debating whether the
field should concern itself with the
ethical evaluation of all questions
involving biology and medicine or
only a subset of these questions
3 Some bioethicists would narrow
ethical evaluation only to the morality of
medical treatments or technological
innovations and the timing of medical
treatment of humans

4 thers would broaden the scope of ethical


evaluation to include the morality of all
actions that might help or harm organisms
capable of feeling fear and pain and include
within bioethics all such actions if they bear
a relation to medicine and biology
G owever most bioethicists share a
commitment to discussing these
complex issues in an honest civil and
intelligent way using tools from the
many different disciplines that "feed"
the field to produce meaningful
frameworks for analysis
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Ôames Childress and mom Beauchamp in


Principle of Biomedical Ethics è  identify
beneficence as one of the core values of health
care ethics. Some scholars, such as Edmund
Pellegrino, argue that beneficence is the only
fundamental principle of medical ethics. mhey
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rightness based on ethics, rationality,
law,fairness or equity.

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In practice, however, many treatments
carry some risk of harm. In some
circumstances, e.g. in desperate situations
where the outcome without treatment will
be grave, risky treatments that stand a
high chance of harming the patient will be
justified, as the risk of not treating is also
very likely to do harm. So the principle of
non-maleficence is not absolute, and must
be balanced against the principle of
beneficence èdoing good.
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principle of implied protection regarding
aspects of life which are said to be holy,
saintly,sanctified, or otherwise of such
value that they are not to be violated. In
western religions, the concept is based
on the belief that all human beings have
souls or are created in God's image.
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÷any religious communities have their own histories of inquiry
into bioethical issues and have developed rules and
guidelines on how to deal with these issues from within the
viewpoint of their respective faiths. mhe Ôewish, Christian and
÷uslim faiths have each developed a considerable body of
literature on these matters. In the case of many non-Western
cultures, a strict separation of religion from philosophy does
not exist. In many Asian cultures, for example, there is a lively
discussion on bioethical issues. Buddhist bioethics, in general,
is characterised by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a
rationalistic, pragmatic approach. Buddhist bioethicists include
Damien Keown. In India, Vandana Shiva is the leading
bioethicist speaking from the Hindu tradition. In Africa, and
partly also in Latin America, the debate on bioethics frequently
focusses on its practical relevance in the context of
underdevelopment and geopolitical power relations.
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In its early years, Ôewish medical ethics addressed


a range of ethical dilemmas, as well as general
questions about the professional ethics for doctors.
÷ajor issues have included abortion, artificial
insemination, brain death, cosmetic surgery,
euthanasia, genetic screening, hazardous medical
operations, oral suction in circumcision èmetzitzah
b'peh, organ donation , psychiatric care, and
smoking cigarettes. In recent years, Ôewish
bioethics has examined questions of medical
technology, the allocation of medical resources,
and the philosophy of Ôewish ethics
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Buddhism and Bioethics

mhe five precepts are training rules in order to live a better life in which one is
happy, without worries, and can meditate well:
. mo refrain from taking life ènon-violence towards sensient life forms
2. mo refrain from taking that which is not given ènot committing theft
Ñ. mo refrain from sensual èincluding sexual misconduct
4. mo refrain from lying èspeaking truth always
5. mo refrain from intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness èspecifically, drugs
and alcohol
mhe precepts are not formulated as imperatives, but as training rules that
laypeople undertake voluntarily to facilitate practice.In Buddhist thought, the
cultivation of dana and ethical conduct will themselves refine consciousness to
such a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely, even if there is no
further Buddhist practice. mhere is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about
limiting one's aims to this level of attainment.
In the eight precepts, the third precept on sexual misconduct is made more strict,
and becomes a precept of celibacy. mhe three additional precepts are:
6. mo refrain from eating at the wrong time èonly eat from sunrise to noon
. mo refrain from dancing and playing music, wearing jewelry and cosmetics,
attending shows and other performances