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OVERVIEW

As seen from space, the blue color of planet earth is the vast water of oceans surrounding the beautiful
planet. About 70% of earth is comprised of water. “Oceans are the biggest stores of water on earth. Water leaves
the oceans through evaporation and then enters again through rainfalls, lakes, rivers and groundwater seepage”
(Pernetta, 1994).

There was a time when man thought that ocean was infinite and everything was absorbed it. Oceans and
seas liberally became the receptors of almost all finds of refuse originating from shore, as well as wastes coming
from ships. However, marine environment seemed to lament this kind of treatment made by man. People began
to think of ocean as an integral component of earth with its own environment that should be protected. Serious
effects of marine pollution on its flora and fauna were unfolded before marine environments, which
consequently aroused public interest.
In 1972, the United Nations Conference on Human Environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden. The
conference provided an international forum to resolve environmental issues that included marine
environment. In the same year, another international conference was held in London. This was the
International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters (also
called the London Dumping Convention).

In 1973, the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships was adopted. This
has been the most comprehensive convention as regards protection of marine environment from
pollution coming from ships. This convention was modified by the 1978 Protocols relating thereto. It is
popularly called MARPOL 73/78. From this convention, the international regulations for the prevention
and control of marine pollution became an important concern of the marine community.
UNIT I

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
MARINE POLLUTION
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO MARINE POLLUTION
OBJECTIVES:
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
Give the various meaning of pollution;
Distinguish marine pollution from other types of
environmental pollution;
Identify the various sources and origins of marine pollution;
and
Know the international conventions relating to marine
pollution.
1.1 Introduction
“Our environment in its pristine from is aesthetically beautiful and pleasing to behold. However,
environment is not something to be worshipped or preserved merely for prevention’s sake. For life, man must
use the environment - - - “---and with billions of lives on earth, environment must be used to sustain those
lives” (Sampson, 1996).
Over the years, it can be said that environment has been affected by man’s exploration of natural
resources in order to sustain industrial development. The use of our environment is principally evidenced by
the progress of various industries as well as the increase of world population. Technological innovations aimed
at exploiting natural resources in order to sustain the basic needs of human beings were introduced.
In the past, technological methods applied in the exploitation of resources and production of goods
considerably sustained mankind’s need for food, shelter, and other necessities in life. However, certain
activities involving the process of exploitation, means of production and even utilization or consumption of
produced products created garbage, sewage, toxic wastes and hazardous wastes. When these wastes are
mixed into earth’s elements, the qualities of air, water and soil or land are lessened. When wastes are directly
dumped into waterways, they contaminate aquatic inhabitants such as fishes and mollusks in rivers, lakes, and
seas which are also abundant sources of food for people.
Mankind, however, was forced to explore, exploit and produce greater than before to sustain the rising number
of people in the world. The major mistake committed in the course of his economic exploitation and production,
is the glaring neglect to the earth’s environment. Burned and bald forests, destroyed wetlands, tons of untreated
garbage disposed in landfills, littered waterways and other man-made environmental destructions can be seen in
almost all corners of the world. Today, it is sad to say that the cost of over exploitation and industrialization
seems to be too high. Thus, restoration and prevention of the earth’s environment, without sacrificing
sustenance of basic human needs are two important challenges to mankind.
Marine environment has not been spared from the impacts of industry development. Pollution of marine
environment largely originates from land-based and shipping activities of mankind. Wastes from homes and
industries dumped into the seas and oceans are one of the causes of oxygen depletion, which kill fishes and
other marine species. Pollutants coming from large vessels carrying oil and hazardous substances contribute
significantly to the degradation of marine environment. Pollution from ships usually comes from routine
shipboard operations and accidental spills of chemicals and oils.
Apart from cargo vessels, passenger ships are also sources of marine pollution. As tourism industries
flourish in many coastal countries, so as the number of large passenger ships carrying thousands of tourists. The
volume of sewage and garbage disposed into the seas from these passenger ships contributed to pollution of
marine environment. This development continued up to the turn of the new century.
Seemingly, people generally regarded oceans and seas as direct receptors of almost all kinds of waste.
Even today, most people believe that the vast water of oceans is capable to disperse and degrade
pollutants or wastes originating from various sources. However, oceans and seas have their own limits of
acceptance. If prevention and protection will not be seriously applied, marine environment can be
destroyed by various kinds of marine pollutant.

1.2 The Various Meanings of Pollution


In order to obtain a full understanding of the concept of marine pollution, it is essential to know the
meaning of various kinds of pollution. The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language
(1996) denoted that the word “pollute” means to make something unhealthy. From the meaning given
by said dictionary, the word “pollution” may be defined as something that makes a pure thing impure.
Scientifically, pollution is the chemical, gaseous and organic wastes, which contaminate air, soil or
water. Anything that pollutes these earth’s elements is called “pollutant”.
Environmental pollution basically refers to all kinds of pollution in the earth’s environment. These are
different meanings of environmental pollution. The meaning depends on what part of the earth’s elements
has been polluted. Marine pollution is only one type of environment pollution. For the purpose of
distinguishing marine pollution from other type of environmental pollution, here are the definitions and
some information about different types of environmental pollution:
1. Air Pollution
Air pollution is also called atmospheric pollution. Atmosphere outside our homes may contain
pollutants such as dusts, smoke, vapours, etc. Substantial quantities of these pollutants stay within the
atmosphere for a period of time. The quantities and duration oftentimes create harmful effects to persons,
places, animals and things.
Scientists believe that air pollutants also originate from activities involving man’s penetration of
space. It began in the second half of 20th century. Dusts, fuel exhausts and air rocket debris are some of
the air pollutants, which resulted from man’s entry to space. Scientists further believe that thousands
debris are within the gravitational pull of earth. Debris surrounding the earth may fall into earth’s
atmosphere later. When falling debris enters the earth’s atmosphere, it can create hazardous effects to
human beings.
The “Greenhouse effect” or “Global warming” can be within the effects of air pollution. The “greenhouse
effect” in environmental science is a popular term used in studying the effects on the earth’s surface
temperature, which are caused by variable components of the earth’s lower atmosphere.

Grolier’s Encyclopedia explained that “The surface atmosphere is composed of gases such as, water vapor,
carbon dioxide and methane that keep ground temperature at a global average of about 15 degrees centigrade
(60 degrees Fahrenheit). Without them, the average would be below the freezing point of water. The gases
have their effects because an incoming solar radiation strikes the surface. The surface gives off infrared
radiation (heat that are trapped and kept near ground level).”
Figure 1.1 – A greenhouse built to control temperature of indoor plants.
“The effect is comparable to a greenhouse (structure made of glass or plastic materials that are built to protect
or control temperature for indoor plants). Scientists believe that changes in the variable of atmosphere, particularly
those that were caused by human activities could cause the earth’s surface to warm up to a dangerous degree”.
(Grolier’s Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1996).
Scientists compared effects of gases from incoming solar radiation in the surface atmosphere to a greenhouse
effect. In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nation Environment Program set up the
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC issues a report every six years on the climate environmental
changes to guide the policymakers on the impact of such changes.
In January 2007, the organization came up with the report, “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis,”
which is the first part of its latest report for the WMO and UN. The latest report had contribution from 2,500
scientists all over the world and it took the Panel six years to come up with said report after a thorough review by
different experts.
According to Steiner (2007), director of the UN Environment Program, the IPCC report
presented unequivocal evidence that climate change was related and linked to the human
activities over the years. The following are some important disclosures of the IPCC report:
a. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal as evidenced from the increase in the
average of ocean and air temperatures as well as the melting of snow and ice that resulted
in the increase of sea level average point. The earth’s surface temperatures were predicted
to increase between 1.8oC and 4.0oC and for the sea levels, by about 7.1 inches till the turn
of the new century or 2100.
b. From 1995 to 2006, the 12 warmest temperatures have been recorded worldwide.
Increase drying was linked with higher temperatures and decreased precipitations have
contributed to changes in droughts.
c. There have been global increases in carbon dioxide concentration. This was attributed to
the use of fossils as sources of fuels.
The IPCC report made different groups of environment advocates to shift their thinking that
climate change came from natural causes. The scientific evidences presented in the report
encouraged the governments of the countries as well their people to think of measures on how to
cope up with the warnings on the possible bleak scenarios predicted in the report.
2. Water Pollution
It refers to the alteration of water, which reduces the quality of its usefulness to people, plants, animals and
properties. Water pollution can be considered as a major pollution in the Philippines and even in other developing
countries. The first two major types of pollution in most developing countries are air and land/soil pollution.
There are many sources of water pollution. One example is the use of fertilizers with chemical contents. These
are harmful to both human beings and animals because they contain poisonous substances. Substantial quantities
of solid wastes mixed with bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, swamps, etc. cause contamination of drinking and
reduces the ability of water to perform natural purification.
Water is indispensable for life, not only for drinking water but also for raising crops and animals for food.
Fishing provides a major source of protein for human beings’ consumption. In this modern age, the world’s human
population has increased in areas where freshwater is not abundant. Thus, water becomes invaluable commodity
and in some areas becomes the serious concern. There are also many waterborne diseases that cause both adults
and infants serious illnesses and even deaths.
The United States is one of the countries in the world that succeeded in the reduction of direct discharges of
pollutants into its lakes, rivers, and streams. However, it is still trying to find ways and means to control indirect
sources of pollutants which include both nutrients and toxic substances carried by flowing surface waters into larger
bodies of water (http://envroliteracy.org).
3. Sound Pollution
This refers to any sound that is too loud and irritating to human ears is called sound pollution. Noise is
measured in decibels. Any sound that goes beyond the normal decibels could be harmful and annoying.
Sound waves travel to air medium and sometimes also considered as within the air pollution category. Too
much noise created in closed and small spaces may cause either permanent or temporary hearing loss.
4. Pollution from Solid Wastes or Refuse
Solid wastes are in the forms of garbage, rubbish, demolition debris, food wastes, street litters, etc.
They originate from the activities of both human beings and animals. Refuse or wastes such as papers,
plastic plates, food leftovers, etc. are usually discarded and disposed outside the premises of homes and
offices.
When garbage collectors fail to collect regularly, these refuse become the glaring source of pollution.
Solid waste management is one of the serious problems facing many developing countries. In the
Philippines, most populated municipalities such as the City of Manila, Quezon City, Pasay City, Caloocan City
and other cities within Metro Manila experienced very serious cases of solid wastes management problems
in the later part of the 1990s.

Figure 1.2 – Garbage, rubbish, litters and food wastes are solid
wastes problem of many developing countries.
The primary problem is lack of garbage dumpsites. Landfills are usually the areas where garbage in Metro
Manila is deposited. However, due to social and political complications, many sectors of the society expressed
strong resistance to the government in using the landfills based in Metro Manila.
The Philippines has a number of laws concerning solid waste management. Some of them are as follows:
 Republic Act 7160 (Local Government Code). This law devolves certain powers to the local government units
including enforcement of law concerning cleanliness, sanitation and preparation of solid waste management
program and other environmental functions.

 The BOT Law of 1994. This law provides that infrastructure and development projects which include the
environmental protection from pollution can be partially implemented by the private sector.

 PD 552, 825, 856 and 984. All these laws provide rules and procedures covering sanitation and disposal.

 The Clean Air Act of 1999. President Joseph Ejercito Estrada signed it into law. This law prohibits the use of
incinerators but allows the traditional “siga” system to reduce garbage problems.
There are more laws concerning waste management in the Philippines, but it seems that all of
them did not effectively resolve the solid wastes problems of the country. One major identified by
experts falls under the management area. There is no central body that would oversee the monitoring
and implementation of the solid waste management laws nationwide.
Each municipality or city is responsible to oversee the implementation of the national laws. Thus,
the implementation and monitoring seems to be fragmented or scattered. Financially this is
advantageous to the national government because each municipality has to create its own budget to
implement the law. The national budget, therefore, is not much affected. However, there is no
uniformity in the application of the law and assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation is
almost absent. Many critics believe that creation of dedicated government agency that would
specifically oversee the full implementation of the waste management laws nationwide is necessary.
On January 26, 2001, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo signed into law the Comprehensive Solid
Waste Management Act. It is called the “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000.” It was
sponsored by Senator Loren Legarda-Leviste. The law provides a national ecological solid waste
management framework and enables local government units to adopt environment friendly practices of
waste reduction, segregation, recycling, composting, reuse and disposal.
It creates the National Commission on Solid Waste Management under the Office of the President of the Philippines
(Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2001, Jan. 26, p.14). if fully implemented, the Philippines hope that major problems concerning
solid waste management will be eventually solved.
The solid waste problems being experienced by residents of Metro Manila are similar to the garbage problems being
experienced by people of India. Due to lack of dumpsites or inadequate landfills, wastes are usually burned and added to
air pollution problems in the cities and suburbs. Solid wastes in India are also identified by the health authorities as one of
the sources of diseases due to microorganisms coming from insects as cockroaches and flies that inhabit the wastes.
In a study commissioned by the United States Peace Corps to the Philippines, DiNisco and Mair (2003), the need for
adequate solid waste management facilities in the Philippines was found to be great. In many rural areas, the lack of
environmentally friendly, sustainable, and affordable waste management has led to the widespread open dumping and
open burning of solid waste.
However, with the legal mandate on environmental protection, leaders of many municipalities in the Philippines are
now implementing simple ecological solid waste management program aimed and adequately managing solid waste.
These municipalities apply simple, sustainable methods that reduce the impact to the environment.
The environmental program of small municipalities comprises public awareness campaigns, composting of
biodegradable waste, recovery and resale of recyclable waste, and disposal of residual waste through land
filling. It further provides alternative livelihoods, reduce the dependence on outside resources like imported
fertilizer, and dramatically diminish the amount of disposed waste through land filling.

5. Pollution from Hazardous Wastes


Hazardous wastes are either liquid or solid wastes or a combination of wastes that pose or create
hazards to human health or living organisms for the following reasons:
 Wastes are non-degradable
 Wastes can be biologically magnified
 Wastes tend to cause detrimental cumulative effects
Hazardous wastes can be categorized in accordance to the following:
 Chemical wastes
 Radioactive wastes
 Biological wastes
 Flammable wastes
 Explosive wastes
Hazardous wastes contain significant levels of reactive substances such as carcinogenic, mutagenic or
teratogenic compounds. These substances can cause fire or explosion and release of toxic fumes. Wastes
containing these harmful substances can also corrode metal containers, such as barrels, tanks, drums, pails,
etc. Hazardous wastes originate from businesses and industries producing products such as batteries, metals,
paints, fertilizers, etc.
Hazardous wastes can also come from home and farm activities, such as the use of plant pesticides,
garden products, house hold cleaning products, etc. News came out that some fertilizers have high toxic level
of metal. In the United States, for example, it has been reported that some buyers have not been aware that
they bought fertilizers, which contain excessive levels of toxic metals.
When integrated with soil in farms and home gardens, the toxic substances of some fertilizers have been
washed away by rainfall or irrigating system towards the nearby waterways. These metals can contaminate the
sources of drinking water and create harm to birds and other animal species. The US listed about 20 names of
fertilizers, which contain excessive levels of toxic metals sent to public landfills (Lazaroff, 2001, May 10,
http://ens-news.com).
In Metropolitan Manila, the management of hospital waste has also been highly regulated due to some
hazardous wastes. From 2003 to the present time, the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), requested
that the Department of Health’s Regional Office (National Capital Region or NCR) assume responsibility to oversee
of the waste management in Metro Manila.
According to the MMDA (2003), there are approximately 3,730 health care facilities in the Metro Manila
areas, which of 1,599 are hospitals and clinics. It estimated that these facilities generate a total of 60 tons of waste
each day and approximately, nine of these have their own incineration facilities. MMDA, however, required that
hospitals provide four types of waste bags, for the following use:
 Black trash bag – for the collection of non-infectious dry waste or non-biodegradable/non compostable
wastes.
 Green trash bag – for collection of non-infectious wet waste or biodegradable/compostable waste.
 Yellow trash bag (with 0.004 gauge) – for collection of dry and wet infectious and puncture-proof container
covered with thick solution of lime.
 Orange trash bags (with trefoil sign) – for collection of radioactive wastes which will be stored in the hospital
unit rendered inactive or disposed of in accordance with prescribe rules and regulation of the Philippine
Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI).
The MMDA’s regulation further required that hospitals provide their own means of disposal such as, hospital
incineration system; hospital enclosed burning pit, ground pits, and a sewage disposal system for body fluids from
patients with infectious diseases. Collection of pathological and infectious wastes is carried out using separate
receptacles equipped with a plastic liner.
Before the promulgation of the Clean Air Act some hospitals acquired incinerators but these are not
operational due to the law. Some hospitals pre-treat liquid and solid wastes prior to disposal using chemical
disinfectants and utilize the “decay to decay principle” for the management of radioactive wastes.
6. Marine Pollution
After knowing the concept of other types of environmental pollution, it is now easier to distinguish the
meaning of marine environmental pollution. In defining marine pollution, the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) used the definition adopted by the Group of Experts on Scientific Aspect of
Marine Pollution (GESAMP).
Marine Pollution is defined as “An introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the
marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harmful to living resources, hazards
to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of quality for use of seawater and
reduction of amenities” (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNICED, 1982, Art.1)).
1.3 INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS ON MARINE POLLUTION
In the last fifty years, expressions of concern towards prevention and control of marine pollution and
protection of marine environment were brought into a number of international conferences. The following is the
series of international conventions relating to marine pollution in the second half of the 20th century.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (1954)
One of the earliest international conventions dealing with the prevention of pollution of the sea was the
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil also called the Oilpol Convention. It
was adopted on May 12, 1954 and entered into force on July 26, 1958. The Oilpol Convention prohibited the
international discharge of oil or oily mixtures from seagoing vessels, except tankers of under 150 gross tons and
other ships of fewer than 500 gross tons.
The prohibition was applied in specific areas called prohibited zones. In this convention, all ship was required
to provide an oil record book. The oil record may be subjected to inspection by authorities of contracting parties.
Several amendments were made to the convention, after its entry into force. The amendments were made in
1962, 1969, and 1971. The 1971 amendment recognized the need to protect the “Great Barrier Reef” areas in
Australia, as an area of unique scientific importance.
International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (1969)
This convention was adopted on November 29, 1969. It entered into force on May 6, 1975 or almost six years
later. This convention affirmed the right of the coastal State to take certain measures on the high seas, as may be
necessary, to prevent, eliminate, or mitigate danger to its coastlines or related interests from pollution by oil or any
threat thereof.
A protocol to this convention was adopted on November 2, 1973, in view of the increase of substances other
than oil, which were carried by ships. The protocol formulated a list of the substances other than oil carried by the
ships. It extended the regulations of preventing marine pollution by regulating the substances which were listed in
the protocol or which characteristics were closely similar to the listed substances.
In 1991 and 1996, amendments to the convention were made. Both amendments revised the list of the
previous substances regulated in the convention. The 1996 list entered into force on December 19, 1997.
International Conference on Human Environment (1972) and the Inter-Governmental Convention on the
Dumping of Wastes at Sea (1972)
In 1972 an International Conference on Human Environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden. Protection of
ocean environment and resources were included in the agenda of the said conference. Relatively, on November
13, 1972, the Inter-Governmental Convention on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea was adopted through an
international meeting held in London, England. It also called the London Dumping Convention (LDC).
The London Dumping Convention entered into force on August 30, 1975. It prohibits the dumping of certain
hazardous materials. It also required a prior special permit for other wastes or matter.
A series of amendments were made to the convention. These took place in 1978, 1980, 1989, and 1993. The
1993 amendment entered into force on February 20, 1994. It prohibited the dumping into sea of low-level
radioactive wastes, the phasing out of industrial wastes dumping by 1995, and the incinerating at sea of industrial
wastes.
On November 7, 1996 a protocol to the convention was adopted. It has not yet entered into force. The
protocol aimed to make major change to the preventive measures that have to be undertaken by contracting
parties in case there is reason to believe that wastes or other matter introduced into the marine environment are
likely to cause harm even when there is no conclusive proof thereof.
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ship, 1973, as Modified by the Protocol of 1978,
Relating Thereto (MARPOL 73/78)
The most comprehensive international maritime convention for the prevention of marine pollution is the
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by protocol of 1978,
relating thereto. It is also called MARPOL 73/78 and probably the most complete international convention
covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships.
It is a combination of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978. The International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted on November 2, 1973. In 1978, a protocol relating to
the 1973 convention was adopted at a conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention. Since the
MARPOL 73 convention was not yet enforced at that time, the 1978 protocol absorbed the parent convention.
Thus, it is now called MARPOL 73/78. Further discussions on the contents and regulations of MARPOL 73/78
are in the succeeding chapters of this textbook.
From the historical records of the international treaties concerning protection of marine environment, it
can be said that the international maritime community has established an international legal framework
that serves as foundation towards the global protection of marine environment. Perhaps what
environmentalists should watch is the extent of applications or implementations by the concerned parties
of what have been agreed upon and ratified by the parties to the conventions.
It can be said that the creation of awareness and vigilance of people on identified causes and effects
of marine pollution, as well as the measures that have been undertaken in protecting marine environment
by the international maritime community in the last two quarters of the 20th century are significant
achievements. In many countries, nowadays, there are continuing efforts from various sectors of the
society towards controlling and minimizing maritime pollution through international coordination.
1.4 ORIGINS OR SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION
Section 5, Articles 207-216 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea or UNCLOS (1982)
identified the main sources of marine pollution. Based on the identified sources, the Convention laid down
the fundamental obligation of all States in protecting and preserving the marine environment. The six
sources of marine pollution are as follows:
1. Land-based and coastal-based activities.
2. Continental shelf-drilling activities.
3. Sea-bed mining.
4. Ocean dumping.
5. Vessel-sourced pollution.
6. Atmospheric sources of pollution.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) has undertaken the
activities involving the ratification and implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention. The UNCLOS and
UNCED joined together to carry out the tasks of preparing the instruments and agreements, programs of
its adoption, implementation, preparation of conferences, etc. in the national, regional, and worldwide
levels (Borgese, 1995).
The Land-Based and Coastal-Based Activities
Land-Based activities contribute an estimated 70% of all marine pollution. UNCED highlighted the
pollutants coming from land-based and coastal-based activities. They are as follows: Human settlement;
land-use construction of coastal infrastructure; agriculture; forestry; urban development; and tourism
industries.
Many coastal-based activities are visible sources of marine pollution. In the Philippines for example,
many poor people built their houses and live near the seashore because their main source of income is
fishing. Solid wastes, such as garbage and sewage are indiscriminately disposed by coastal residents into
the seas. Great quantities of these wastes when introduced into waters of the sea result in water
contamination.
The bacterial nutrients can be eaten by fish or fish stocks which are caught by fishermen. The situation
in the Philippines is true in the most developing countries. UNCED described that “Half of the world’s
population lives in less than six-kilometre areas from the seas and waters. It predicted that by year 2020,
three fourths of the world population may reside in this coastal zone, which includes many poor, densely
crowded settlements”. (Press Summary, Agenda 21, 1992)
The hazards of pollution coming from coastal-based activities include red
tides. The red tide is caused by the excessive growth of plant in water due to
an over abundance of nutrients and bacterial contamination. Red tide is also
the result of disposal of pollutants from local and upstream sources.
Destruction of wetlands due to the pursuit of economic progress is also one
of the causes of red tide organisms. Red tides and its impacts on the
production of fish and shellfish are seriously being studied by many coastal
countries.
Marine pollution from land-based activities basically refers to
pollution coming from the use of chemicals in construction, production, and
manufacturing food product as well as improper use of lands. The wide use
of chemicals by various land-based industries increases the spread of major
pollutants. Consumers buying and consuming the chemical based products
may endanger their health.
Factories using chemicals oftentimes diffuse, release, or discharge the substances into the river basins, catch
basins, and estuaries (river mouths). These chemicals together with liquid wastes continue flowing toward the
seas. When untreated liquid waste is released into waterways, they pollute the marine environment. In
developing countries, less than 10% of urban wastes are subjected to treatment and only a small fraction of its
meets the standard quality.

Figure 1.3 – A factory in production activity often affects


marine pollution.
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, land-based activities such as farming, gardening, and housecleaning
also add to marine pollution. Excess level of toxic metals used in plants and chemicals used as detergents in
cleaning and washing are carried away by water through waterways direct to the seas.
Continental Shelf Drilling
Continental shelf is the shallow part of the sea floor immediately adjacent to a continent (Bush, 1997).
Continental shelf includes the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast but outside
the area of a territorial sea to a depth of two hundred meters or beyond this limit.
The exploitation of ocean resources has been a growing concern of marine environmentalists and
geologists of our times, especially in some countries where strict measures of environmental safety are
frequently violated. In 1958, the United Nations Convention on Continental Shelf established that all offshore
installations should be removed from the marine environment. This was adopted to prevent hazards to
shipping and to ascertain the legitimate use of the seas.
Before the convention, oil fields located offshore were not yet connected to land by pipelines. Frequent oil
releases were reported, likewise, threat of dumping oil wastes and noxious hazardous materials used in the
operations of offshore were strongly prevalent at that time.
Today, the ocean floor is reached by modern instruments for the purpose of extracting minerals such as gold,
sand, diamonds, and oil. The potential of continental shelf to supply the industries with rich minerals paved the
way to the introduction of shelf drilling. The pollution impacts of activities involving extraction of mineral deposits
from the ocean floors are believed to be contributors to marine pollution.
Seabed Mining
In seabed mining, ships stay on an ocean station for a number of years. There, the ships extract minerals and
transfer them to another ship. These auxiliary ships help in taking the minerals ashore. Although the mining and
auxiliary are away from the nearest land, their extraction and transfer operations are continuously done.
Wastes from such operations are disposed into the waters, for as long as the ships are on ocean station. These
operations, therefore, contribute to marine pollution. The ships work non-stop for years and thousands of miles away
from the nearest land. Wastes coming from the operations contribute to the pollution of marine environment.

Figure 1.4 – Ships extracting minerals from seabed.


Over exploration and exploitation of sea and ocean recourses have been noted by some sectors. The World
Wildlife and the World Conservation Union have both expressed serious concerns on the activities relating to
over exploitation of ocean resources. The two organizations called for an immediate formulation of
international agreements to regulate the management, protection, and exploitation of high seas beyond the
200 nautical mile limit of the exclusive economic zones of coastal states (Lazaroff, 2001, May 10. http://ens-
news.com).
Abuses of the utilization of seas greatly endanger the existence of aquatic animals and rare marine
species. Apart from continuous oil exploration and commercial fishing activities, abuses also include carbon
dioxide dumping and use of biotechnology (Lazaroff, 2001, May 10. http://ens-news.com). Nowadays, marine
scientists are assessing the total contributions to the level of marine pollution of ship engage in the
exploitation of seabed’s, including the side effects in the earth’s environment of harvesting deposits that
these mining ships have extracted from the ocean floor.
Patin (2004) explained the environmental impact of the offshore oil and gas industry. He described that
tanker oil spills can compete with drilling accidents in terms of frequency and severity. Accidents do happen
during offshore drilling operations. Drilling accidents are usually associated with unexpected blowouts of
liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons from the well as a result of encountering zones with abnormal high
pressures. They are the sources of environmental pollution at all stages of oil and gas production. The severity
of consequences is extremely variable. They depend on a concrete combination of many natural, technical,
and technological factors.
Ocean Dumping
In the 1940s, the nuclear industry chose the oceans as convenient site for dumping their nuclear
wastes. Many countries which have nuclear production such as the USA, France, UK, Germany,
Sweden, USSR, etc., used the open seas in the Atlantic and Pacific as their dumping sites.
In order to protect the marine environment from the hazardous effects of nuclear dumping, the
London Dumping Convention was held in 1972. As explained earlier, the convention prohibited
dumping of high-level radioactive wastes. However, it was only the high-level waste that was
prohibited. The low-level wastes, though they also contain radioactive wastes and isotopes, such as
plutonium and strontium, were not prohibited. It was therefore believed that dumping at sea could
still take place out of sight. When the treatment and recycling plants were invented later, there has
been reduction of risk of marine pollution by dumping.
In November 1993, the London Dumping Convention was amended and the dumping of
industrial wastes at sea together with incinerating waste at sea was totally prohibited. It took effect
for member countries on January 1, 1996. Nonetheless, concerned organizations advocating for
complete prohibitions of dumping, such as the Greenpeace, has remained vigilant in regard to the
implementation of the convention. The Greenpeace is apprehensive that open-ocean dumoping can
still be done out of sight.
Vessel-Sourced Pollution
Much pollution in marine environment comes from the land-based sources. However, vessel-sourced
pollution also contributes significantly to the degradation of marine environment. From the total percentage of
marine pollution, vessel-sourced pollution comprises about 20%. The 10% originates from direct shipping
operations and another 10% comes from ship’s dumping (UNCED, 1992 June, Annex 4/3, Agenda 21).
The significant percentage contribution of vessel-sourced pollution can be attributed to the continuous
growth of seaborne trade. Cargoes carried by ships contain potentially hazardous substances that are damaging to
the marine environment when accidentally or intentionally discharged.

Operational discharge of pollutants comes from routine operations such as loading, discharging, bunkering, etc.
These activities normally occur in port or in oil terminals. An estimated 75% of six hundred thousand tons of oil is
dumped into the oceans each year. These come from shipping practices rather than accidental spills.

Figure 1.5 – A vessel in operation can be a source of marine


pollution.
As regards accidental spills, these are normally caused collision and grounding of ships. The frequency of
accidental spills is fewer than operational discharges. According to a report of the US National Academy of
Sciences, of the total number of the oil spills recorded between 1975 to 1994, the number of cases due to
accidents is only less than a quarter, while the number of cases resulting from routine operations is more
than half (IMO News, 1997).
However, many cases of accidental spills are in large quantities, which generate both media and
public attention. Two important examples of controversial oil spills are marine accidents involving the
vessels named “Exxon Valdez” and “Amoco Cadiz”.
Chapter 2 of this book presents a record of some controversial tanker accidents resulting in marine
environmental pollution. Fishing vessels also contribute to marine pollution. These vessels carry large
quantities of oil and fish processing facilities on board. They stay for several months at seas and discharge
marine pollutants.
Atmospheric Sources of Pollution
In 1982, the ozone layer of Northern Latitude was found by scientists to be in depleting stage. The
depletion has created a hole in that part of the earth’s atmosphere. In Antarctica, depletion of the ozone
layer was also discovered to have created a hole in the earth’s atmosphere. Ozone’s depletion is dangerous
to human health because of exposure in the sun’s ultraviolet rays. These two cases became the serious
concerns of modern scientists. They believed, and it became a common belief, that burning fossil fuels
contributes to the depletion of ozone layer. Contributory effects on the ozone depletion come from man-
made halon and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are released into the atmosphere.
Most industries today use fuels that are produced by energy. Burned fossil fuel, for example, is used
for transportation and one of the major sources of atmospheric pollution. Production and manufacturing
industries are also two of the major users of fossil fuel. Production and manufacturing process can cause
substantial emission of greenhouse gases and air pollution. Agriculture and land use practices can also
influence atmospheric factors such as climate change and air pollution. Burning of forest, for example, is a
cause of excessive emissions resulting in severe air pollution and atmospheric pollution.
The earth’s atmosphere is normally covered by blanket of gases which scientist believed to be composed of
approximately 350-km thick. It is a large and complex system that interacts with the sun, the land, and the
oceans in order to produce both the earth’s weather and climate. The earth’s atmosphere is basically
composed of four layers. These are the thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere.
The thermosphere is the layer of atmosphere most distant from the earth. It starts approximately 80 km
in altitude and considered as the hottest layer. The mesosphere follows the thermosphere. This layer extends
about 50 to 80 km in altitude and with very sparse atmosphere, comprising for only approximately 1% of the
mass of the atmosphere.
The stratosphere follows the mesosphere and it extends from approximately 10 to 12 km to around 50
km above earth’s surface. The stratosphere contains about 90% of the atmospheric ozone and it regulates
temperature as the sun’s energy is transformed into kinetic energy. The troposphere is the layer closest to the
earth’s surface and contains more than 80% of the total atmospheric mass. This layer is composed of about
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and other trace gases, water droplets, dust and other particles. The troposphere is
where most weather occurs.
SUMMARY
1. For many years, natural resources were exploited by mankind to sustain industrial revolution and
economic development. Conversation and protection of the environment were neglected.
Indiscriminate disposal of wastes and pollutants by both industries and consumers resulted in
serious damage to the earth’s elements.
2. Marine environment has not been spared by mankind’s disregard of the environmental
considerations. Over the years the seas and oceans became receptors of almost all kinds of wastes
or pollutants.
3. Concerns on prevention of marine pollution have been brought to international fora in the second
half of the last century. International conventions were adopted by the government of different
countries in order to protect the marine environment. Private organizations also rendered
assistance to the governments by making people aware of the necessity to take care of the
environment.
4. By definition, pollution is anything that makes something unhealthy. Scientifically, it is the chemical,
gaseous, and organic wastes that contaminate the air, soil, and water. Anything that pollutes these
elements is called pollutant.
5. There are several meanings of environmental pollution. The definitions are in accordance to the type of
pollution in an earth’s element. The various types of environmental pollution are as follows: air, water,
sound, solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and marine pollution.

6. Marine pollution is defined as an introduction by man, directly or indirectly of substances or energy into
the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harmful to living
resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing impairments of quality
for use of seawater, and reduction of amenities.

7. There are six main sources of marine environmental pollution according to UNCLOS/UNCED. These
sources are as follows: Land-base or Coastal-based, Continental Shelf-drilling, Sea-bed mining, Ocean
dumping, Vessel-sourced, and Atmospheric sources.
8. Higher percentage of the total pollution in marine environment comes from land-based sources. Vessel-
sourced pollution represents only 10% from direct shipping operations and another 10% from ships
dumping.

9. Routine operation is a cause of vessel-sourced pollution. Pollution comes from loading, discharging, and
bunkering. Quantity of pollutants entering the seas coming from this source is greater than accidental
sources.
Chapter 2
THE 1973 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON MARINE POLLUTION FROM
SHIPS AS MODIFIED BY THE PROTOCOL OF 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)

OBJECTIVES:
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• describe the development of seaborne trade that affected marine
environmental protection:
• explain the potential hazards of cargoes to marine environment:
• know the background and roles of IMO in the adoption of MARPOL 73/78
including some basic terminologies used in the convention:
• know the background of MARPOL 73/78 convention:
• Identify the basic structures and contents of MARPOL 73/78 convention:
and
• enumerate the regulations in the articles and annexes of MARPOL 73/78
that are relevant to seafarers.
2.1 INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, the meaning of marine pollution has been explained
including is various sources or origins. It was mentioned that, while greater
percentage of marine pollution originates from land-based activities. The threat of
vessel-sourced pollution to marine environment is also very significant due to the
growth of seaborne trade in the last half of the 20th century. As the number of
commercial vessels deployed at seas increases the risk of pollution coming from
ships also accelerates.

In view of this development, a number of international maritime conventions


relating to marine pollution were adopted. One of the most important international
conventions regarding prevention and control of marine pollution from ships is the
1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, as
modified by the Protocol of 1978, relating thereto, which is called MARPOL 73/78.

The adoption ratification and enforcement by parties to the MARPOL 73/78


convention can be considered as one of the most important steps towards the global
protection of marine environment. This convention has been also considered as one
of the most comprehensive international regulations concerning the prevention and
control of marine pollution from ships.
2.2 CARGOES CARRIED BY SHIPS AND MARINE POLLUTION

According to the International Maritime Organization, over 50% of cargoes


transported by sea is under the classification of either dangerous or hazardous
cargoes. Most of the products carried by ships are composed of bulk, such as,
solid or liquid chemicals. Plain crude oils, and other materials such as gasses and
petroleum. Crude oils and petroleum products make up the major components
of potentially hazardous liquid cargoes shipped in bulk.

Bulk traqnsporting is dangerous because large quantity of the product is carried


on board, oil cargo. For example, is one of the biggest cargoes transported by
bulk carriers or tankers. Other liquid cargoes are within the top commodities
transported by ships. Many cases of marine accidents which have been recorded
involve liquid bulk tankers. Most accidents involved oil tankers. There are also
recorded cases of accidents from product carriers. Wherein, releases of
substantial volume of compressed liquefied gases, chemicals, and other liquid
products polluted the seas.
Marine pollution from liquid bulk cargoes does not only originate from accident
significant percentage of liquid bulk cargoes into the seas through intentional
discharges or routine shipboard operations. The IMO reported that of the estimated
1.5 metric tons of oil that enter the sea each year, as a result of marine
transportation losses, about 66% is from normal vessel operational discharges.

Transporting concentrator finely-particled materials also poses threat to marine


environment. Concentrates may appear to begin a relatively dry granular state when
loaded on the ship but could contain sufficient moisture to become fluid when there
is vibration and compaction. In the semi-fluid state, cargo may flow to one side of
the ship when the ship rolls, but not completely return, when the ship rolls the other
way. This circumstance may result in the ship capsizing and accidentally releasing
marine pollutants.
• Transporting bulk cargoes should not also be ignore, Typical products carried in
solid bulk are marine pollution risks, There were many reported cases of
accidental release into the seas of solid bulk cargo, which became major causes
of marine pollution. Cargoes in solid bulk include grains, ores, coal, fertilizers,
and various minerals and waste products, Common causes of marine accidents
resulting in release of solid bulk into seas and oceans are as follows:
• • Improper weight distribution resulting in structural damage.
• • Improper stability or reduction of statbility during a voyage.
• • Spontaneous heating ( for certain products only ).
• • Chemical hazards.
Some solid bulk cargoes can create a magnitude of damage to marine
environment. One example is the spill of wheat by a ship named “Fences” which
happened in September 1996. The hold of the ship was damaged by a storm
after it grounded in South of Levezzi Islands, Bouches de Bonifacio and Corsica,
France. The ship spilled her entire cargo of 2.650 tons if wheat into the waters,
“The immediate effect was suffocation of Posidonia Oceania, a protected
species of marine plant in the ecosystem. About two hectare of plants were
affected. Later, fermentation of the wheat under the waters resulted in the
production of hydrogen sulphide gas, a substance extremely toxic to plants,
animals, and human beings”
• 2.3 THE OIL TANKER ACCIDENTS

• As mentioned earlier in this chapter, oil tankers accident is one of the most common sources of
marine pollution. This can be attributed to consistent rising demand for oil and oil-related
products worldwide, which resulted in the deployment of larger sizes and bigger numbers of oil
and bulk tankers in major sea routes. Crude oil, for example. Is carried in larger type of tankers
such as supertankers (50,000 to 160,000 deadweight). Very large crude carriers or VLCCs
(1600,000 to 300,000 deadweight). And ultra large crude carriers or ULCCs (over 300,000
deadweight). Refined products are carried in smaller tankers with size of up to 50,000
deadweight.

• There have been accidents that led to serious and catastrophic pollution from petroleum tankers
or oil tankers of varying sizes designed for bulk carriage of petroleum and various refined spirits.
However, another source is due to tank cleanings. According to Wikipedia about 67 barrels
(approximately 2,800 gallons) were spilled out of more than 4.2 billion barrels of petroleum
delovered by tankers to the United States in 2005. The total volume of petroleum spilled from
tankers annually in the United States has less than 4,000 barrels annually from 1996 to 2005. The
Wikipedia informed that more oil enters the oceans from natural sources and other incidents
than from tanker spills.
• Nevertheless, oil tanker accidents could be the most controversial source of marine
pollution incidents. In fact, a number of large oil spills aroused the interest of
countries around the world. Major sea disaster spilling hundreds or thousands of
oils in terms of tons affected the “flora and fauna” of oceans and seas.
The main causes of tanker accidents that lead to large oil spills include running
aground and into shore reefs, collisions with other vessels, and fires and
explosions of the cargo. Thousands of tons of oil pollute the oceans and seas of
the earth because of tanker accidents. In some cases, tanker accidents occurred
right in the zone of oil field development, where drilling of gas oils is done.
Negative opinions regarding rapid degradation of marine environment were
liberally expressed by various sectors of the world’s society.

The history of tanker accident has been written in books and covered by the
media. Oil extracted from the continental shelf is transported by oil tankers across
the oceans and accounts for a considerable part of annual volumes of oil
transported by tankers. In the case of gas tanker accident, very dangerous
situations can emerge. Due to rapid evaporation of the liquefied gas on the sea
surface and formation of pieces of ice and gas clouds, combustion and explosions
could occur
• The primary background information and general statistics about large tanker accidents
allow many marine scientists to conclude that there is the presence of a very high risk of
transportation accidents that expose the seas and oceans to pollution. A supertanker ship
with deadweight of about 120,000 tons can make a hundred of trips a year, when
contracted to transport cargo from offshore oil and gas exploration sites to the port of
destination. All activities carried out increase the probability of accidental situations.

• In the Philippines, oil tanker accidents are the main cause of marine pollution. Over the
last 10 years, many cases of oil tanker spillage have been recorded by the Philippine Coast
Guard. The biggest oil spill occurred in 2006, when an oil tanker named “MT Solar 1”
carrying 2.1 million liters of industrial fuel sunk off near the island of Guimaras in the
Visayan region.

• The oil spill wrought havoc to the marine ecology that has affected fishponds, marine
reserve. Coastline, mangrove areas, coral reefs, and seaweed plantation. This accident
resulted in the declaration of the affected areas as in state of calamity and called the
attention of the world’s maritime and economic sectors to join together to restore the
areas into normalcy.
• 2.4 STORAGE AND PIPELINE OPERATIONS ACCIDENTS

• Apart from tanker operations, there also exists the risk of accidents due to storage and
pipeline operations. In the case of storage, underwater reservoirs for storing liquid
hydrocarbons such as oil, oil-water mixtures, and gas condensate. Which are elements of
many oil and gas development. Underwater storage tank are built near the platform
foundations or are anchored in the semi-submerged in the semi-submerged position near
the area of development and close to the onshore terminals.

• The risk exists of damaging the underwater storage tanks and releasing their content. This is
especially true in tanker loading operations during severe weather conditions. The most
dangerous, however, are the accidents involving underwater storage tanks that contain
toxic agents.
• As regards pipeline, these installations carry oil, gas, condensate and other
mixtures. Pipelines are environmental risks during offshore oil operations.
Together with tanker transportation and oil drilling operations. Damages
may occur in the pipeline which may be caused by material defects, pipe
corrosion to ground erosion, tectonic movements and encounter with ship
anchors and bottom trawls.

• A pipeline can become either a source of short and long-term leakage or


even an abrupt blowout of explosion of hydrocarbons. Also, the dissolution,
dilution, and transferring of the liquid and gaseous products in the marine
environment can be accompanied by ice and gas hydrates formation. Table
2.1 below shows a record of selected major tanker accidents resulting in
marine pollution.
TABLE 2.1 SELECTED TANKER ACCIDENTS RESULTING IN MARINE POLLUTION FROM OIL SPILLS
Ship Name Year and Location Oil Lost (Unrecovered oil in metric tons)

Atlantic Empress 1079, Off Tobago, West Indies 287,000

ABT Summer 1991, 700 nautical miles of Angola 260,000

Castillo de Beliver 1983, Off Saldanha Bay, south Africa 252,000

Amoco Cadiz 1978, Off Brittany, France 223,000

Haven 1991, Genoa, Italy 144,000

Odyssey 1988, 700 nautical miles of Nova Scotia, Canada 132,000

Torrey Canyon 1967, Sicily Isle, UK 119,000

Urquiola 1976, La Coruna, Spain 100,000

Hawaiian patriot 1977, 300 nautical miles of Honolulu 95,000

Independenta 1979, Bosphorus, Turkey 95,000

Jakob Maersk 1975, Oporto, Portugal 88,000

Braer 1993, Shetland Islands, UK 85,000

Khark 5 1989, 120 nautical miles off Atlantic Coast of Morocco 80,000

Aegean Sea 1992, la Coruna, Spain 74,000


Sea Empress 1996, Meltflord Haven, UK 72,000

Katina P. 1992, Off Maputo, Mozambique 72,000

Assimi 1983, 55 nautical miles off Muscat, Oman 53,000

Metula 1974, Magellan Straits, Chile 50,000

Wafra 1971, Off Cape Agulhas, South Africa 40,000

Exxon Valdez 1989, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA 37,000

• The figures in the third column of table 2.3 refer to the tons of oil that were totally lost or not
recovered from the accidents. A great deal of total oil lost was recovered through months or
years of oil recovery operations. Although, recovery of spilled oil has been successful in most
cases, such effort reportedly did not immediately appease or lessen the adverse sentiments of
people living in the affected vicinities.
• One important reason why most people have negative opinion on oil spill can be attributed to the visibility of oil.
As a substance, oil is too visible to the naked eyes, when spilled into waters. This is especially true when it has been
spilled in large quantities. It floats on the water surface, which generates natural adverse reactions from people
living in the area where the accident happened.

• The reaction is usually serious when accidents occurred near the seashores. Beach resorts, harbors, and fishing
grounds. The following are interesting details of a number of oil tanker accidents which created negative reactions
from people living in the affected areas:

1. Tanker “Aragon”
• While navigating from Mexico to Spain, the Spanish tanker “Aragon” suffered damage in her structure and lost
some plates in the port side of the head part. She lost about 25,000 tons of crude oil type “Maya” at the North of
Madeira Islands, Atlantic Ocean. Because of the high viscosity and low percentage of evaporation of the Maya oil, it
remained at sea without dispersing.

• Several weeks later, the oil slick drifted toward the coasts of Porto Santo Island (also in Madeira) causing pollution
of tits coasts and beaches. It took several months to clean the affected coasts and beaches because the oil became
too viscous that made it difficult for the responding teams to use the conventional equipment for containment and
recovery.
2. Aegean Sea
• The Greek vessel named “Aegean Sea” was loaded with 79,000 tons of crude oil on
December 3, 1992. She ran aground in the approaches to La Coruna. Northwest coast of
Spain. The Vessel exploded emitting a large oil spill that affected a large extension of the
surrounding coasts and bays.
• A large portion of cargo was burnt while other part spread over the sea. About 10,000 tons
of oil and bunker remain on board and was recovered safely. The crude oil carried by the
vessel was a kind of Brent from Shetland Island. The oil is easy to evaporate and disperse
and have low possibilities to form emulsions. These oil behaviors helped in the clean up
operations. However, it took the responding team about three months to complete their
operations.
3. Amoco Cadiz
• Amoco Cadiz ran aground in the Northwest Coast of France on March 16, 1978. The ship was seriously
damaged and she lost about 220,000 tons of crude oil. The oil spread over the sea and coasts
polluting more than 250 miles of coastline. The pollution affected the tourist areas and the coastal
zones, which are very rich sources of oysters. Due to heavy winds and seam, containment with booms
and recovery with skimmers were not used. Dispersant of the depth is less than 50 meters. Burning
was not also possible because pollutants are close to community living near the shore.

• Because of these constraints, authorities decided to just recover the oil in the beaches and other
parts of the coast. It took them several months to clean the shore. About 10,000 people worked
during the clean up operations. The total recovered waste was 200,000 tons. The costs of clean up
operations including legal fees and accrued conditions of the affected areas took almost two years.
4.Erika
• On December 12,1999, a tanker named “Erika” broke into two, in heavy seas off the coast of Brittany,
France. It was carrying about 30,000 tons of heavy fuel oil. Of the total tons, about 14,000 were spilled.
It spattered more than 100 miles of the Atlantic coastline. The crew, however, were saved.

The above cases of tanker accidents are only a few controversial accidents added to the long list of
recorded cases. They joined the likes of Exxon Valdez, Torrey Canyon, Sea Empress, etc., which have
brought serious damage to the marine environment
• 2.5 SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS

• As emphasized earlier, routine shipboard operations is the biggest source of


marine pollution from ships, pollution threat is greater when the ship is either
a product carrier or oil tanker. Let us take, again as an example, the oil tanker.
The largest source of oil pollution comes from routine tanker operations.
Pollution originates from cleaning of cargo residues (clingage) when the ship
is ballasting and cleaning its tanks for a return voyage from the port of
discharge.
• IMO reported that from a study conducted by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the
United States, it was estimated that the quantity of clingage amounts to 0.4% if cargo
carrying capacity. It is about 800 tons of a 200,000 deadweight crude oil carrier. During
ballasting and cleaning, almost one half of this can be lost overboard, unless slops are
retained on board. In terms of tonnage, this routine operation could be the biggest source of
oil pollution from ships. In this regard, MARPOL 73/78 prescribed substantial regulations
relating to the control of discharge from bilges. Tank cleaning, and other normal or routine
shipboard operations.
• 2.6 THE IMO AND MARPOL 73/78

• As long as the ships are deployed at seas, intentional discharges of oil and other effluents cannot be
totally eliminated due to routine or normal shipboard operations. Likewise, a marine accident, whether
big or small, could pollute the marine environment. Control and prevention are the only ways to protect
the seas and oceans from pollution coming from ships. If control and prevention are taken for granted,
sources of pollution coming from ships could pose serious problems in the future of our marine
environment, particularly those water located in the enclosed areas.

• Control or prevention of marine pollution from ships is an important concern of MARPOL 73/78. The
convention has been facilitated through the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The IMO is an
international maritime body, created as an attached agency of the United Nations. The first name of the
IMO was Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), which was created in 1958.
The name IMCO was changed to IMO in 1982.
• The purposes for which IMO was created are as follows:

• • To serve as machinery for cooperation among governments in regulation practicing technical matters
about shipping and international trade.

• • To persuade and assist the governments in adopting the highest level of practicable standards about
maritime safety, efficiency of navigation, and prevention and of marine pollution-from ship.

• Through the efforts of the IMO, the International Convention for the Prevention Pollution from Ships,
(MARPOL) was adopted on 02 November 1973 at the IMO Headquarters in London. The 1973 IMO convention
was an important move.as far as prevention and control of pollution from ships is concerned.
• After adoption of the convention in 1973, the IMO required ratification by 15 states with a combined
merchant fleet of not less than 50% of the world’s shipping by gross tonnage three years later, IMO received
only three ratifications. These came from Kenya, Tunisia, and Jordan which represented only less than one
percent of the world’s shipping fleet in terms of gross tonnage.

• In 1978, IMO held a conference on Tankers Safety and Pollution Prevention because of number of tanker
accidents, which happened between 1976 and 1977. In the conference some measures affecting tanker
designs and operations were incorporated and adopt into Protocol of 1978.

• The protocol of 1978 was related to two parent conventions. One of them was the Safety of Life at Sea
(SOLAS) 1974 Convention and the other was the MARPOL 73. Since the MARPOL 73 had not yet entered into
force, the 1978 Protocol absorbed it and the combined instruments is called “The 1973 International
Convention for the Prevention Marine Pollution from Ships. As modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating
thereto (MARPOL 73/78).
• Since the Protocol in 1978, there have been a series of amendments to the Technical Annexes of Marpol 73/78. The
following are the recorded amendments, as published by the IMO website in January of 2007:
• 1984 amendments
• 1985 ( Annex II ) amendments
• 1985 ( Protocol I ) amendments on incidents reporting
• 1987 amendments on special areas extension
• 1989 ( March ) amendments to Annex II
• 1989 ( October ) amendments ( North Sea Special Areas )
• 1990 amendments on High Speed Special Craft
• 1990 amendments on IBC Code
• 1990 amendments on BCH Code
• 1990 Technical Annexes I and V amendments ( Antartic as special area )
• 1991 amendments ( Wider Caribbean as special area )
• 1992 amendments ( Mandatory regulations for double hulls )
• 1994 amendments ( Implementation )
• 1995 amendments ( garbage records )
• 1996 amendments
• 1997 amendments ( North West European waters as special area )
• 1997 Protocol – adoption of Annex VI ( Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
• 1999 amendments ( persistent oil )
• 2000 amendments (deletion of tainting )
• 2001 amendments – revised 13 G ( double hulls )
• 2003 amendments ( double hulls )
• 2004 ( April ) amendments ( revised Annex IV – Sewage )
• 2004 ( October ) amendments – revised Annex VI amendments
• 2005 amendments ( North sea SECA, Annex VI amendments)
• 2006 amendments ( oil Fuel tank Protection )
• 2006 ( October ) amendments ( South Africa special area, revised annex III )

Increasing concerns of member countries to the IMO conventions on marine environmental protection and
prevention are expected to result in another series of future changes or amendments to the existing
regulations embodied in the Technical Annexes of Marpol 73/78.
• 2.7 IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES
• In order to better understand the important regulations of MARPOL 73/78. Which may be considered as
the backbone of maritime pollution prevention. It is essential to know the meaning of the terms and
phrases used in the convention. Here are some of the most important terms according terms according
to the IMO:
• Conventions are international documents adopted thru international conferences under the favors or
auspices of an international organization. An IMO Convention for example, refers to an international
document adopted through international conference under the favor of the IMO and become the part
of the maritime international law.
• Treaties refer to international agreements concluded between states in written form and governed by
international laws, whether embodied in a single instrument ( written agreement ) or in two or more
related instruments and whatever its particular designation.
• Protocol to the IMO Convention is a treaty instrument adopted by a diplomatic conference
containing “amendments” to the related convention. The need for protocol arises under the
following circumstances: (a) when the convention itself has not entered into force; (b) even
when a convention is in full force, the proposed amendments are considered as very
important so that a diplomatic conference should be held for the purpose of formulating the
amendments; and (c) when amendment by conference is so stated in the convention and the
organization decides to hold a diplomatic conference for the purpose.
• Amendments are changes the treaty instruments without need for convention of
confirmation. Amendments are usually adopted by the designated Committee of the IMO
bodies.
• Resolutions are recommendations. They have no legal binding force
• Contracting state refers to a state which has consented to be bound by the treaty, whether or not the
treaty has entered into force
• Party refers to a state which has consented to be bound by the treaty and for which the treaty is in
full force
• Ratification and accession means “approval” or “acceptance” of the convention. In each case, a state
establishes its consent to be bound by a treaty. Acceptance of the convention by a state or
government means that the said government of the state binds itself to fulfill the prevention of
marine environment that are required under the accepted convention.
• Adopting a convention refers to the series of activities when the different bodies involved in the
convention such as the Committees, the Council. And the Assembly reached an agreement to approve
or adopt the proposals written in a draft convention. Adoption Is made after necessary examination
and changes in the proposed convention are agreed upon by majority of the representative
governments who are present in the conference held for that purpose
• Entry into force of the convent means the convention becomes binding to the governments. Which
have ratified or accepted it. Each convention has conditions or requirements, which have to be met by
the government who accepted it. These conditions have to be fulfilled before the convention
becomes obligatory to the state. Which accepted or ratified it. When the conditions are satisfied
accordingly by the concerned states. Then, the Convention takes effect or enters into force for that
government or state.
• It is also important to clarify that some conventions have to be kept updated
due to fast changing technology in the commercial shipping industry. Thus,
amendments to the existing conventions are necessary. In the past, entry
into force of amendment to the convention only takes effect after two-thirds
of the contracting party accepted the amendments. This practice delayed
the entry into of the important amendments to the Convention. In order to
solve this problem the IMO developed the “Tacit Acceptance” procedure.
• In the “Tacit Acceptance” method, the amendments to the convention take
effect or enter into force at a definite date, unless before that date, the IMO
received objections to the amendments from a specified number of parties.
As regards enforcement. The contracting governments enforce the
provisions of the IMO conventions for their own ships, They also imposed
their own penalties or sanctions.
2.8 THE MEANING OF MARINE POLLUTION AND MARINE POLLUTANTS
ACCORDING TO MARPOL 73/78
At the point, it is important to distinguish the meaning of marine pollution and marine
pollutants according to MARPOL 73/78 . Marine pollution according to MARPOL73/78 is
very specific, as regards the origins and definition .
Marine pollution, according to MARPOL 73/78 may be defined as that kind of pollutin
which particularly involves the introduction of substances and energy into the environment
of seas and oceans coming from either the day to day operations of the ships or damaged
vessels by marine accidents , which harmfully affect the marine environment. From this
definition the sources of pollution according to MARPOL 73/78 are also given . Pollutants
,according to MARPOL 73/78 are harmful substance. Which are either accidentally or
intentionally released by ships into the marine environment
It is noted that in the general definition of marine pollutant that has been discussed in the
first chapter of this book, pollutants are simply as subtances or enegy that pollute the
waters of the seas and oceans . As regards MARPOL 73/78. it emphasized that the major
pollutants of the seas and oceans come from oils and chemicals that are either accidentally
or intentionally discharged by ships
THE TECHNICAL ANNEXES OF MARPOL
73/78 GIVE THE FOLLOWING SPECIFIC SET
OF MARINE POLLUTANTS:
Technical Annexes Polltants
1. Annex I oil
2. Annex II noxios liquid substances
3. Annex III harmful subtances in
packaged form
4. Annex IV sewage from ships
5. Annex V garbage from ships
6. Annex VI air pollution from ships
2.9 THE
REGULATORY CONCERNS OF
MARPOL 73/78

It is also important to emphasize that, the entire regulationsof MARPOL 73/78 do not regulate marine
pollution from rivers or estuaries that dischange wastes directly into the sea from urban areas.It does not
deal also with pollution resulting from the exploration of the scabed. oil production or dumping from the
ships .which are all discussed under Chapter 1 of this book. MARPOL 73/78 focuses on the regulations
concerning control and prevention of maritime pollution, which are caused by the day-to-day operations of
the ship. These regulations include the following:
• Discharge of oily residues from sludge tanks.
• Discharge of oily residues from machinery spaces of ships and tankers.
• Discharge of oil and chemical residues from cargo tanks.
• Discharge of sewage from ships.
• Loss of overboard cargos which are harmful to marine environment through overboard of garbage.
It is also directed towards the reduction of marine pollution coming from damage vessels due to marine
accidents. It has provisions directed towards limitingthe damage to the environment whenever accidents occur.
These consist of regulations concerning the following :

• Reporting requirements when incidents of marine pollution occur or are likely to occur.
• Regulations governing limitations of chemical carriers for carrying dangerous goods.
• Regulations regarding the construction of vessels as regards the ballast tanks’ location, size, etc
2.10 THE ARTICLES OF MARPOL 73/78
The major components of MARPOL 73/78 are the articles ,annexes, and appendices. One of the most difficult
to appreciate and understand is the whole context of the articles. There are twenty articles in the convention.
These are numbered as Articles 1 to 20. These articles have their own annexes and appendices.
• Regulation concerning the relationship between state and foreign ships such as the extent to which a port
state my interfere with a foreign ship
• Regulations about the cooperation between the states when investigating an alleged maritime
environmental violation
• Regulations that require that a ship shall not proceed at sea with out the appropriate MARPOL 73/78
certificates.
• Regulations about the exchange of information between parties
• Regulation about arbitration and amendments
a. Article 2
This article gives the definition of the terms and phrases used in the MARPOL 73/78 Convetion . Here are
some of the terms given under the said article.
a. Harmful substance – It is any subtances which introduce into the sea is liable to create hazards to human
health and harmful to living resource in marine life
b. Discharge - It refers to any release of harmful substance from ship including escape, disposal , leaking ,
pumping , emiting or emptying. But excluding dumping within the meaning of the following activities
• Dumping - This refers to dumping within those identified under the Convention of Prevention of Marine
Pollution by Dumping Wastes and other matter of 1972
• Releases of harmful substance – It means releases of harmful substances caused by exploration of offshore
processing of seabed mineral resources and those cause by the conduct of scientific research on pollution
control.
• Administration – It means the government of state under whose authority the ship is operating . With
respect to a ship entitled to fly a flag of any state . The administration refers to the government of that state
b. Article 3
This contains regulation concerning the application of the convention as regards the ship. The regulation
particularly apply the following only: (a) ships that are entitled to fly the flag of a party to the convention ; and
(b) ships that are not entitled to fly the flag of a party to the convention but which operates under the
authority of party
c. Article 5
This article gives the requirements on certificates and inspection of the ships.general ,this article provides that
certificate relating to the prevention of marine pollution carried by a ship and issued by an authority, which is a
party to the convention should be accepted by other parties or governments when presented
d. Article 6
This article refers to the detection of violetion and enforcement of the convention . These are related to the
environmental monitoring rules and regulations that are implemented through the country’s Port State control.
e. Article
This is very important article to seafarers because it contains the guideline relative to reporting incidents
involving harmful substance.
2.11 THE PROCTOCOLS TO MARPOL
There are two protocols to the MARPOL 73/78 convention . They are as follows: (a) Protocol 1
which deals with the duty of the master of the ship to report actual or probable marine pollution;
and (b) Protocol 2 , which deals with arbitration in cases of dispute.
Between the two protocols, protocol 1 is the most relevant to seafarers beacause it gives
regulations concerning the details of reforts to made during the incidents involving discharge of
harmful substance. It includes reporting incidents involving loss or likely los of packaged dangerous
goods
Protocol 1 contains five article. All of these articles are considered as relevant to seafarers especially
to officers and masters of the vessels. In the articles of protocol No. 1 the convention enumerates
the personnel to be duty-bound to report all incidents volving harmful substances.
It also establishes a uniform approach to making reforts that have to be implemented by the parties
to the MARPOL 73/78 convention . The word “should” was used to mean that is not the specific
requirement upon an administration but only aimed to establish uniformity of implemention .
The refort should be conveyed to the nearest coastal state through the fastest means of
communication . The general reforting system has standard procedures and format . The reforts
include the following :
a. Sailing plant (SP)
b. Position report (PR)
c. Deviation report (DR)
d. Final report (FR)
f. Dangerous goods report (DG)
g. Harmful subtances report (HS)
h. Marine pollutants report (MP)
i. Any other report
Protocol II has ten articles . It gives the deatails of arbitration procedures . The rules be used in the settlement
of disputes between concerned parties . Some of the important features of protocol II include the following :
• Deatails or imformation that should be written on the request .
• The use of tribunal where one member is to be nominated by agreement between the first members and
act as chairman
• The tribunal hears and determines counter – claims arising directly out of the subject matter of the dispute .
• Under article IX , the parties facilitate the work of tribunal . They provide the tribunal to the necessary
documents and information ,they make it feasible for the tribunal to enter their territory for the purpose of
conducting investigation .
The following are the technical annexes to MARPOL 73/78 convention and their entry into force:
Technical annexes Entry into force
Annex I Regulation for the prevention by Oil. It entered
into force on October 2, 1983. revised annex I
entered into force on January 1,2007 .
Annex II Regulations for the control of pollution by
Noxious Liquid Substances in bulk . It entered
into force October 2, 1984 but implemented 3
years (april 6, 1987). Revised Annex II entered
into force on January 1, 2007.
Annex III Regulation for the prevention of pollution by
Harmfull Subtances Carried by Sea in packaged
form . It entered into force on july 1, 1992.
Annex IV Regulation for the Prevention of Pollution by
Sewage from ships. Entered into forece on
September 27, 2003. the second of optional
annex , annex IV contains requirements to control
pollution of the sea by sewage. A revised annex
was adopted in 2004 and not yet entered into force
Annex V Regulation for the Prevention of pollution by
Garbage from ships . It has entered into force on
December 31, 1988.
Annex VI Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution
from ships adopted on 26 September 1997. it
entered into force on May 19, 2005.
2.13 TECHNICAL ANNEX VI (REGULATIONS
FOR THE PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION
FROM SHIPS

Technical Annex VI is an adition to the original five technical annexe to the marpol 73/78 . Technical Annex
VI regulation set limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ships exhausts. The regulations
prohibit deliberate emissions of zone depleting substances from ships

The Annex has three (3) chapters embodying nineteen (19) regulations and five appendices. The following
are the basic contents:
CHAPTER REGULATION
I Regulation 1- Aplication of the Annex to all ship
Regulation 2- Definition of Terms Used in the Annex
Regulation 3- General Exceptions
Regulation 4- Provision on Equivalents
II Regulation 5- Surveys and Inspections
Regulation 6- Issuance of International Air Pollution Prevention
Certificate
Regulation 7- Issuance of a Certificate by Another Government
Regulation 8- Form of Certificate
Regulation 9- Duration and Validity of Certificate
Regulation 10- Port State Control on Operational Requirements
Regulation 11- Detection of Violations and Enforcement
III Regulation 12- Ozone-Depleting Substance
Regulation 13- Nitrogen Oxides
Regulation 14- Sulphur Oxides
Regulation 15- Volatile Organic Compounds
Regulation 16- Shipboard Incineration
Regulation 17- Reception Facilities
Regulation 18- Fuel Oil Quality
Regulation 19- Requirements for Platform and Drlling Rigs

APPENDIX CONTENTS
I Form of International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate (IAPP)
as Required by Regulation 8
II Test Cycles and Weighting Factors (Regulation 13)

III Criteria and Procedures Design of Sulphur Oxides Emission


Control Areas (Regulation 14)
IV Type Approval and Operating Limits for Shipboard Incinerators
(Regulation 16)
V Information to be Included in the Bunker Delivery note
(Regulation 18-3)
2.14 MANDATORY AND OPTIONAL ANNEXES

Currently .the above-enumerated items are the compositions of the technical annexes of Marpol 73/78 .
The six (6) technical annexes are either mandatory (compulsory) or optional (voluntary).
Mandatory annexes are those annexes that automatically bind the state, which is a party to the
convention . These are Annexes I and II.
Optional annexes are those annexes that are to be declared by the concerned party (State) if they
accept or reject the provisions . These are Annexes III, IV, V and VI.
2.15 THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF SHIP’S BALLAST WATER AND SEDIMENTS
In 1998, there has been a proposal to include Technical Annex VII to the existing technical annexes of Marpol 73/78 . The
proposal would embody the regulations and prevention of marine pollution from unwanted aquatic organism in ballast
water . Conferences relative to the regulations is were proposed to be held by the IMO address the environmental damage
caused by the introduction of unwanted aquatic organisms in ballast , used to stabilized ships at sea.
On February 13,2004, the IMO adopted the international cconvention for the control and management of Ship’s Ballast
Water and Sediments. Its entry into force is twelve (12) monthsafter ratification have been made by at least 30 States,
representing 35% of Conventions shows that only six countries or states have ratified the said convention . These six states
represent only 0.62% of world’s merchant shipping tonnage .
The convention is divided into articles and an annex which embody technical regulations or standard requirements for the
control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. Management and control of ships ballast water and
sediments are important to marine pollution prevention .
It is estimated that about 10 billion tons of ballast water are transferred each year around the seas and oceans of the world
(IMO News No.2, 1998). When taking ballast water to stabilize ships, the water taken may contain aquatic organism,
including dormant stage of microscopic toxic aquatic plants. An example of his toxic plan is dinoflagellates which is
suspected to cause harmful algal blooms after their release.
IMO further reported that the ballast water may also contain a sort of bacterion called Vibrio cholera which causes cholera.
As ships sail faster , the survival rates of the above-mentioned species carried in ballast water accelerates . This
development may result in the introduction of non-indigeneous organism in new sea areas . Which may also eventually
create damaging effects to the ecosystem . Including death of rare marine species of important fish stocks.
SUMMARY
1.Over 50% of the cagoes transforted by sea has been under the classification of either dangerous of hazardous cargoes .
Most of the products are composed bulk such as solid and liquid bulks .
2. Apart from carrying dangerous or hazardous cargoes, the risk of marine pollution comes from the normal or routine
shipboard operations as well as maritime accidents. There are various recorded cases of major oil spills that harm the
environment.
3.According to the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the greatest source of marine pollution comes from
cleaning of residues in tanks (clinage).It comprises about 0.4% of the total cargo carrying capacity of a ship. About half of in
is lost overboard and pollutes the marine environment.
4.One of the major concerns of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).an international body attached to the UN
which is responsible in sponsoring maritime conventions, is to provide global measures in preventing and controlling marine
pollution from ships . IMO uses some important technical terminologies in drafting the convention. Some of these terms are
ratification , convention , party, etc.
5.The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which was adopted in 1973 and
modified by the Protocol in 1978, provides a comprehensive package of regulations concerning marine environmental
protection from vessel-sourced pollution. It is now called MARPOL 73/78. It has twenty articles, two protocols, and six
technical annexes
6.The following are the marine pollutants according to the technical annexes of MARPOL 73/78: Oil (Annex /); Noxious
Substances in Liquid Form or NLS (Annex II); Harmful Substances in Package Forms (Annex III); Sewage from Ships (Annex IV);
Garbage from Ships (Annex V); and Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (Annex VI).
7.In February 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast water and Sediments was
adopted. It has not yet entered into force as of the writing of his book. In 1998, this pollution a regulation has been proposed
to be include in the technical annexes of Marpol 73/78, but later the IMO opted to hold a separate international convention
on this matter.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
Know the meaning of oil and its characteristics as marine pollutant;

Explain some behaviors of oil during oil spills;


Determine the hazards and effects of oils to marine environment; and

Discuss the impacts of oil pollution in social and economic environment.


3.1 INTRODUCTION
Carriage of oil always involves a number of hazards. The hazards include some accidents, which may result in marine
environmental pollutions and damages to cargoes and physical facilities of the ship. Transporting and handling oil cargo can
also cause physical harm to shipboard personnel especially when accidents such as fire or explosion occur.

Oils always threatens environment because it is the number one marine pollutant among the commodities transported by
sea, oil has always been the largest. If you take a look at the annual reports of cargoes handled by the busiest seaports in
the world, such as the Ports of Rotterdam, Singapore, and Hong Kong, you will find that the top commodities transported
by sea are crude oils, plain oils, and other petroleum products.

Since the beginning of oil trade until year 2000, it remains in the top ten commodities carried by sea. In the second half of
1999, for example, the total world’s demand for oil reached an average of 76 million barrels per day. Compared to the same
period in 1998. The second half 1999 increased by 1.4 million barrels per day. By the fourth quarter of 1999, the world’s
demand for crude oil reached an estimated record of 77.2 million barrels per day. World demand has been projected to
increase further to 78.3 million barrels in the succeeding year.

Based on this development, it seems that oil will continue to remain as a prime commodity in the seaborne trade. With this
status, the corresponding demands for larger vessels capable to carry thousands metric tons of oil cargo stay in the market
and risk of marine pollution coming from this vessel also increases.
3.2 CLASSIFICATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF OIL

Due to the growth of oil trade and increase in the number of tanker accidents, spills of small and big
quantities of oil were recorded. Correspondingly, much concern has been focused on the hazards effects
of transporting and handling oil cargoes especially aboard the ship.

In order to take precautionary measures in handling and transporting oil cargo.it is important that
shipboard personnel are aware of the properties, elements, and characteristics of oil. They should always
possess basic knowledge about the behaviors of oil during changes of atmospheric conditions. Knowledge
should include knowing some behaviors of oil when the substance comes into direct contact with sea
water.

MARPOL 73/78 defined oil as “Petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and
refined products (except petrochemicals). It includes the “white” but not “whale oil” or “vegetables oils”
(Technical Annex I).
Included in the list of oil under MARPOL 73/78 are as follows;

 Asphalt solution such as blending stocks, roofers flux, straight run residues.

 Oils such as clarified oil, crude oil, mixture containing crude oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, numbers 4, 5, and 6,
residual fuel oil, road oil, transformer oil, aromatic oil, lubricating oil, mineral oil, motor oil,
penetrating oil.

 Distillates such as straight rim and flashed fuel stocks.

 Gas oil such as cracked.

 Gasoline blending stocks as alkylates, fuel reformats, polymer fuel.

 Gasoline such as casing had (natural), automotive, aviation, straight run, fuel oil, no.1 (kerosene), fuel
oil no.1-D, fuel oil no.-2, and fuel oil no.2D.

 Jet fuel such as JP-1 (kerosene), JP-3, JP-4, JP-5 (kerosene heavy), turbo fuel, kerosene, mineral spirit.
Naphtha such as solvent, petroleum, heart oil distillate.
Oils can be generally classified as either crude or refined products according to their viscosity
(measure of resistance to flow). The viscosity of oil decreases with the rise in temperature but to
a varying degree depending on the type of crude from which it is derived and the treatment it has
undergone.

Crude oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of varying molecular weight and structures.
These are composed of three main chemical groups such as paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic.
These hydrocarbons cannot be distilled. The hydrocarbon contents are sometimes highly volatile
or complex waxes and asphaltic compound. The compound usually contains a combination of
nitrogen, oxygen Sulphur, vanadium, nickel and mineral salts (IMO Manual on oil pollution, 1988).
Table 3.1 shows the characteristics of crude oils; the characteristics fall under certain ranges.
TABLE 3.1 – Characteristics of crude oil
VARIABLES Characteristics
Specific gravity, 15/15deg.C 800 to 900 kg/cubic meter
Initial boiling point deg.C 30 to 125
Kinematics viscosity Centistokes cst. At 40 3 to 100 (15 to 20,000) but can be as much as
deg.C 20,000 even at 40deg.C

Pour point deg.C -30 to +25 but can be lower or as high as 43


Flash point (Abel)deg.C -18 to 190
Sulphur % wt. 0.08 to 5
Wax % wt. Up to 15
Asphaltenes % wt. Up to 5
Vanadium, ppm V 5 to 170
As regards petroleum products, the table 3.2 gives the following characteristics:
TABLE 3.2 – characteristics of petroleum products
Variables Characteristics
Gasoline (motor spirit)
Specific gravity 15/14 deg.C 0.68-0.77
Boiling range degree centigrade 30-200
Flash point degree centigrade -40
Kerosene
Kerosene gravity 15/15 deg.C 0.78
Boiling range degrees centigrade 160-285
Kinematic viscosity cst. 37.38 deg.C 1.48
Flashpoint (Pensky Martens) deg.C 55
Gas oils
Specific gravity 15/15 deg.C 0.84
Boiling range degrees C 180-360
Kinematic viscosity cst. 37.38 deg.C 3.30
Flashpoint (Pensky Martens) deg.C 77
Fuel oils (light, medium and heavy)
Specific gravity 15/50 deg.C 0.925-0.965
Kinematic viscosity, cst. 37.78 deg.C 49-862
Flashpoint deg.C 90 upwards
Lubricating oil
These are highly refined oil The applications vary widely in specific gravity and viscosity
Density refers to mass per unit of a given material. Specific gravity means relative gravity which is the
ratio of the mass of a given material (usually pure water). The specific characteristics of oil influence
the buoyancy of oil in water. It also influences the spread of oil and natural dissipation in water.

In general, oil with low density (mass per unit of a given material) has low viscosity and contains
proportion of volatile components. If you see an index of viscosity, you can observe that oil decreases
with a rise in temperature, but to a varying degree, depending on the type of crude.

Table 3.3 give an idea of the density, viscosity, and other characteristics of some types of oil and the
categories that they categories that they represent.
TABLE 3.3 – types of oil and the categories they represent

Types of Oil Categories they Represent


Sahara blend Density -
Viscosity -
Pour point -
Producing country -
General description -
Arabian light crude Density -
Viscosity -
Pour point -
Producing country -
General description -
Nigeria medium crude Density -
Viscosity -
Pour point -
Producing country -
General description -
Bachaquero 17 crude Density -
Viscosity -
Pour point -
Producing country -
General description -
Minas crude Density -
Viscosity -
Pour point -
Producing country -
General description -
Residual fuel Bunker C or No. 6 fuel oil
The main physical properties of oil which affect its behavior when spilled at sea are as follows: specific gravity,
distillation characteristics, viscosity and pour point.

Specific gravity of oil is actually its’ density in relation to pure water. Generally, oils are lighter than water and
their specific gravity are below one (1). The density of crude oils and petroleum product is usually expressed
in terms of API gravity.

Oil normally floats and begins to spread, when introduced or spilled in the water. Some exceptions happen
when oil sinks.it means that the oil’s density exceeds that of water. Thus, the properties of oil are important.
They influence its behavior in sea surface as well as the rate of natural dissipation process.

In addition to determining whether or not the oil will float, its density can also give a general indication of
other properties of oil for example, oils with low specific gravity (high API) tends to be rich in volatile
components and highly fluid.
The distillation characteristics of oil usually describe its volatility. As the temperature of oil is accelerated,
various components reach their boiling point and are distilled. Oil ignites because of its vapor, therefore,
that is given off by oil that sets fire and not the oil itself.

As mentioned earlier, the viscosity of oil is its resistance to flow. High viscosity oils flow with difficulty. Oils
with low viscosities are highly fluid. Viscosities decrease when temperature is high.

Pour point is the temperature of oil below, wherein oil becomes semi-solids and will not flow. The pour
point of crude oils generally varies from -35deg.C to +40deg.C.

The flash point is the lowest temperature at which sufficient vapor exits above the oil to yield a flammable
mixture. This is a concern in the cleanup operation after a marine pollution incident.

Safety must be highly ensured especially in cleaning the newly spilled oils. They easily ignite until more
volatile components have evaporated and dispersed in the atmosphere. There are some components of
oil that are soluble in water. When compared to evaporation, solubility is only small but it highly affects
toxicity to marine life.
Tar balls could be one of the most visible transformations of oil after its spill. In the Exxon Valdez
tanker accident at Prince Williamsound, Alaska, writer Bryan Hodgson (1990) of national geographic
described the behavior of oil and its transformation into tar balls.

Hodgson states that, “…as soon as the gushed into the cold water of Prince William Sound, it began
to change, affected by physical and chemical weathering processes. The spill spreads and starts to
evaporate. Oil droplets disperse into the water column a generic liquid core sample… some of the
oil’s aromatic component dissolve, and the slick grows more viscous. As waves stir and batter the
hydrocarbon bouillabaisse, it forms a heavy water-in-oil emulsion, or mousse, almost impossible for
clean-up crews to pump. In slit-laden water, oil droplets can also join suspended particulars by
adsorption and sink. Weeks later bacteria attack the surface of the oil and sun-stimulated
oxidation dissolves more components. Eventually, wind and waves shear the mousse into pancakes,
which in turn break into tar balls that may wash ashore.

Experts in oil spill analysis concluded that tar balls can be easily seen after oil spills because oil is a
highly visible contaminant. These tar balls normally do not harm marine organisms especially the
biggest aquatic animals such as seagulls and dolphins. Tar balls create inconvenience to users of any
man-made structure or facilities built in the oil spilled areas. When tar balls penetrate the structures
or facilities, costly cleanup operations have to be facilitated immediately to be able to utilizes the
facilities.
3.3 HAZARDS OF CARRYING OIL
At this point, the hazards to marine environment of carrying oil aboard the ship shall be discussed. The
hazards of carrying oil aboard the ship are always present. They cannot be entirely being eliminated, but
with substantial knowledge about the properties, behavior, and elements of cargo, and exercise of
safety precautions and practice of alertness. The hazards can be avoided and the marine environment
can be safeguarded.

As explained in the beginning of this chapter, the danger pf carrying oil on board the ships include the
possibility of accidental spills. The spills may be big or small in terms of quantity but it can create harm to
human beings and to marine environment. Other accidental hazards also arise from circumstances
involving reaction of oil to temperature changes. Hazards Arising from Accidental Oil Spills

1. While major tanker accidents show the quantity of oil entering marine environment involving big
releases, historical records of oil spills showing both small and big releases of oil would give a better view
of the degree of hazards to marine environment of oil spills. It is important to note that, for almost 30years
(1970 to 1998), records of oil spills showed that small oil spills greatly outnumbered big oil spills. This was
mentioned in a report of the international tanker owners’ pollution federation, which estimated that about
92% of oil spills involved small quantities of oil.
The greater number of oil spills in marine environment was also mentioned in a report of the Ministry of
Transport, Public works, and water management of the Netherlands. It reported that in the Dutch part of the
North Sea the average annual oil spill resulting from accident was only 1,100 cubic meters from 1978 to 1995.

The chance of oil spill covering quantities of more than 50,000 cubic meter as a result of an accident is once
every 200 years. When a freighter or passenger ship is sailing at the Dutch areas of the North Sea, the chance
of an accident during a ship journey is only 1 in 7,000. The odds in a spill of 30,000 cubic meters is only once
every 50 years. This means that most case of oil spills in the North Sea involved small quantities.
Table 3.4 Estimate of Oil Entering Oceans

Types Total Oil Release


Vessel Accidental Releases 257,000mt per annum
Operational and intentional releases originating
from the following operation:
 Deballasting and tank washing (load on top)
– 105,000mt
 Deballasting and tank washing (load on top)
– 529,000mt 1,243,000mt per annum
 Tank washing before maintenance –
360,000mt
 Bilge pumping – 23,000mt
 Bulk/oil carriers – 46,000mt
 Other ships – 180,000mt

Clearly, table 3.3 shows the large difference between the two sources of marine pollution in terms of
quantities of oil that pollutes the marine environment of carrying oil on board the ships can be also
assessed.
3. Other Hazards
Apart from pollution coming from oil spills and intentional discharges caused by routine shipboard operations,
marine environment and shipboard personnel are both exposed to hazards of damage and injuries, respectively,
due to accidents arising from fire, explosion, poisoning, and electrostatic charging associated with the carriage of
oil.

The hazards are described as follows:


a. Fire hazard

It is not the oil itself that burns, but the vapors given off. If oil ignites, the vapor is given off by the liquid that
burns. When vapor rises quickly, the vapor burns if there is sufficient air supply. Fire may cause severe injuries
to shipboard personnel. It may also scatter on water surfaces were vapor are present and damage the marine
organisms and structures.

b. Explosion hazard

Carriage of oil exposes the ship to the possibility of explosion when appropriate safety measures are not
undertaken. Explosion is the fire of a vapor air mixture. The mixture of vapor and air is only explosive within
certain limits, which are called the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) or Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) and the Upper
Explosive Limit (UEL) or Upper Flammable Limit (UFL).
When explosion occurs, personnel on board the ship can be injured seriously. Explosion also destructs and
sometimes destroys the marine species living in the immediate of the vicinity of the watered areas where the
explosion occurred.
c. Poisoning and intoxication hazards

Poisoning and intoxication risks are present when the vessel carries crude oils containing hydrogen sulfide
(HS). Middle East crude oils contain hydrogen sulfide, while many other light products can cause
intoxication when accidentally released. Shipboard personnel are in danger of direct physical contact in
times of accidents. They can be poisoned and intoxicated by inhalation and direct exposure. Living
organisms in the immediate marine environment can be also seriously harmed. Some chemicals or
substances kill fishes and other aquatic animals and organisms.

d. Electrostatic charging

When pumped through pipeline at great speed oil may become charged and these could cause an
explosion in a non-exerted tank. Again, the accident can seriously damage living organism and man-made
structure within the immediate areas of explosion because of the accidental release of oil into the water.
Personnel working in the area are endangered. The explosion could result in fatalities.
3.4 EFFECTS OF OIL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

The effects of heavy and refined oil are the same. They remain in the marine environment for a
considerable period of time and can be seen. Lighter product such as petrol or gasoline do stay in the
marine environment for longer time. They have tendencies to evaporate quickly. However, they could
also create serious harm to marine environment including coastal activities.

The following are the effects of oil spills:

a. Ecological effects

The effects of oil to marine life are caused by either its physical nature or by its chemical
components. Physical nature includes contamination and smothering. Chemical components
include toxic effects and accumulation leading to tainting. There are also recorded effects to marine
life due to clean up operations or indirect physical damage to marine habitats.
1. Physical and chemical changes or effects in habitat

Marine plants and animals are subject to natural population fluctuations due to climactic and hydrographic
changes, which affect the growth and abundance of food they eat. The population of marine plants and animals
are not constant but subject to dynamic changes. This condition makes it very difficult to estimate the entire
effects of an oil spill in the marine plant and animal population.

Likewise, the stage of life of various species have different degrees of tolerance and reactions to marine
population like human beings, the juvenile or egg stages are more susceptible to adverse reactions to marine
pollutions than the adult ones. Thus, any adverse effects on these juvenile or larvae or eggs will have future
effects on the health of the future adult population of marine plants and animals.

In the open waters and seabed, marine plants and animals thrive. Plankton population is easily affected by oil
spills. Planktons are floating plants and animals living in the upper layers of the sea. They form the base of the
marine food web. They include the eggs and young stages of fish, shellfish, and many animals living in the
deeper portion of the seas. Planktons are sensitive to oil pollution. In the open sea, for instance, dilution of
naturally dispersed oil and its soluble components cause high natural mortality and irregular distribution of
plankton population.
On the other hand, bigger animals such as fish, turtles, whales, squids, dolphins, etc. are seldom affected by
oil spills. This is because they can swim and migrate. Marine mammals such as reptiles and turtles or seals are
vulnerable from oil contaminated water because they surface from the water to catch air and breathe.

Plants and animals that live in the seabed (also called benthos) are not much affected by oil pollution because
oil hardly touches the seabed. Except in shallow waters. The incorporation of oil into sediments can be
present for many years and may cause eventual damage to benthic species overtime.

Another important ecological effect of oil spills is when the accident happened closed to the coastal areas.
This result in the physical and chemical changes in the habitat. Aquatic habitats, such as water surface where
birds dive or swim are contaminated during oil spills. Oils from spills can also cause the drowning of water
fowls and other animals.
Figure 3.1 – Aquaculture is oftentimes at risk of being affected by pollution, when oil spill happened within
the coastal areas.

The impact of floating and sunken oil on fishing and aquaculture facilities is by fouling gear. The fouled gear
could contaminate the fish and aquaculture and produce and render them unsuitable as food. Caged fish and
shellfish as well as cultured mollusks stand a high risk of being contaminated by soluble or dispersed oil
fractions following an oil spill. Aquaculture facilities could also be damaged by floating oil, apart from edible
portion of the produce being tainted by dispersed oil and soluble components.

2. Effects on shorelines and wetlands

Shorelines are basically exposed to the pollution effects of floating oils. Shorelines composed of great areas
and hard rocks, sands and muds are highly affected by oil pollutants. Plants and animals within these may be
killed by the toxic components of oils.

Salt marshes occur and sheltered waters in cold regions. They are characterized by dense and low vegetation
on muds. The organic inputs of these muds are the sources of foods of calms, crabs, worms, and other
animals. Birds in turn eat these seafood's. marsh vegetation are sensitive to light crude oil or light refined oil
products. The affects can be lethal and widespread damaged may be expected from contamination, once oil
penetrates into sediments of the muds.
3. Mangrove and corals

Mangrove forests are present in tropical regions instead of salt marshes . The mangrove trees have
breathing roots as they live above the surface of the rich and oxygen-depleted muds. The roots become
the productive habitats for crabs, oyster’s mussels, shrimps, prawns, and other animals. The root systems
can be damaged by fresh oil entering therein and affect the recolonization of mangrove seedlings.

Coral reefs in tropical coastlines are in shallow warm waters. They are inhabited by variety of fishes and
other animals. If the coral is destroyed, the reef itself can be subjected to erosion. Coral reefs are
submerged and once exposed to air can be coated by floating oil. The toxic effects of oil on coral reefs
affect the reproductive processes of corals as well as the fish and animals inhabiting it.

People living in coastal towns and provinces of the Philippines depend on aqua industry. Over the years,
there have been several reported cases of oil spills which affected the economic activities of folks engaged
in the industry. Contaminated fishes were not harvested and fisher folks waited for months to eliminate
the contamination.
Oil spills change aquatic habitats. People living in affected areas noted that fishes, birds and other aquatic
animals dwindled in number. Cultured shellfishes, which are cheapest food of poor folks, are oftentimes the
most affected species. Due to incidents of human poisoning from eating contaminated shellfishes, many
people usually avoid eating this species even when contamination is non longer present and despite
clearance from the government authority.

There are also many reported cases, wherein oil penetrated the course sands of beaches through the tidal
water. Oil even went to the mangroves, salt beds, sheltered tidal flats, and mud. Fishes, which used to inhabit
the mangroves disappeared. This penetration affected the biota (plants and animals in the area) due to
smothering or fouling especially during the early stages of oil spills in the water.

b. Ecotoxicology Effects

1. Toxicity

Toxicity of soluble and lighter aromatic components of oil could create much mortality to marine species. In
the early stages of oil spills, toxicity is high and mortality of both small and large aquatic organisms could be
also correspondingly high. However, toxicity to marine organisms varies depending on the presence of toxic
compounds in oil. Marine scientists use the process of bioassays to estimate the toxicity the various types of
oils. High mortality can occur within 96 hours after an oil spill if the marine species are exposed excessively to
oil pollutant.
Medium fuel oil is moderately persistent. It shows more toxic contents to most marine life than most heavy
fuel (e.g. crude) do. The effects of acute toxicity may be temporary or may remain for many years after the
spills. It is influenced by a number of factors such as follows:

 Size of oil scattered in the areas.

 Location and season when the accident happened.

 Kind of affected marine species.

If the spills occur during the peak of reproduction, the whole year class of organism in the immediate
surrounding may be lost. Short term effects are noted on species with short cycles. Long term effects,
however, are usually impacted in enclosed areas.

2. Bioaccumulation and Tainting Effects

Another dangerous effects of oil spills in the ecology is the bio-accumulation and tainting. Bioaccumulation
is the ability of an organism to concentrate an element to a level higher than that of its environment.
Bioaccumulation factor is a quantitative way to express bioaccumulation. Tainting is the ability of a product
to be taken by organism which affects the taste or smell seafood.
Tainting of seafood is an unwelcome consequence of oil spills. Soluble fraction of water is enriched in the
components that can cause tainting. Fish could be tainted within a few hours of exposure to water with
concentration of certain hydrocarbon level.

Many studies have been reported on bioaccumulation of petroleum-derived materials in marine


organisms. These incidents led to tainting of edible marine organisms. If organisms survived the lethal or
deadly effects of oil, these organisms are contaminated later by the oil substances arising from intake
activities. When organisms take in this oil substances, these go into their tissues, which later on affect
their growth and reproduction capabilities. This may also cause early deaths of the organisms.

With regard to fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, long exposure to oil also contaminates them. Fishes
accumulate oily odors or flavors. However, when conditions return to normal these odors and flavors go
off. Tainting may be encountered for a period from a few days to several months.

Generally, recovery of restoration to normal condition of water and marine life is fast in the water.
Plankton population, the small aquatic organisms and the basis of marine life, which inhabit near the
shore can recover in a few weeks. Larger sizes of marine species such as juvenile fishes are rarely seen in
the areas affected by oil, even after a year od contamination. The reproduction process of adult fishes is
slow, thereby, decreasing their population.
For inter-tidal or benthic organism, those resistance to oils normally undergo dramatic increase in population
but there are fluctuation in the areas that are directly affected by oil pollution. Repopulation is slow well some
showed increments only in the second year. Recovery takes place many years later in the heavily impacted
areas. Damaged to marshy areas or mangroves, on the other hand, persist for many years.

3. Social and Economic Effects

The social and economic utilization of the beaches and seas are deeply affected by oil spill because boating
fishing, bathing, and diving in the sea areas are prohibited. Tourists cannot be accommodated to the coastal
areas where beaches are polluted. Small fishermen whose economic sustenance depends on fishing zones close
to the coasts are prohibited from fishing.

Other industries are affected, such as tourism, marine transportation, port services, and harbor activities.
Commercial vessels are not allowed to call at the ports where pollutants are still present. The port loses income
from berthing and loading/discharging operations. However, these commercial and economic activities are only
temporary. Commercial activities are only temporary. Commercial activities such are tourism and ports usually
resume in much lesser time.
3.5 RESTORATION TO NORMAL CONDITION

Base on experience by countries affected by marine accidents. It is generally accepted that oil spills have
contributed to the degradation of marine environment in the affected areas. However, it is also interesting to
know that most of the affected areas have returned to normal situation after some time, especially those that did
not affect the coastlines. This was confirmed in a report by ITOPF when it states that,”…a number of these
incidents, despite there large size, cause little or no environmental damage as the oil did not impact coastlines…”
(ITOPF 1999).

The same observation was noted in some cases of recorded oil spills. Some of degradation impacts of oil spills
lasted for a few months., while others took many years before the normal activities are restored. For example, it
has been reported that the levels of marine pollution returned to normal degree and the flora and fauna have
been restored in the incidents involving Torrey Canyon in UK, Amoco Cadiz in France, Kark V in Morocco, and
even Exxon Valdez in the US.

The return of life in the marine environment has been noted In an article written by Bryan Hodgson (1990) for
national geographic regarding the aftermath of Exxon Valdez accident. The author wrote this interesting
anecdote:”…on the eight day of the disaster, I walked shorelines that glittered black as far as I could see.
A pitiful handful and cleanup vessel confronted the largest tanker spill in the United States history. What hope
could there possibly be? Five months later, I walked those shores again. Incredibly I found pink salmon spawning
in a stream that had been choked with oil, and I smelled fresh seaweed on a pebble beach where native bacteria
had eaten much of the oil away. Clearly the world had not ended’.

The return to normal degree of the levels of pollution, as well as the restoration of marine environment in places
where large oil spill happened is because the accidents occurred in the spaces open to the oceans. These
location have enhanced great natural degradation capability and accelerated water exchange process.

The pollution accident that happened in the closed sea areas such as the spillage from the ship “HAVEN” in Italy
and some oil discharge during the Gulf War, where pollution was produced, have been responded to accordingly
and the normal water quality and flora and fauna were restored faster than expected. (Pardo, 1997)
SUMMARY

1. Oil is the major marine pollutant described coming from the ships. Transporting oil cargo by sea is always
associated with a number of hazards.

2. Oil is defined as petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and refined products
(except petrochemicals). It includes the white oil but not the whale oil or vegetable oil. IMO through 73/78
listed the names of oil included in its regulations.
3. Crude oils and petroleum products have their own characteristics. When spilled into the seas, oil creates
adverse effects in the marine ecosystem.

4. Oil spills also abort the economic and social activities of the people living close to the affected areas.
However, most of the areas affected by major oil spills returned to normal marine conditions after some
time.
CHAPTER 4
THE HAZADS AND EFFECTS OF NOCIOUS
LIQUID SUBSTAANCES AND HARFUL
SUBSTANCES
OBJECTIVES:
AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
• KNOW THE TYPES OF SHIPS CARRYING NLS AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
• DETERMINE THE HAZARDS AND EFFECTS OF NLS AND TO MARINE ENVIRONMENT
• CLASSIFY THE DANGEROUS GOODS AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES CARRIED BY SHIPS IN PACKAGED FORMS
• EXPLAIN THE HAZARDS OF CARRYING HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN PACKAGED FORM
4.1 INTRODUCTION
APART FROM OIL, THE TRANSPORTATION OF CHEMICALS AND DANGEROUS GOODS BY SEA CONSIDERABLY INCREASED OVER
THE YEARS DUE TO INDUSTRIALIZATION. MANY OF THE CHEMICALS TRANSPORTED BY SEA RE MORE DANGEROUS THAN OIL. SOME IF
THEM ARE POISONOUS AD HIGHLY DANGEROUS TO TINY MARINE SPECIES. THESE CHEMICALS CAN BUILD UP IN THE FOOD CHAIN
UNTIL THEY ARE PRESENT IN LARGE QUANTITIES. FISHES AND FISH PRODUCTS MAY BE CONTAMINATED BY THESE CHEMICALS AND
COULD BE HAZARDOUS TO HUMAN HEALTH.

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE OF CHEMICALS OR NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES CAN OCCUR DURING TANK WASHING AND EVEN
DURING LOADING OR UNLOADING OPERATIONS. APART FROM POLLUTION MARINE ENVIRONMENT, THESE ACCIDENT CAN ALSO
HARM THE PERSONS WHO COME IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE CHEMICALS. ACCIDENTAL RELEASES CAN BE DUE TO HUMAN ERROR,
SIMPLE NEGLIGENCE AND ABSENCE OF SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. OFTENTIMES, PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE HAS NOT BEEN EXERCISED
DUE TO SIMPLE IGNORANCE ABOUT THE HAZARDS AND EFFECTS OF THE SUBSTANCES TO HUMAN HEALTH AND MARINE SPECIES.
IN ORDER TO EXERCISE PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES IN DEALING WITH CHEMICALS AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES CARRIED
ABROAD, IT IS IMPORTANT FOR SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL TO HAVE BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE HAZARDS OF THE PRODUCTS AS
WELL AS THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
THIS CHAPTER FOCUSES ON THE HAZARDS AND EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTING AND HANDLING NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IN
BULK, AS WELL AS HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN PACKAGED FORMS.
4.2 THE CHEMICAL CARRIERS AND RELEVANCE OF IBC CODE
NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES OR NLS FOR BREVITY ARE ALSO CALLED CHEMICALS. THEY ARE CARRIED IN BULK CHEMICALS TANKERS.
WHEN IT IS SPILLED INTO WATERS OR WHEN IT COMES INTO DIRECT CONTACT WITH HUMAN BEINGS, THESE SUBSTANCES CAN CAUSE
HAZARDS BOTH TO HUMAN LIFE AND AQUATIC ANIMALS.
SINCE MOST OF THE CHEMICALS ARE HAZARDOUS TO HUMAN HEALTH AND MARINE SPECIES, SHIPS CARRYING THESE
PRODUCTS ARE ESPECIALLY BUILT FOR THE PRODUCTS THEY CARRY. THE SHIPS THAT CARRY CHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY MUCH
SMALLER IN SIZE THAN THE OIL TANKERS. THEY ARE HOWEVER, EXTREMELY COMPLEX IN DESIGNS AND SIZE AND, THEREFORE,
EXPENSIVE TO BUILD. THE COMPLEXITY OF DESIGNS IS ESSENTIAL BECUASE CHEMICAL CARRIERS HAVE TO BE EQUIPPED WITH
MAXIMUM PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ND STRUCTURES TO THE CARGOES THAT THEY ARE DESIGNED TO CARRY.
IN ORDER TO PREVENT ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OD CHEMICALS AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES INTO THE SEAS, MARPOL 73/78
REQUIRES MANDATORY APPLICATION OF RULES RELATIVE TO THE CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT OF SHIPS TO BE USED FOR THE
CARRIAGE OF CHEMICALS FOR EXISTING SHIPS, WHICH REFER TO TANKERS BUILT ON OR BEFORE JULY 1, 1986. MARPOL REQUIRES
THE ADOPTION OF THE CODE FOR CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT OF SHIPS CARRYING CHEMICALS IN BULK (BCH CODE).
THE IMO DEVELOPED THE BCH CODE. IT PROVIDES AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR THE SAFE CARRIAGE AT SEA OF
DANGEROUS CHEMICAL CODE(IBC). IT IS A STANDARD PREPARED BY THE IMO CONCERNING THE CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
OF SHIPS CARRYING DANGEROUS CHEMICAALS IN BULK. THAT IBC CODE HAS A LIST OF LIQUID CARGOES COVERED UNDER THE
TERMS OF AGREEMENT.
THE REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE IBC REQUIREMENTS ARE APPLICABLE ONLY TO NEW SHIPS, WHICH REFER TO SHIPS
CONSTRUCTED AFTER JULY 1, 1986. THE RULES REQUIRE THAT BULK CHEMICALS SHOULD BE CARRIED IN TANKERS, WHICH COMPLY
WITH THE REQUIREMENT OF THE CODE.
THE PRINCIPLE BEHIND THE CONTENTS OF THE IBC CODE IS THIS: THE TYPES OF SHIP SHOULD BE BUILT OR CONSTRUCTED IN
ACCORDANCE TO THE HAZARDS OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES. WHICH THE SHIPS INTEND TO CARRY IN BULK. THE IBC CODE IS AN
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENT TO THE BCH CODE AND COVERS THE SAME REQUIREMENTS.

THE THREE TYPES OF SHIPS DEFINED UNDER THE IBC CODE ARE THE FOLLOWING:
1. TYPE I SHIPS
THEY ARE DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT PRODUCTS, WHICH REQUIRE MAXIMUM PREVENTATIVE MEASURES TO AVOID ESCAPE OF
CARGOES. THE CARGOES REFERS TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES HAVING FAR-REACHING EFFECTS BEYOND THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY
OF THE SHIP. IN THIS REGARD THE SHIPS SHOULD HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO SUSTAIN COLLISIONS OR STRANDING DAMAGE
ANYWHERE ALONG THEIR LENGTH. THE PERMISSIBLE SIZE OF TANK IS GIVEN. EXAMPLES OF CARGOES CARRIED IN THIS SHIP ARE
PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROSULPHONIC ACID.
2. TYPE II SHIPS
THEY ARE DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT PRODUCTS, WHICH REQUIRE SIGNIFICANT PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO AVOID THE ESCAPE
OF SUCH CARGOES. THE CARGOES CARRIED BY THESES SHIPS HAVE SIGNIFICANT HAZARDS BUT NOT HAVE FAR-REACHING EFFECTS.
LOCATION OF THE TANKS IN THE SHIPS CONTAINING CARGOES, DESIGNED FOR THE CARRIAGE OF THESE SHIPS ARE ALSO GIVEN
UNDER THE CODE. THE CODE GIVES ALSO THE LIMITATION OF THE TANK SIZE. EXAMPLES OF CARGOES CARRIED BY THESE SHIPS ARE
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE AND PHENOL.
3. TYPE III SHIPS
THEY ARE DESIGNED TO CARRY PRODUCTS OF SUFFICIENT HAZARD TO REQUIRE A MODERATE DEGREE OF CONTAINMENT TO
INCREASE SURVIVAL CAPABILITY IN A DAMAGED CONDITION. NO SPECIAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING TANK SIZE AND LOCATIONS ARE
PRESCRIBED FOR THESE SHIPS EXAMPLES OF CARGOES CARRIED BY TYPE III SHIPS ARE BENZENE, CHLOROFORM, AND SULPHURIC
ACID.
4.3 HAZARD OF NLS CARRIED BY CHEMICALS CARRIES
CHAPTER I OF THE IBC CODE PROVIDES THE HAZARDS OF SHIPS CARRYING NLS PRODUCTS. THESE ARE THE FOLLOWING:

1. FIRE HAZARD DUE TO FLASHPOINT, BOILING POINT, FLAMMABILITY LIMITS, AND AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE OF THE
CHEMICAL.
2. HEALTH HAZARD DUE TO IRRITANT OR TOXIC EFFECTS ON SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANES OF VITAL HUMAN ORGANS SUCH AS
EYES, NOISE, THROAT, AND LUNGS IN THE GAS OR VAPOR; OR DUE TO IRRATIONAL EFFECTS ON THE SKIN IN THE LIQUID STATE;
OR TOXIC EFFECTS DUE TO ORAL INTAKE, SKIN ADMINISTRATION, AND INHALATION OF CERTAIN AMOUNT OF NLS SUBSTANCES.
3. AIR POLLUTION HAZARD DUE TO EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMIT, VAPOUR PRESSURE, SOLUBILITY IN WATER, RELATIVE DENSITY OF
LIQUID AND VAPOUR DENSITY
4. REACTIVITY HAZARD DUE TO REACTIVITY WITH OTHER PRODUCTS; OR REACTIVITY WITH WATER OR THE NLS PRODUCT ITSELF.
5. MARINE POLLUTION HAZARD DUE TO BIOACCUMULATION WITH ATTENDANT RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE OF HUMAN HEALTH OR
CAUSING TAINTING TO SEAFOOD; DAMAGE TO LIVING RESOURCES; HAZARD HUMAN HEALTH; AND REDUCTION OF AMNITIES.
MARPOL 73/78 REQUIRES THAT IBC CODE APPLIES ONLY TO CHEMICAL TANKERS, AS DEFINED BY TECHNICAL ANNEX II, WHICH
ARE ENGAGED IN THE CARRIAGE OF NLS FALLING TO CERTAIN SPECIFIED CATEGORIES. THE LISTS OF THE PRODUCTS IN THE IBC CODE
UNDER REGULATIONS BY MAPOKL 73/78 ARE EMBODIED IN CHAPTERS 17 AND 18 OF THE IBC CODE:
THE IBC CODE ITSELF IS COMPOSED OF TWENTY (20) CHAPTERS WITH ITS OWN REGULATIONS. IT HAS ALSO ONE APPENDIX AND
AN INDEC OF DANGEROUS CHEMICALS CARRIED IN BULK. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE IBC CODE:

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


CHAPTER 2 SHIPS SURVIVAL CAPABILITY AND LOCATION OF CARGO TANKS
CHAPTER 3 SHIPS ARRANGEMENT
CHAPTER 4 CARGO CONTAINMENT
CHAPTER 5 CARGO TRANSFER
CHAPTER 6 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
CHAPTER 7 CARGO TEMPERATURE CONTROL
CHAPTER 8 CARGO TANK VENTILATION AND GAS-FREEING ARRANGEMENT
CHAPTER 9 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
CHAPTER 10 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
CHAPTER 11 FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE EXTINCTION
CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN THE CARGO AREA
CHAPTER 13 INSTRUMENTATION
CHAPTER 14 PERSONNEL PROTECTION
CHAPTER 15 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER 16 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT
CHAPTER 16-A ADDITIONAL MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER 17 SUMMARY OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER 18 LIST OF CHEMICALS TO WHICH THE CODE DOES NOT APPLY
CHAPTER 19 REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPS ENGAGED IN THE INCINERATION AT SEA OF LIQUID CHEMICAL WASTE
CHAPTER 20 TRANSPORT OF LIQUID CHEMICAL WASTE
APPENDIX MODEL FORM OF INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS FOR THE CARRIAGE DANGEROUS CHEMICALS IN BULK
INDEX DANGEROUS CHEMICALS CARRIED IN BULK
AS CAN BE SEEN IN THE TYPES OF HAZARDS OF PRODUCTS CARRIED BY THE SHIPS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE IBC CODE, THE
REGULATIONS WERE EXTENDED TO COVER MARINE POLLUTION ASPECTS TO IMPLEMENT THE TECHNICAL ANNEX II OF THE MARPOL
73/78. THE PRODUCT NAMES IN CHAPTER 17 AND 18 OF THE IBC CODE, AS WELL AS THOSE IN CHAPTERS VI AND VII IF THE BCH
CODE AND APPENDICES II (LIST OF NLS CARRIED IN BULK) AND II (LIST OF OTHER LIQUID SUBSTANCES) OF THE TECHNICAL ANNEX II
OF MARPOL 73/78 HAVE BEEN HARMONIZED (COORDINATED OR SYNCHRONIZED) FOR EASY IDENTIFICATION.
4.4 GAS CARRIES
THE INTERNATIONAL GAS CARRIED CODE (ICG) IS ANOTHER INTERNATIONAL STANDARD DEVELOPED BY THE IMO, GOVERNING
THE CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT OF SHIPS CARRYING LIQUEFIED GASES IN BULK. A GAS CARRIER IS DEFINED IN THIS CODE AS A
CARGO VESSEL THAT HAS BEEN CONSTRUCTED OR ADOPTED AND USED FOR THE CARRIAGE OF BULK OF ANY LIQUEFIED GAS OR
OTHER PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE ICG CODE.
THE LIST OF PRODUCTS MENTIONED IN THE CODE ARE PRODUCTS THAT ARE CONSIDERED AS LIQUEFIED GASES AND OTHER
SUBSTANCES COVERED UNDER THE TERMS OF THE CONVENTION. SOME EXAMPLES OF LIQUEFIED GASES THAT ARE COMMONLY
TRANSPORTED BY SEA ARE: LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). AMMONIA, PROPANE, LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG), BUTANE, ETC.
THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF GAS CARRIED GIVEN IN THE ICG CODE. THEY ARE AS FOLLOW:
1. TYPE 1G SHIP
It is designed to carry the most dangerous cargoes requiring the maximum preventive measures. Some examples of these
substances are sulphur dioxide and chlorine
2. TYPE 2G SHIP
IT IS DESIGNED TO CARRY PRODUCTS, WHICH REQUIRE SIGNIFICANT PREVENTIVE MEASURES
3. TYPE 2PG SHIP
IT IS A CARRIED COMMONLY MEASURING 150 METERS IN LENGTH OR LESS. IT REQUIRES SIGNIFICANT PREVENTIVE MEASURES.
TWO EXAMPLES OF CARGOES CARRIED IN THIS SHIP ARE LNG AND AMMOMIA
4. TYPE 3G SHIP
IT IS DESIGNED TO CARRY PRODUCTS REQUIRING MODERATE PREVENTIVE MEASURES. EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTS CARRIED BY
THIS TYPE OF SHIP ARE NON-FLAMMABLE GASES.

THIS TYPES OF CARRIER ENUMERATED ABOVE ARE CLASSIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE IMO RULES AND BASED ON THE
SHIPS CAPABILITY TO SURVIVE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF DAMAGE FOR THE PURPOSE OF PREVENTING AND LIMITING THE RELEASE OF
HAZARDOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IN BULK.
CHARTERERS OR SHIP OWNERS SHOULD, THEREFORE. MAKE PROPER CHOICE OF THE SHUP FOR THE HAZARDOUS CARGOES THEY
WANT TO BE TRANSPORTED BY SEA.
4.5 DETERMINING THE HAZARD & EFFECTS OF NLS BEFORE THE REVISION OF TECHNICAL ANNEX II
THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF CHEMICALS SHIPPED BY SEA, EITHER IN BULK OR IN CONTAINERIZED OR NON-CONTAINERIZED
FORM. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM WERE MADE TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCEDURES WHEN EMERGENCY OCCURS.
WHEN A POLLUTION THREAT IS PRESENT, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT A DESIGNATED SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL HAS READY ACCESS TO
DATA ABOUT THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE POLLUTANT SUBSTANCE. THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO HUMAN LIVES
AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT SHOULD ALSO BE KNOWN.
THE HAZARDS OF NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES TO MARINE ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING THE EFFECTS THEREON WERE
EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF A CLASSIFICATION AND RATING SYSTEM. TECHNICAL ANNEX II OF MARPOL 73/78 PRESENTS THE
CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES. IT USES THE STANDARDS DEVELOPED BY JOINT GROUP OF EXPERTS ON THE SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF
MARINE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION (GESAMP) IN CATEGORIZING THE HAZARD OF THE SUBSTANCES.
BEFORE THE REVISION OF TECHNICAL ANNEX II MARPOL 73/78 IN 2006, THE PERTINENT PROVISIONS OF TECHNICAL ANNEX USED THE
CATEGORIZATION OF MARINE POLLUTANTS FROM NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES HAT POSE HAZARDS TO HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, AQUATIC
ENVIRONMENT AND USE OF AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF SEA, BASED ON THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:
• POLLUTION CATEGORY A. THE SUBSTANCES UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES WHICH IF DISCHARGED INTO THE
SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS OF SHIPS COULD PRESENT A MAJOR HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE RESOURCES
AND HUMAN HEALTH INCLUDING SERIOUS HARM TO AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA.
• POLLUTION CATEGORY B. THE SUBSTANCES UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES WHICH, IF DISCHARGED INTO THE
SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS OF SHIPS COULD PRESENT A HAZARD TO MARINE RESOURCES AND HUMAN
HEALTH INCLUDING HARM TO AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA.
• POLLUTION CATEGORY C. THE SUBSTANCES UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES WHICH, IF DISCHARGED INTO THE
SEA GROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS OF SHIPS, COULD PRESENT A MINOR HAZARD TO MARINE RESOURCE AND
HUMAN HEALTH AND ALSO CAUSE MINOR HARM TO AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA.
• POLLUTION CATEGORY D. THE SUBSTANCES UNDER THIS CATEGORY ARE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES WHICH, IF DISCHARGED INTO THE
SEA GROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS OF SHIPS, COULD PRESENT A RECOGNIZABLE HAZARD TO MARINE RESOURCE
AND HUMAN HEALTH AND ALSO CAUSE MINIMAL HARM TO AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA.
THE SUBSTANCES WERE EVALUATED AND ASSESSED BASED ON THE HAZARDS THEY POSE TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS. AS LAID DOWN
EARLIER, THE MARINE POLLUTION HAZARDS FROM SHIPS CARRYING NLS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
1. BIOACCUMULATION WITH ATTENDANT RISK TO AQUATIC LIFE OR HUMAN HEALTH OR CAUSING TAINTING TO SEAFOOD.
BIOACCUMULATION IS THE ABILITY OF THE SUBSTANCE TO AMASS OR BUILD UP TO A LEVEL GREATER THAT THAT OF ENVIRONMENT;
2. DAMAGE TO LIVING RESOURCES OR THE DEGREE OF TOXICITY THAT COULD HARM LIVING RESOURCES, AQUATIC LIFE.
3. HAZARD TO HUMAN HEALTH.
4. REDUCTION OF AMENITIES OR THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY COULD DAMAGE DESTROY THE AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF
THE SEAS.

4.6 REVISION OF TECHNICAL ANNEX II & THE AMENDMENT TO THE IBC CODE
THE REVISION OF TECHNICAL ANNEX II TO MARPOL 73/78 AND THE AMENDMENT TO THE IBC CODE WERE EXPLAINED BY THE IMO
CIRCULAR LETTER NO. 2730 ISSUED ON JULY 3, 2006. ACCORDING TO THE SAID CIRCULAR, ALL PARTIES TO MARPOL 73/78 HAVE BEEN
ENGAGED IN THE DISCUSSIONS LEADING TO THE REVISION OF TECHNICAL ANNEX II SINCE 2994 UNTIL THE DEEMED ACCEPTANCE OF THE
REVISIONS ON JULY 1, 2006.
THE REVISION WAS NECESSARY TO MAKE MARPOL ANNEX II SIMPLER TO USE. IT ALSO TOOK INTO ACCOUNT NEW SCIENTIFIC
KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS PRODUCTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
THE GESAMP REVISED ITS HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR CHEMICAL PRODUCTS CARRIED BY SHIPS TO ALIGN THEM WITH THE
UNITED NATIONS GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING OF CHEMICALS (GHS). IN THE REVALUATION, IT WAS
FOUND THAT A LARGE NUMBER OF PRODUCTS IN THE IBC CODE WERE NOT INCLUDED IN ITS LIST. THESE DATA WERE RELATED TO SAFETY AND
POLLUTION CONCERNS. THUS., DATA FROM INDUSTRY SOURCES WERE GATHERED RELATIVE TO A NUMBER OF LIQUID PRODUCTS CARRIED BY
SHIPS. THE IBC CODE WAS AMENDED TO INCLUDE THESE MISSING DATA.
SOME PRODUCT DISCUSSED AND RE-EVALUATED WERE THE VEGETABLE OILS, ANIMAL FATS, AND FISH OILS. THE MODIFIED REGULATION
UNDER TECHNICAL ANNEX II OF MARPOL. PARTICULARLY REGULATION 4.1.3. WAS FORMULATED, WHICH PERTAINS TO DISCHARGE INTO THE
SEA OF CLEAN BALLAST OR SEGREGATED BALLAST BY SHIPS CARRYING OTHER LIQUID SUBSTANCES.
THE IBC CODE WAS AMENDED TO ALLOW THE UNMODIFIED OILS AND FATS TO BE CARRIED ON TYPE 3 CHEMICAL TANKERS, UNDER
CONDITION THAT THESE CHEMICAL TANKERS MEET ALL REQUIREMENT FOR SHIP TYPE 3 AND PROVIDED WITH DOUBLE BOTTOM AND DOUBLE
SIDES, IN ORDER TO CONFORM TO THE SPECIFICATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF REGULATION 4.1.3. OF THE REVISED TECHNICAL ANNEX II OF
MARPOL 73/78.
THERE WERE ABOUT 250 SUBSTANCES EVALUATED AND INCLUDED IN THE LIST APPENDED TO THE CONVENTION. THE DISCHARGE OF THEIR
RESIDUES CAN BE MADE ONLY THROUGH THE USE OF RECEPTION FACILITIES. CERTAIN CRITERIA OR CONDITIONS AS REGARDS THE
QUANTITY AND QUALITY SHOULD BE MET AND THESE CONDITIONS VARY DEPENDING ON SUBSTANCES CATEGORY.
THE REVISION PAVED THE WAY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW POLLUTION CATEGORIZATION SYSTEM. THE CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING
PRODUCTS TO THESE NEW POLLUTION CATEGORIES WERE REVISED INCLUDING THE STRIPPING REQUIREMENTS AND DISCHARGE CRITERIA,
CONSEQUENTLY, NECESSARY AMENDMENTS WERE ALSO MADE TO THE IBC CODE, PARTICULARLY ON THE CRITERIA FOR SHIP TYPING
BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE. MORE THAN THE MAJORITY ON NLS ARE NOW SUBJECT TO REGULATIONS.
IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT PRIOR TO THE ENTRY ONTO FORCE OF THE TECHNICAL ANNEX II REVISION ON JANUARY 1, 2007, VESSEL
CERTIFIED TO CARRY NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES AS SPECIFIED IN CHAPTER 17 OF THE IBC CODE, WILL HAVE TO BE ISSUED WITH NEW
CERTIFICATES OF FITNESS AND P AND A MANUALS, REFLECTING THE CHANGES IN CATEGORIZATION OF PRODUCTS.
THE REVISED TECHNICAL ANNEX II ENTERED INTO FORCE ON JANUARY 1, 2007. AS CONSEQUENCE MORE THAN THE MAJORITY OF THE NLS
ARE NOW SUBJECT TO REGULATIONS. THE REVISED REGULATIONS ON STRIPPING LIMITS WILL REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF RESIDUES THAT
VESSELS ARE ALLOWED TO DISCHARGE INTO THE SEAS.
4.7 NEW POLLUTION CATEGORIZATION OF NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES
CHAPTER 2, REGULATION 6 OF THE REVISED TECHNICAL ANNEX II, GIVES THE FOLLOWING NEW CATEGORIZATION AND LISTING OF THE NLS
AND OTHER SUBSTANCES:
CATEGORY X - NLS WHICH OF DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS ARE DEEMED TO
PRESENT A MAJOR HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE RESOURCES OR HUMAN HEALTH. THE DISCHARGE OF THESE SUBSTANCES INTO THE
MARINE ENVIRONMENT IS PROHIBITED.
CATEGORY Y – NLS WHICH OF DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS ARE DEEMED TO
PRESENT A HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE RESOURCES OR HUMAN HEALTH OR CAUSE HARM TO AMENITIES OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF
THE SEA. THE DISCHARGE OF THESE SUBSTANCES INTO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT IS SUBJECT TO LIMITATION IN TERMS OF DISCHARGE
QUALITY AND QUANTITY.
CATEGORY Z - NLS WHICH OF DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS ARE DEEMED TO
CATEGORY Z - NLS WHICH OF DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS ARE DEEMED TO
PRESENT A MINOR HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE RESOURCES OR HUMAN HEALTH. THE DISCHARGE OF THESE SUBSTANCES INTO THE
MARINE ENVIRONMENT IS SUBJECT TO LESS STRINGENT RESTRICTIONS IN TERMS OF DISCHARGE QUANTITY AND QUALITY.
OTHER SUBSTANCES – OTHER SUBJECTS IN THE MARINE POLLUTION CATEGORY COLUMN OF CHAPTER 18 OF THE IBC CODE WHICH HAVE
BEEN EVALUATED AND FOUND TO BE NOT WITHIN CATEGORIES X, Y, Z. AT PRESENT, THESE SUBSTANCES ARE NOT CONSIDERED HARMFUL
TO THE MARINE RESOURCES, HUMAN HEALTH, AMENITIES, OR OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA WHEN DISCHARGED INTO MARINE
ENVIRONMENT FROM TANK CLEANING OF DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS.
THE CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES WERE CLASSIFIED IN ACCORDANCE TO THE HARM IT COULD DO TO THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. SHIPS
CARRYING NLS SHOULD HAVE COPY OF THE LIST OF SUBSTANCES THAT ARE CONSIDERED AS MARINE POLLUTIONS. LIKEWISE, SHIPS
SHOULD HAVE COPY OF THE LIST OF EVALUATED HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES.
IF A SUBSTANCES IS NOT FOUND IN THE LIST OF SUBSTANCES, THIS IS SUBJECT TO TEMPORARY EVALUATION UNTIL SUCH TIME THAT FINAL
EVALUATION IS MADE BY THE IMO AND THE SUBJECT SUBSTANCES IS INCLUDED IN THE APPROPRIATE ANNEX. SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS
BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION
CAN BE MADE WHEN AN NLS IN BULK WHICH HAS NOT BEEN RE-EVALUATED AND CATEGORIZED IS TO BE CARRIED BY SHIPS.
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SHIPPING COUNTRY SHOULD INITIATE THE AGREEMENT AND INFORM THE IMO ON SUCH MATTERS AS
SOON AS POSSIBLE BUT NOT BEYOND 30 DAYS AFTER THE AGREEMENT HAS BEEN REACHED. ON THE PART OF THE IMO, IT SHALL
MAINTAIN A REGISTER TO THE SUBSTANCES INCLUDING THE PROVISIONAL ASSESSMENT, UNTIL SUCH TIME THAT THE
SUBSTANCES ARE INCLUDED IN THE FORMAL INDEX OF NLS UNDER THE IBC CODE.
4.8 GUIDELINES FOT THE USE OF CATEGORIZATION OF NLS
APPENDIX 1 OF THE REVISED TECHNICAL ANNEX II CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING GUIDELINES SHOWN IN TABLE 4.1
TABLE 4.1 – NEW MARINE POLLUTION CATEGORIES BASED ON GESAMP HAZARD PROFILE.
AS CAN BE SEEN FROM TABLE 4.1 THE NEW POLLUTION CATEGORIES ARE LABELLED AS CATEGORIES X, Y, Z, AND OS. THE
PRODUCTS CARRIED BY SHIPS ARE ASSIGNED TO NEW POLLUTION CATEGORIES
THE FOLLOWING IS THE TEXTUAL INTERPRETATION OF THE GUIDELINES.
COLUMNS A1, A2, B1, AND B2, THESE FOUR COLUMNS GENERALLY CONTAIN HAZARDS TO AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT. THE PROFILE
SHOWS THAT COLUMN A1 BEARS BIO- ACCUMULATION HAZARD AND A2 HAS BIO-DEGRADATION HAZARD TO THE AQUATIC
ENVIRONMENT. THE B1 COLUMN IS FOR CUTE TOXICITY HAZARD AND B2 IS FOR CHRONIC TOXICITY.
COLUMN D3 REFERS TO HAZARDS ON HUMAN HEALTH. THESE LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS MAY BE DUE TO THE NLS PROPERTIES
SUCH AS FOLLOWS.
C – CARCINOGEN
M – MUTAGENIC
R – REPROTOXIC
T – TAGET ORGAN SYSTEM TOXICITY
N – NEUROTOXIC
I – IMMUNOTOXIC
COLUMN E2 REFERS TO HAZARDS PROFILE REPRESENTING EFFECTS ON MARINE WILDLIFE AND OR BENTHIC HABITATS. THIS
COMES FROM THE FOLLOWING:
FP – PERSISTENT FLOATER
F – FLOATER
S – SINKING SUBSTANCE
4.9 HAZARDS AND EFFECTS OF NLS BASED ON CONSTRUCTED POLLUTION CATEGORY
THE HAZARDS AND EFFECTS OF NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES UNDER EACH POLLUTION CATEGORY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
SUBSTANCES UNDER POLLUTION CATEGORY X
FOR POLLUTION CATEGORY X, THE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES THAT POSE MAJOR HAZARD ARE THE FOLLOWING:
A1 (BIO-ACCUMULATIVE)
A2 (BIO-DEGRADABLE)
B1 (AQUATIC TOXICITY)
D3 (HUMAN HEALTH HAZARD)
A1, A2 AND B1 POSE MAJOR HAZARD TO THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT. WHILE D3 POSE MAJOR HAZARDS T HUMAN HEALTH
THROUGH ITS LONG TERM HEALTH TO HUMAN BEINGS DUE SUBSTANCES PROPERTIES SUCH AS CARCINOGENS, MUTAGENIC
SUBSTANCES, REPROTOXIC, TARGET ORGAN SYSTEM TOXICITY, NEUROTOXIC, AND IMMUNOTOXIC.
DUE TO THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE SUBSTANCES ARE PROHIBITED TO DISCHARGE THESE SUBSTANCES INTO THE
SEAWATER AFTER TANK CLEANING OR DEBALLASTIG OPERATIONS.
SUBSTANCES UNDER POLLUTION CATEGORY Y
FOR POLLUTION CATEGORY Y, THE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES THAT POSE HAZARD ARE AS FOLLOWS:
A1(BIO ACCUMULATION)
A2(BIO DEGRADATION)
B1(ACUTE TOXICITY)
D3(LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO CMRTNI)
E2(EFFECTS ON MARINE WILDLIFE ON BENTHIC HABITATS DUE TO FP, F, OR S)
A1, A2, B1, AND B2 ARE HAZARDOUS TO AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT BECAUSE OF THEIR BIOACCUMULATION, BIODEGRADATION,
AND ACUTE TOXICITY EFFECTS. D3 IS HAZARDOUS TO HUMAN HEALTH BECAUSE OF ITS EFFECTS ON THE LONG TERM HEALTH OF
HUMANS DUE TO SUBSTANCES PROPERTIES SUCH AS CARCINOGENS, MUTAGENIC, REPROTOXIC, TARGET ORGAN SYSTEM
TOXICITY, NEUROTOXIC, E2 IS HAZARD TO MARINE WILDLIFE AND BENTHIC HABITATS DUE TO SUBSTANCES PROPERTIES SUCH AS
PERSISTENT FLOATER, FLOATER AND SINKING SUBSTANCES.
SUBSTANCES UNDER POLLUTION CATEGORY Z
FOR THE POLLUTION CATEGORY Z, THE NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES INVOLVED ARE ALL PRODUCTS THAT DID NOT MEET THE
RULES 1 TO 11 AND 13.
IF THESE SUBSTANCES ARE DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS THEY WOULD PRESENT
MINOR HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE RESOURCES OR HUMAN HEALTH. THEY WOULD ALSO CAUSE MINOR HARM TO AMENITIES OR
OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA. FOR THIS REASON, DISCHARGE O NLS IS ALLOWED SUBJECT TO LESS STRINGENT
RESTRICTION IN TERMS OF DISCHARGE QUANTITY AND QUALITY.
OTHER SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CATEGORY
FOR THIS POLLUTION CATEGORY, THE PRODUCTS INVOLVED ARE ALL THOSE WHICH ARE IDENTIFIED AS FOLLOWS:
1.6 LESS THAN OR EQUAL 2 IN COLUMN 1 OF THE MATRIX
1.7 R IN COLUMN A2
1.8 BLANK IN COLUMN D3
1.9 NOT FP, F OR S IN COLUMN E2 AND ZERO IN ALL OTHER COLUMNS OF GESAMP PROFILE RATING.
NLS UNDER POLLUTION CATEGORY OS ARE PRESENTLY CONSIDERED AS HARMLESS TO MARINE ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH,
AMENITIES, AND OTHER LEGITIMATE USES OF THE SEA. IF THESE SUBSTANCES ARE DISCHARGED INTO THE SEA FROM TANK
CLEANING OR DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS, THEY WOULD NOT PRESENT A RECOGNIZABLE HAZARD TO EITHER MARINE
RESOURCES OR HUMAN HEALTH. THUS, THESE IS NO PROHIBITION FOR THE DISCHARGE OF THESE SUBSTANCES INTO THE
SEAWATER COMING FROM TANK CLEANING OF DEBALLASTING OPERATIONS.
LIST OF ITEMS IN THE CARGO RECORD BOOK OF SHIPS CARRYING NLS IN BULK
APPENDIX 2 OF THE REVISED TECHNICAL ANNEX II OF MARPOL 73/78 PROVIDES THE FORM OF CARGO RECORD BOOK FOR SHIPS
CARRYING NLS IN BULK. THE INFORMATION TO BE RECORDED IN THE FORM INCLUDES, AMONG OTHERS, THE FOLLOWING:
NAME OF SHIP
DISTINCTIVE NUMBER OF LETTERS
IMO NUMBER
GROSS TONNAGE
PERIOD (FROM/TO)
THE LIST OF ITEMS TO BE RECORDED IN CARGO RECORD BOOK SHALL INCLUDE ALL ENTRIES REQUIRED FOR THE FOLLOWING
OPERATIONS INVOLVING ALL CATEGORIES OF SUBSTANCES:
LOADING OF CARGO
INTERNAL TRANSFER OF CARGO
UNLOADING OF CARGO
MANDATORY PREWASH IN ACCORDANCE WITH SHIPS PROCEDURES AND ARRANGEMENT
CLEANING OF CARGO TANKS EXCEPT MANDATORY PREWASH
DISCHARGE INTO THE SEA OF TANK WASHINGS
BALLASTING OF CARGO TANKS
DISCHARGE OF BALLAST WATER FROM CARGO TANKS
ACCIDENTAL OR OTHER EXCEPTIONAL DISCHARGE
CONTROL BY AUTHORIZED SURVEYORS
ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES AND REMARKS
THE CARGO/BALLAST OPERATIONS SHALL INCLUDE RECORDS OF DATE, CODE ITEM NUMBER, AND RECORD OF OPERATIONS WITH
SIGNATURE OF OFFICER IN CHARGE/ NAME OF AND SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED SURVEYORS. THE SIGNATURE OF THE
SHIPMASTER SHOULD APPEAR AT THE BOTTOM OF THE RECORD OF CARGO/BALLAST OPERATIONS
SHIPMASTER SHOULD APPEAR AT THE BOTTOM OF THE RECORD OF CARGO/BALLAST OPERATIONS
SHIPS CARRYING NLS IN BULK SHOULD ALSO CARRY INTERNATIONAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CERTIFICATE FOR THE CARRIAGE
OF NLS IN BULK ISSUED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE TO WHICH THE SHIP IS REGISTERED WITH.
THE HAZARDS AND EFFECT OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN PACKAGED FORM
THE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES INCLUDED IN TECHNICAL ANNEX III OF MARPOL 73/78 ARE THOSE HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN
PACKAGED FORMS OR IN FREIGHT CONTAINERS, PORTABLE TANKS OR ROAD OR RAIL TANK WAGONS. THESE SUBSTANCES HAVE
BEEN IDENTIFIED IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME DANGEROUS GOODS CODE, AS MARINE POLLUTANTS.
THE IMDG CODE IS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD GOVERNING THE TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES CARRIED IN PACKAGED FORM.
THE COMPLETE IMDG CODE IS MADE UP OF A COMPILATION OF MORE THAN 10,000 PAGES CONTAINED IN FIVE LOOSE- LEAF
VOLUMES.
SINCE ITS ADOPTION IN 1965 BY THE IMO ASSEMBLY THE IMDG CODE HAS UNDERGONE SEVERAL CHANGES IN CONTENTS AS
WELL AS IN APPEARANCE TO KEEP ABREAST WITH THE CHANGING NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRIES. IMDG CODE IS ALSO USED BY
MANUFACTURERS, SHIPPERS, CHEMICAL COMPANIES, FORWARDERS, CARRIERS, AND OTHER WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THE
PRODUCTION. TRANSPORTING MANUFACTURING, AND HANDLING OF CHEMICALS AND DANGEROUS GOODS.
AS DESCRIBED ABOVE, DANGEROUS GOODS CAN BE TRANSPORTED THROUGH DIFFERENT TYPES OF PACKAGING. MANY OF THE
SUBSTANCES LISTED IN THE IMDG CODE COLLISION OR GROUNDING, PACKAGED SUBSTANCES CAN BE SWEPT AWAY BY WAVES
AND THE DAMAGE TANKS OR CONTAINERS CAN CAUSE THE RELEASE OF THESE HARMFUL SUBSTANCES INTO THE WATERS.
IN VIEW OF THE DANGERS INVOLVED IN TRANSPORTING AND HANDLING THESE SUBSTANCES, THE IMDG CODE PROVIDES
DETAILED GUIDELINES IN SAFE PACKING AND STORAGE OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES AS WELL AS SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR
OTHER CARGOES LOADED ON BOARD THE SHIP. IT INCLUDES REGULATIONS CONCERNING PACKING, MARKING, LABELLING,
CLASSIFICATION, TERMINOLOGY, PLACARDING, DOCUMENTATION, AND POLLUTION REFERENCING.
IMDG CODE SUPPLEMENTS THE REGULATIONS CONTAINED IN THE 1960 SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA CONVENTION. THE MAIN
OBJECTIVE IN FORMULATING THE IMDG CODE WAS TO PROMOTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.
DANGEROUS GOODS ARE DIVIDED INTO NUMBER OF CLASSES. THE CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
CLASS 1 – EXPLOSIVES
CLASS 2 – GASES
CLASS 3 – FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
CLASS 4.1 – FLAMMABLE SOLID
CLASS 4.2 – SUBSTANCES LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTIONS
CLASS 4.3 – SUBSTANCES WHICH IN CONTACT WITH WATER EMIT FLAMMABLE GASES
CLASS 5.1 – OXIDISING SUBSTANCES
CLASS 5.2 – ORGANIC PEROXIDES
CLASS 6.1 – TOXIC SUBSTANCES
CLASS 6.2 – INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
CLASS 7 – RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSCLASS 8 – CORROSIVES
CLASS 9 – MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES (ANY OTHER SUBSTANCES WHICH EXPERIENCE HAS SHOWN OR MAY SHOW
TO BE OF SUCH DANGEROUS CHARACTER THAT THE PROVISIONS OF THE SUBJECT REGULATION MAY BE APPLICABLE)
EACH CLASS OF HARD CAN BE DISTINGUISHED THROUGH AN APPROPRIATE DIAMOND- SHAPED PICTURE LABEL. THE LABELS RE
USED AS SIGNS OR WARNINGS OF POTENTIAL DANGERS WHEN HANDLING AND TRANSPORTING THE DANGEROUS GOODS.
APPENDIX 4 OF THIS TEXTBOOK SHOWS THE DIFFERENT LABELS USED IN IDENTIFYING THE HAZARDOUS CONTENTS OF
DANGEROUS GOODS.
EACH LABEL HAS ITS OWN CHARACTERISTICS AND BACKGROUND COLORS. THEY ARE AS FOLLOWS:
A. EXPLOSIVES - ORANGE
B. FLAMMABLE - RED
C. WATER REACTIVE - BLUE
D. OXIDIZER - YELLOW
E. TOXIC/INFECTIOUS - WHITE
F. CORROSIVE - BLACK AND WHITE
G. RADIOACTIVE - WHITE, OR HALF YELLOW AND HALF WHITE
4.12 SUBDIVISIONS OF CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND THEIR HAZARDS
THE MAJOR CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS OR CARGOES IN PACKAGED FORMS CONTAINING HARMFUL SUBSTANCES ARE
SUBDIVIDED INTO ANOTHER SET OF CLASSES. EACH CLASS HAS ITS OWN DESCRIPTION OF HAZARD. THE HAZARDS ARE DESCRIBED
AS FOLLOWS:
CLASS 1: EXPLOSIVES
BEFORE IT IS CONSIDERED FOR TRANSPORT, THE CONTENTS OF EXPLOSIVES ARE EXAMINED AS REGARDS ITS PURITY, STABILITY,
SENSITIVITY, AND OTHER PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. COMPLIANCE TO THE LIMITATIONS FOR SAFE TRANSPORT OF SAID SUBSTANCE IS
CHECKED.
• Appendix 4 of this textbook shows the different labels used in identifying the hazardous contents of dangerous goods.
• Each label has its own characteristics and background colors. They are as follows:
• a. Explosives - orange
• b.Flammable - red
• c. Water reactive - blue
• d.Oxidizer - yellow
• e.toxic/infectious - white
• f. corrosive - black and white
• g. radioactive - white, or half yellow and half white
• 4.12 SUBDIVISIONS OF CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS AND THEIR HAZARDS
• The major classes of dangerous goods or cargoes in packaged forms containing harmful substances are subdivided into another
set of classes. Each class has its own description of hazard. The hazards are described as follows:
• Class 1: Explosives
• Before it is considered for transport, the contents of explosives are examined as regards its purity, stability, sensitivity, and
other physical properties. Compliance to the limitations for safe transport of said substance is checked.
• Class 1 is actually subdivided into 6 subdivisions. The subdivisions and their hazards are as follows:
• Division 1.1 – these are substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazards.
• Division 1.2 - these are substances and articles which have projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
• Division 1.3 - these are substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast or a minor projection hazard
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
• Division 1.4 - these are substances and articles, which present no significant hazard. This division also consists of articles and
substances, which present only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during transport, however, the effects are
mostly within the packaged.
• Division 1.5 – these are very insensitive substances, which have a mass explosive hazard. Due to its insensitivity, there is very
little probability of initiation or transition from burning to detonation during normal transport condition.

• Division 1.6 – these are extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosive hazard.

• Class 2: Gases
• It is subdivided into the following:
• Permanent gases – gases which cannot be liquefied at ambient temperature.
• Liquefied gases – gases which can become liquid under pressure at ambient temperature.
• Dissolved gases – gases dissolved under pressure in a solvent which may be absorbed in a porous substance.
• Deeply refrigerated permanent gases such as oxygen, liquid air, etc.
• Class 2 is further subdivided into flammable gases, non-flammable, non poisonous gases, and poisonous gases
• Class 3: Flammable Liquids
• Class 3 is subdivided into the following:
• 3.1 low flashpoint group (less than -18C)
• 3.2 intermediate flashpoint group (more than equal to – 18 less than 23C)
• 3.3 high flashpoint group (more than equal to 23C less than equal 61C)
• It is noted that the term flashpoint is used, which refers to the temperature at which the liquid will give off a vapor that can be
ignited by a flame or spark.
• Class 4: Flammable Solids
• These are substances liable to spontaneous combustions. These substances can emit flammable gases when came in contact
with water.
• Class 4 is subdivided into the following:
• Division 4.1 – these substances are flammable solids. These solids, other than explosive under transport conditions, are readily
combustible or which cause or contribute to fire through friction
• Division 4.2 – these substances are liable to spontaneous combustion. Substances which are liable to spontaneous heating
under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air and are then liable to catch fire.
• Division 4.3 – these substances are reactive to water. When they come in contact with water, these substances emit flammable
• Class 5: Oxidising Substances/Organic Peroxides:
• This Class is divided in the following:
• Division 5.1 – oxidizing materials or substances which are not necessarily combustible but which may cause or contribute to
the combustion of other materials, when giving off oxygen.
• Division 5.2 - Organic peroxides or substances which are thermally unstable and may undergo exothermic self accelerating
decomposition or burn rapidly due to large proportion of oxygen that forms action.
• Class 6: toxic and infectious substances
• This class is subdivided into the following:
• Division 6.1 - Toxic substances or harmful substances which are liable to cause death or injury to harm human health if
swallowed, inhaled or by skin contact.
• Division 6.2 – infectious substances or substances containing micro organisms that are known or believed to cause disease in
humans or animals.
• Class 7: Radioactive Materials
• It has no subdivision.
• It consists of materials with specific activity greater than 74 kBq/kg. Activity is the number of atomic transformations occurring
per second and as each radioactive atom decays the activity decays.
• Radiation exposure, including dosage and equivalent has permissible limits classification of radioactive materials mentioned in
this class are as follows: fissile materials, special form radioactive materials, low-level radioactive materials, low-specific
activity materials
• Class 8: Corrosives
• Like class 7, it has no subdivision. Class 8 consists of substances which can cause severe damage by chemical action in case it
leaks and makes contact with living tissue. It can damage other freight materials
• Class: Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
• It has no subdivision.
• Class 9 is composed of substances which properties do not match those of any other previously enumerated 8 classes.
However, these substances still pose a risk to safety unless properly prepared for carriage.
• SUMMARY
• NLS or chemicals and harmful substances also pose risk of polluting marine or aquatic life in marine environment due to
acceleration of industrialization.
• SUMMARY
• NLS or chemicals and harmful substances also pose risk of polluting marine or aquatic life in marine environment due to
acceleration of industrialization.

• NLS or chemicals and harmful substances also pose risk of polluting marine or aquatic life in marine
environment due to acceleration of industrialization.
• Both substances can also create risk to human health especially when accidentally spilled in water.
• GESAMP developed asset of hazard profile and rating system wherein the NLS and harmful substances are
classified as marine pollutants.
• The evaluated substances under NLS, have been listed to make it easier for environmentalists to identify the
marine pollutants in case of accidents.
• MARPOL 73/78 uses lists of Dangerous Goods transported by sea which are indicated in the IMDG code.
• The dangerous goods has its own classes and subdivisions of classes. Each class has its own type of hazard.
Proper marking or labelling of the dangerous goods to be transported by sea should be followed.
• The classification of dangerous goods is also used by seafarers in controlling the discharge and flow of the
substance while doing shipboard operations at sea
•CHAPTER 5
• PREVENTING MARINE POLLUTION FROM
SHIP OPERATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION

In unit 1, chapter 2 of this textbook, the meaning of marine pollution from ships has been distinguished from other types of
pollution.
marine pollution from ships has been explained to be different from general concept of marine pollution because the
general definition
of marine pollution includes land-based sources of pollution.

5.2 SHIP OPERATIONS GENERATING POLLUTION

the common causes of pollution from routine shipboard operations are as follows:
a. ship taking in or transferring bunkers or disposing of or transferring fuel, fuel residues and oily bilge water.
b. tanker operations such as cargo loading/discharging tank cleaning, ballasting operations.
c. discharge of hold bilges or ballast water on vessels other than tankers.
d. washing of decks covered with cargo remnants or hydraulic oil which has leaked from decks machinery.
e. discharge of sewage.
f. disposal of galley and other garbage.
5.3 bunkering

the operation of taking on board fuel is called bunkering. in most cases, bunkering is a major cause of operational oil spills
for all types of vessels.
ship's officer-in-charge of monitoring this task has to be alert and experienced in this field. the areas of safety concern are as
follows:
a. the positions of overflow and air pipes.
b. overflow tank and sounding pipes.
c. depth indicators of all fuel tanks.
d. overflow alarm system.
prevention of oil escape into the waters during operations can be taken through the following safety measures.
a. fitting of scupper plugs and checking that drain plugs of bunker, manifold and fuel tank air pipe containment "save-alls" are
in place.
b. establishing communication with supply control position and agreeing on maximum pumping rate and pressure.
c. checking the conditions of hoses and coupling before and during bunkering.
d. checking blanks available and hose string of suffient length to allow for normal movement of vessel.
e. checking all valves in required positions and tank vent pipes free from obstructions before bunkering commences.
f. taking accurate sounding of all tanks before and on completion of bunkering order to verify the amount of fuel delivered.
g. barge/shore tank sounding and/or meter readings should also be checked before and after bunkering to help resolve any
problem concerning quantity.
h. taking frequent sounding during bunkering and rate of delivery slowed down during topping of.
i. ample warning should be given to supplier of need to reduce delivery rate and the final shutting off.
j. vessel should be upright and evenkeel throughtout bunkering oprations.
5.4 TRANSFERRING OF FUEL
Transferring fuel is done either within the vessel or from ship-to-ship transfer operations. ship-to-ship transfer or lightening
may occur either in a port area or
at sea transfer is done from one tank to another tank within the same vessel accidental opening of the value may happen.
if transfer is from one ship to another ship, risk is also considerable. safety measures should be undertaken to prevent the
release of oil into the water.
the measures are as follows:
a. fenders are properly placed when a vessel is to be positioned alongside the damaged vessel for the transfer of oil.
b. before transfer begins, a lightening plan must be detailed so that vessel shall stay even keel.
c. clear languages or communication instructions and signals must be adopted by both ships.
d. all pieces of equipment must be in good condition, this includes the hoses, coupling, etc.
e. experienced personnel who have the skills in the delicate operations must be deployed.
f. emergency procedures must be adopted by both vessels.
5.5 BILGE WATER DISCHARGE OPERATIONS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
dealing with bilge water is one of the hardest type of operations. oil can escape from the oil pumps, heaters, etc, while
discharging. special fitting equipment
is built to prevent the overflow.
bilge water discharge should be done to shore reception facilitiesl. however, in order to discharge water from bilges at sea, a
series of conditions are provided
by technical annex l of marpol 73/78. for the purpose of monitoring discharge of oily ballast water or tank washings from
cargo tanks, installations of an oil
discharge monitoring and control system is required together with fitting of oil/water interface detector.
for the purpose of monitoring discharge of oily bilge water and oily ballast water from fuel tanks, installation of oil filtering
equipment is required.
different equipment should be attached to oil-filtering equipment depending on the gross registered tonnage of the ship.
regulations 14 of the revised technical annex l requires that any ship of 400 gross tonnage and above but less than 10,000
gross tonnage shall be fitted with oil
filtering equipment, which design is approved by the administration. it should be noted before the revision of technical
annex l of marpol 73/78, the oil filtering
equipment requirements was within regulation 16 of technical annex l.
the equipment requirements for oil-water separating equipement and oil filtering equipment are as follows:
a. oil-water separating equipment - it may include any combination of a separator filter, or coalescer and also single unit
designed to produce an effluent with oil
content of less than 100 ppm.
b. oil filtering equipment - it includes any combination of a separator, filter or coalescer and also a single unit designed to
produce an effluent with oil content
not exceeding 15 ppm. it is intended to use equipment attached to oily-water separating equipment certified for an effluent
of less than 100ppm.

5.6 TANKER OPERATIONS


Tanker carry a varicity of petroleum products. the risk of carrying these products does not only involve pollution of seas but
also put at risk the lives of people
on board. some of the hazards have been mentioned in chapter 3 of this book. the hazards include fire without explosions,
explosion, or five of a vapor-air mixture
, poisoning and intoxication hazards and electrostatic charging.
tankers are considered as the single largest conbtributor of marine pollution. the introduction of supertankers created public
concerns in both developing and advanced countries: oil pollution from tankers originate from two principal sources. these
are the follows:
1. various types of tanker accidents.
2. normal tanker operations ( tank cleaning, ballasting and other operations activities involving discharge of oil overboard).
5.7 STANDARD SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR TANKER OPERATIONS.

the standard safety procedures in the following tanker opperations are normally follow to avoid accidents that may entail
marine pollution:
A. pre-loading operations
*Before loading a communication and signalling system should be agreed upon between the ship and shore personnel. for a
standard ship, a shore safety checklist is
used and the items on it are checked.
B. during loading operations
*loading should start slowly to check if connections are oil tight and also to avoid static accumulation. check should be made
if oil flows overboard via the seachests
in the pump room and the cargo is indeed flowing into the tanks.
C. post loading operations
*after completion of loading the ship's manifold valves are only to be closed after the shore valves have been closed. the
tank valve is to be closed last after
completion of loading, the hoses or loading arms should be emplied into a drip tray prior to disconnecting.
D. discharging operations
*Of every cargo tank, the ullage density and temperature of the cargo is to be taken and the tanks are water dipped. the ship
terminal representative or an
independent cargo inspector on behalf of the receiver does this thereafter the quantity of cargo is calculated.
5.8 TANK CLEANING AND INSTALLATION OF FITTINGS FOR TANKERS
for cleaning purposes, tankers are equipped with tank washing machines. these may be portable or mounted in the cargo
tanks. the machine that has a cleaning range
is connected to a bounded hose. the conductivity must be checked every time before it is used and lowered to a butter hole
into a tank.

Marpol 73/78, however has varioys regulations governing the installations of filtering for tankers for cleaning purposes.
some of the regulations concerning
installations pertain to the following:
A. Slop Tanks
usually the ship should have a dirty and a clean slop tanks that are connected by siphon-line. the slop from tanks being
washed are stripped to the dirty slop tank
where the major part of water oil are separated. the rest of the mixture these goes to the clean slop tank where the final
separation takes place. the water in
the slop tank could then be used again.
load on top was introduced in the second half of the 1960 decade. it contributed significantly to the reduction of oil
pollution from tankers. the load on top
regulation was made mandatory under marpol 73/78

the following procedures is followed when loading on top:

*the tanker arrives at the port of destination fully laden and ready to discharge its cargo.
*after discharging the cargo, quantities of oil remain clinging to the sides of the tanks.
*the ship has to fill some of its tanks as ballast water on return voyage.
*these tanks have to be washed and the slops are pumped into a tank.
*ballast water is pumped into some of the cleaned tanks.the dirty ballast tanks are cleaned and the slops are pumped into
the slop tank.
*while on return voyage, the oil and water in the slop tank separates. the oil floats to the top and water under oil is carefully
pumped into the sea.
*at the loading port, oil is loaded into the cargo tanks on top of the oil remaining in the slop tank.
B. Crude oil Washing (COW) and the inert Gas System
marpol 73/78 requires crude oil washing for tankers of 20,000 deadweight and over to be equipped with cow system. the
COW was developed by the oil industry in the
1970s. this system allows the cleaning of tank from sludge with crude oil itself.
COW was used as an alternative to the Segrated Ballast Tank or SBT for existing tankers at that time, as required by the
marpol 73/78. if the ship has a COW
it means also be equipped with an inert gas installations,. before washing begins the tank must be monitored for the
quantity of gases and oxygen. during operation,
the pressure on inert gas system must be higher than the suction the suction pressure of pump with which the tank is
discharged of drained.

C. Sewage Treatment Plant

Sewage is one of the marine pollutants coming from ships. wastes and fuel residues consist mainly of contaminated water.
modern ships are fitted with holding tank
which allows overboard discharge in allowable sea areas. specific standard discharge connections are required to enable
pipes of reception of facilities to be
connected with ships in case discharge of sewage is performed at shore reception facilities.
1. A sewage treatment plan
2. a sewage comminuting and disinfecting system approved by the administration.
3. a holding tank.
The sewage treatment plant or comminute or the holding tank should be in accordance with standards set by the IMO.

D. Garbage Disposal System

Garbage is another source of marine pollution from ships. the technical annex V is marpol 73/78 provided regulations
concerning the disposal of garbage. ships are
required to be fitted with comminuted or grounded are also required. the regulations would be discussed in the next
chapter under preventing marine pollution from
ships.
in order to make feasible the full implementation of garbage disposal requirement of marpol 73/78 the IMO issued MEPC
resolution No. 59(33) on October 30, 1992.
it gives the guidelines for specific details of shipboard incinerators such as design, performace, operation, testing, etc to be
installed and used aboard the ship.
•CHAPTER 6
• CONTROLLING MARINE POLLUTION BY OIL
• 6.1 Introduction
• In the previous chapters, we discussed that oil pollution from ships are divided into two main categories. One
category refers to pollution, which enters the sea due to accidental spills. The other category refers to pollution,
which enter enters into the sea during normal operations of ship.
• Technical Annex I and V of MARPOL 73/78 give the standards covering the areas where in prevention and control
are applied to protect marine environment from different pollutants coming from ships. The most extensive
regulations are on prevention of oil pollution, which are within Technical Annex I, because oil and petroleum
products are the most common liquid substances carried by commercial vessels.
• The principle on prevention of oil is based on assumption that vessel has to undertake shipboard operations
before reaching a port. Likewise, when the vessel is at port, the high risk of pollution accidents can occur. The
first assumption is anchored on certain practices. For example, an oil tanker has discharged her cargo but on
return load, pumped ballast water into the cargo tanks because a certain minimum draught is necessary to
ensure safety of navigation.
• After discharge of cargo, some oils remain on the walls and bottoms of the tanks. The remains represent an
average half of a percent (0.5%) of the total contents of from tank, which the cargo was discharged. Therefore, if
a tanker with a cargo tank capacity of 200,000 metric tons of oil discharged this much, then up to 1,000 tons of
that oil cling on the tank of ship.
• During the voyage, dirty ballast water contaminated with oil has to be replaced by clean water because clean
ballast water are the only ones allowed to be pumped
• out in the port of destination, as required by existing MARPOL 73/78 regulations. The contaminated ballast
water, which is pumped out during the voyage before reaching the port’s jurisdictional areas, can cause
extensive oil pollution.
• There are strict conditions for the discharge of oil-water in order to prevent pollution. As regards the operations
while at port, historical records show that many instances of oil releases occur during loading and discharging
operations of oil and other liquid substances and even harmful substances in packaged form.
• The other types of pollutants such as sewage and garbage are regulated through equipment requirement and
treatment operating procedures. This chapter deals with the most important aspects of prevention and
reduction of marine pollution.
6.2 MEASURES TO AVOID MARINE POLLUTIONS BY OIL (REGULATIONS UNDER TECHNICAL ANNEX I OF MARPOL
73/78 AS REVISED IN 2004)
• In Chapter 3 of this textbook, the dangers or hazards and affects of marine pollution by oil was explained. Oil is
the major marine pollutant, among the list of substances. Oil kills bird and marine mammals, pollutes beach, and
destroys plankton population close to the shore when large quantities are accidentally released during
operations.
• Accidents concerning oil usually happen during loading, ballasting, and discharging operations. As said earlier in
this chapter, the regulations concerning prevention and control of marine pollution by oil are embodied in
Technical Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.
• In 2004 Technical Annex I was revised together with Technical Annex II. From the original total of 26 regulations,
the revised Technical Annex is currently composed of 39 regulations. The October 2004 amendments and
revisions to Technical
• Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 entered into force on January 1, 2007. The 39 regulations are now embodied in seven
(7) chapters, with three (3) appendices. The distributions of the regulations to each chapter are as follows:
• Chapter 1 - General Requirements
• Regulation 1 – Definition of Terms
• Regulation 2 – Applications
• Regulation 3 – Exemptions and Waivers
• Regulation 4 – Exceptions to Regulation 15 and 34

• Chapter 2 – Survey and Certifications


• Regulation 6 – Surveys
• Regulation 7 – Issue or Endorsement Certification
• Regulation 8 – Issue and Endorsement Certificate by Another Government
• Regulation 9 – Form of Certificate
• Regulation 10 – Duration and Validity of Certificate
• Regulation 11 – Port State Control on Operational Requirements
• Chapter 3 – Requirements for Marking Spaces of All Ships [composed of three (3) main parts with its own
regulations]
• Part A – contains Regulations 12 (Tanks for Oil Residues or Sludge Regulations) and 13 (Standard Discharge
Connections).
• Part B – contains Regulation 14 which is on Oil Filtering Equipment Requirements.
• Part C – contains control regulations of operational discharge of oils such as :
• Regulation 16 – Control of Discharge of Oil
• Regulation 16 – Segregation of Oil and Water Ballast and Carriage of Oil Forepeak Tanks
• Oil Record Book (Part 1) Marking Space Operations

• Chapter 4 – Requirements for Cargo Areas of Oil Tankers [composed of three (3) main parts with its own
regulations]
• Part A – Constructions Regulations such as follows:
• Regulation 18 – Segregated Ballast Tanks
• Regulation 19 – Double Hull and Double Bottom Requirements for Oil Tankers Delivered On Or after July 6, 1996
• Regulation 20 - Double Hull and Double Bottom Requirements for Oil Tankers Delivered Before July 6, 1996
• Regulation 21 – Percentage of Oil Pollution for Oil Tanker Carrying Heavy Grade Oil or Cargo
• Regulation 22 – Pump Room Protection
• Regulation 23 – Accidental Oil Outflow Performance
• Regulation 24 – Damage Assumption
• Regulation 25 – Hypothetical Outflow of Oil
• Regulation 26 – Limitation of Size and Arrangement of Cargo of Cargo Tanks
• Regulation27 – Intact Stability
• Regulation 28 – Subdivision and Damage Stability
• Regulation 29 – Slop Tanks
• Regulation 30 – Pumping, Piping and Discharge Arrangement
• Part B – Equipment Regulations
• Regulation 31 – Oil Discharged Monitoring and Control System
• Regulation 32 – Oil/Water Interface Detectives
• Regulation 33 – Crude Oil Washing Requirements
• Part C – Control of Operational Discharge of Oil
• Regulation 34 – Control of Discharge of Oil
• Regulation 35 – Crude Oil Washing Operations
• Regulation 36 – Oil Record Book (Part II) Cargo/Ballast Operations
• Chapter 5 – is on the Prevention of Pollution Arising from an Oil Pollution Accidents through Regulations 37
(Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan)
• Chapter 6 – contains Regulation 38 on the Provision of Reception Facilities
• Chapter 7 – contains Regulation 39, which pertains to Special Requirements for Fixed or Floating Platform
• The three appendices of the revised Technical Annex I is composed of the
following:
• Appendix I List of Oils
• Appendix II Form of IOPP Certificates and Supplements
• Appendix III Form of Oil Record Book
• 6.3 DEFINITION OF OIL AND SPECIALS AREAS
• The first two regulations of Technical Annex I refer to the definition of oil and the definitions of special areas.
With regard to definition of oil, MARPOL 73/78 describes it as “petroleum in any form, which includes crude oil,
fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and refined products.“ There are substances that look like oil but classified by MARPOL
73/78 as belonging to noxious liquid substances.
• Crude oil is categorized as within the definition of oil. As defined in the revised Technical Annex I crude oil is “any
liquid hydrocarbon mixture, which occurs naturally in the earth whether it is treated or not.” An oily mixture is
another component of oil, which means a “mixture with any oil content.” The listing of oil and oil substances is
shown in the appendix of this book, as taken from the Appendix I of the revised Technical Annex I MARPOL
73/78.
• With regard to the definition of special areas, these areas are the selected sea areas where special and
mandatory (compulsory) methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil are required because of their
oceanographic, ecological, shipping traffic, and geographical characteristics.
• The designated special areas in the revised Technical Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 are as follows:
• Mediterranean Sea Area
• Baltic Sea Area
• Black Sea Area
• Red Sea Area
• Gulf Area (Persian Gulf)
• Gulf of Aden Area
• Antarctic Areas
• North Sea and its Approaches
• Irish Sea and its Approaches
• Celtic Sea and its Approaches
• English Channel and its Approaches
• Part of Northeast Atlantic immediately to the West of Ireland
• Oman Area of the Arabian Sea
It is important to note that the North West European waters were included in the special areas through the 1997
amendments, which took effect on February 1, 1999 only. The waters include the North Sea and its approaches, the
Irish Sea and its approaches, the Celtic Sea, the English Channel and its approaches, and part of the North East
Atlantic immediately to the West of Ireland.
The Oman Area of the Arabian Sea has been the latest addition to the special areas. The area is bounded by lines
and coordinates, specifically enumerated in the revised Technical Annex I. Seafarers should have copies of the
coordinates listing of MARPOL to be able to comply with very stringent regulations on the prevention of marine
pollution by oil, especially when they are abroad a ship traversing the designated special areas.
• Aside from the declared special areas, the IMO Assembly adopted a set of procedures for the designation of
particularly sensitive areas or PSSA through Resolution A.702 (17). Based on the guidelines set by said
resolution, certain areas can be designated as PSSAs, if they fulfill a number of criteria, which include the
following:
• Ecological criteria such as unique or rare ecosystem or vulnerability to degradation by natural events or human
activities.
• Social cultural and economic criteria such as significance of the area for recreation or tourism.
• Scientific and educational criteria such as biological research or historical value.

Two popularly known designated PSSAs are the Great Barriers Reef in Australia and the Sabana in Camiguey
Archipelago in Cuba.
• 6.4 REQUIREMENTS ON SURVEYS, INSPECTION, ISSUANCE, FORMS, AND DURATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION
CERTIFICATES
• Regulation no. 6 of the revised Technical Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 refers to surveys and certification
requirements to prevent marine pollution by oil. Basically the regulations apply to all vessels. However, there are
special regulations for oil tankers that are also applicable to certain type of cargo vessels that carry 200 or more
cubic meters of oil. Hydrofoils, air-cushion vehicles, and other new types of vessels are allowed to provide an
equivalent means of protection.
• Regulation 6 is within Chapter 2 of the Revised Technical Annex I which took effect on January 1, 2007. This
regulation provides that survey and certifications requirements for the ships to comply with MARPOL 73/78.
• It also applies to oil tankers of 150 gross tonnage (GT) and above as well as for non-tanker ships of 400 GT and
above. These ships should be put into an initial survey before their use. The areas or parts of the ships to be
subjected to surveys are as follows:
• Structures of the ships
• Equipment
• Systems
• Fittings
• Arrangements and materials
• The purpose of the survey is to ensure that all of the above enumerated parts of the ships or fittings are fully
placed in accordance to what have been prescribed by MARPOL 73/78. After the first or initial survey a
certificate is issued for the first time to the ship or tanker.
• Within five (5) years after the initial survey has been conducted renewal survey should be done again for the
ship and its parts (structures, fittings, system etc.). The renewal certificate is valid within five (5) years from the
date of the completion of the renewal survey. It should not exceed the 5-year period.
• However there are certain situations in which the existing certificate of compliance to MARPOL 73/78 can be
extended or can be valid beyond the prescribed 5-year term. This situation occurs when the ship is not yet in a
port or while still in voyage and its existing certificates expires. In this case, the validity of the certificate can be
extended up to a maximum of three (3) months or up to the time when the ship has completed its voyage and it
is already in the port where it can be subjected to renewal survey.
• For the ship in short voyage, its existing certificate, which expired during the voyage can be extended up to a
maximum period of one (1) month only, after the expiration. Beyond this period the ship has to renew its
certificate upon return to the port. The renewal certificate will be valid within five (5) years after date of
completion of the renewal survey.
• During the period of validity an intermediate inspection is done in the ship to check compliance with regulations
concerning oil discharging monitoring systems, oil separator, crude oil washing and pumping systems. The
certificate has a supplement whichever is applicable to the vessel. This either Form A which contains the
information construction and equipment for ships other tankers or Form B which contains construction and
equipment information for tankers.
• It should be noted that the certificate should be supplemented by a record of construction and equipment of
the ship being certified. The deadweight of ship must conform to the type or category of the ship (i.e. oil tanker
or other types of the ships). The IMO number must conform to the IMO Ship Identification Number Scheme
adopted by the IMO.
• In Regulation 11 of the Revised Technical Annex I a ship calling in a port or in an offshore terminal of another
country which is a Party to the MARPOL 73/78 convention is subject to inspection by duly authorized officers of
that country. More detailed inspection process is undertaken, when the inspecting officers have clear ground to
believe that the master or crew of the ship are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures pertaining to
the prevention of pollution by oil. As such the documents attesting to the knowledge and training of the crew
and the master aboard the ship should always be updated and available for inspections. The content of
International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate is shown in figure 6.1.

• 6.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINERY SPACES OF ALL SHIPS


• Regulations 12, 13 and 14 of revised Technical Annex I refer to the construction requirements for the ships, the
standard discharge connections and the oil filtering equipment.
• According to Regulation 12 every ship of 400 GT and above need to have a tank or tanks to receive the oil
residues (also called sludge). The tank or tanks should have adequate capacity that is in accordance to the type
of machinery and length of ship voyage.
• Regulation 13 prescribes that “to enable the pipes of reception facilities from the port to be well connected with
ship’ discharge pipeline for residues from machinery bilges and from sludge tanks, both lines shall be fitted with
a standard discharge connection”. The measurement standards for dimensions of flanges for discharge
connections have also been prescribed by the Annex.
• With regard to oil filtering equipment that has been prescribed under Regulation 14 of Technical Annex I any
ship of 400 GT and above but less than 10,000 GT should have this equipment. Hotel ships, storage vessels and
similar ones which are less than 10,000 GT and which are stationed in a port are exempted from installation of
oil filtering equipment. However these ships should have a holding tank which capacity must be adequate to
retain oily bilge water on board for subsequent discharge to reception facilities. If these ships are 10,000 GT and
above then they should be fitted with an appropriate oil filtering equipment.
• 6.6 PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF THE OPERATIONAL DISCHARGE OF OIL FROM MACHINERY SPACES OF ALL
SHIPS
• The regulations governing the control of discharge of oil to prevent oil pollution from machinery spaces of all
ships are embodied in regulations 15, 16, and 17 of the revised Technical Annex 1. There are three main
components of the operational regulations. These are the discharge conditions outside special areas, discharge
in special areas, and requirements for ships of less than 400 GT in all areas, expect Antarctic Area.
• Regulation 15 specially covers the discharge of oil. Regulation 16 covers segregation of oil and water ballast as
well as carriage of oil in forepeak tanks. The oil record book (part 1) regulations are embodied in Regulation 17.
The control regulations regarding the discharge of oil outside the special areas are presented in Table 6.1 below.

• TABLE 6.1 – Prevention and Control of Discharge of Oil from Machinery Spaces of All Ships When the Ship is
Outside a Special Area.

• Ships Types and Size Rules on Discharge Outside Special Area


• Oil Tankers Generally oil tankers of all sizes and non-tankers of 400 GT and of all sizes and
above are not allowed in discharge oil and oily mixtures from
• Ships in any sea area except when all of the following conditions
• are met:
• Other ships (non-tankers)
• Of 400 GRT and above
• The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment which design is approved by Administration.
• The oil content of the effluent (without dilution) is 15 parts per million(ppm) or less.
• For oil tankers, the bilge water does not originate from the pump room bilges.
• For oil tankers, the oily mixture is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
• Outside special areas means any area of the sea, which is not designated as a special area under Regulation 2 of
the revised Technical Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78.
• Oil tankers of any size and other ships (non-tanker ships) which sizes are 400 GT and above are not allowed to
discharge oil and effluents into the sea areas. Effluents are liquid wastes containing harmful substances. There is
absolutely no discharge operation in any sea in the world.
• However, discharge of effluents and oils may be allowed, when all of the conditions stated in Table 6.1 are
complied with accordingly. One of the five conditions “should be when the ship is proceeding en route”. It
means that the ship is underway at sea on a course or courses, for navigation purpose. While en route, the ship
may be allowed to discharge oil or effluent but such discharge must be done in a manner in which the effluent
or oil spread over as great as an area of the sea reasonably and practicably.
• The above-described procedure eliminates possible concentration of the permitted discharge unlike when the
discharge is coming from a stationary ship of from a ship steaming in circles.
• Apart from proceeding en route, the vessel shall only discharge oil or oily mixtures if oil contents of the effluent
without dilution is 15 parts per million (ppm) or less. It means 15 or less than 15 parts of oil or oily mixtures per
one million part of water.
• The operation equipment used onboard the ship must conform to be design approved by the administration
(government agency of a country vested by the state with an authority to implement Marpol 74/78). As such,
the ship which does not carry ballast water in fuel tanks must be fitted with 100 ppm oily-water separating
equipment.
• If these ships carry ballast water in fuel tanks, they should be fitted with 100 ppm oily-water separating
equipment together with an oil discharge monitoring and control system. Alternative equipment for the ship
carrying ballast water in oil fuel tank is installation of 15ppm filtering equipment with automatic stopping
device.
• For tanker ships, the bilge water coming from pump rooms is strictly prohibited for discharge. This is because the
pump room is the most dangerous place of the ship. Pumps and valves and pipe connections may leak and oil
may gather in the pump room bilges. Likewise, for tanker ships, the oily mixture for discharge under allowable
situations should not be mixed with oil cargo residues.
• TABLE 6.2 – Prevention and Control of Discharge of Oil from Machinery Spaces of All Ships, When the Ship is
Within a Special Area
• Ship Type and Size Rules on Discharge Within a Special Area
• Oil tankers of all Generally, all ships of 400 GT and above are not allowed to
• sizes and other discharge in any area within a declared special area, except
• ships of 400 GRT when all of the following conditions are met:
• and above

• The Ship is proceeding en route


• The oily mixture is processed through an oil filtering equipment which design is approved by the administration.
• The oily content of the effluent (without dilution) is 15 parts per million (ppm) or less.
• For oil tankers, the bilge water does not originate from the pump room bilges.
• For oil tankers, the oily mixture is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
• Note: In Antarctic area, any discharge into sea of oil or oily mixtures from any ship is strictly prohibited.
• The special area referred to in Table 6.2 are the Antarctic Area, Mediterranean Sea Area, Baltic Sea Area, Black
Sea Area, Red Sea Area, Gulf Sea Area(Persian Gulf) Area, Gulf of Aden Area, North Sea and its approaches, Irish
Sea and its approaches, Celtic Sea and its approaches, English Channel and its approaches and Part of Northeast
Atlantic immediately to the west of Ireland, and the Oman Area of the Arabian Sea.
• Generally, there should be no discharge of oil mixtures from any ships with size of 400 GT and above, when the
ships are passing within the enumerated designated special areas. However, the ships may be allowed to
discharge oil and oily mixtures, when all of the conditioned enumerated in Table 6.2 are met. The conditions are
generally similar to the conditions stipulated in the previous Table 6.1 (outside special areas).
• It should be further noted that in Table 6.2 the Antarctic Area, which is one of the designated special areas of
the Technical Annex I, is specially mentioned. Among all special designated areas, the Technical Annex I requires
stricter regulation for Antarctic Sea. In this regard, all ships of all sizes should not discharge oil and oily mixtures
coming from their machinery spaces while within the Antarctic Area.
• Having presented the prevention and control regulations for all ships which size are 400 GT and above, let us
examine the regulations for the ships with less than 400 GT. The next table provides the salient provisions.
• TABLE 6.3 – Prevention and Control of Discharge of Oil from Machinery Spaces of All Ships, For Ships of Less
Than 400 GT in All of the Seas Except For Antarctic Areas
• Sea Area Rules on Discharge (Limitations)
• Within a special area or Generally, all ships of 400 GT and above are not allowed to
• Outside of the special area discharge in any area within a declared special area, except when all of the
following conditions are met:

• The Ship is proceeding en route
• The ship has in operation equipment that ensure that the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not
exceed 15 ppm. This equipment must conform to the design approved by the administration
• For oil tankers, the bilge water does not originate from the pump room bilges.
• For oil tankers, the oily mixture is not mixed with oil cargo residues.
• Antarctic area NO DISCHARGE
• Generally, if the ship is less than 400 GT, its oil and all oily mixtures should be retained on board and
subsequently discharged to reception facilities. However, discharge into the sea may be allowed under all of the
conditions enumerated in the table if the ship is either outside the designated special sea areas.
• The only exception goes to the Antarctic Sea Areas. As such, it should be noted again that in Antarctic Areas,
there is absolutely no discharge of oil and oily mixtures from machinery spaces of all ships which sizes are less
than 400 GT.

• 6.7 REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CARGO AREA OF OIL TANKERS


• The revised Technical Annex I requirements for the prevention and control of marine pollution from cargo area
of oil tankers is composed of three main parts. Part A bears regulations concerning construction requirements
for the oil tankers. Part B pertains to equipment requirements, and Part C refers to the control of operational
discharge of oil.
• With regard to tanker construction regulations, these are embodied from Regulation 18 up to Regulation 30 with
various highly technical provisions concerning the construction of the oil tankers. The regulations are very long
and detailed. It is not within the substance of this book to discuss the details, however, some salient provisions
are laid down within this chapter to provide an overview of the requirements.
• Segregated Ballast Tanks
• Segregated Ballast Tanks are ballast tanks which are completely separated from the cargo oil and fuel oil tanks. A
segregated ballast tank is a requirements for tankers. Segregated ballast tank remains empty during the cargo
leg of the voyage. It is filled with ballast water only on return trip to the oil terminal. The tank should be
protectively located to ensure that it would help in protecting the cargo tanks when incident of collision or
grounding happens.
• The revised Technical Annex I requires that every crude oil tanker of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above and
every product carrier of 30,000 tonnes deadweight and above which were delivered after June 1, 1982 should
be provided with segregated ballast tanks.
• Crude oil tankers of 40,000 tonnes deadweight and above and product carriers of 40,000 tonnes deadweight
and above, which were delivered on or before June 1, 1982 should be provided also with segregated ballast
tanks. Crude oil tankers 40,000 tonnes deadweight and above may not be required to have segregated ballast
tanks, if these ships are provided with a cargo tank cleaning systems, which cleaning procedures uses crude oil
washing technique.
• It is emphasized that the installation of a segregated ballast system is required because the use of it eliminates
the need to load ballast water into cargo tanks that contain oil residues. This method reduces the risk of marine
pollution caused by discharging dirty ballast water into sea.
• Oil tankers of 70,000 tonnes deadweight and above delivered after December 31, 1978 should be also be
provided with segregated ballast tanks. The capacity of the ballast tanks shall be in accordance to the safe
operation of the ship. The capacity must conform to the construction requirements of the Technical Annex.
• Double Hull and Double Bottom Requirements
• Regulation 19 of the revised Technical Annex I requires that all oil tankers of 600 tonnes deadweight and above
delivered on or before July 6, 1996 shall have double hull and double bottoms. The entire cargo tank length shall
be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other than tanks that carry oil.
• Every oil tanker of 5,000 tonnes deadweight above shall protect its entire cargo tank length by ballast tank or
spaces other than tanks that carry oil. The protective requirement shall include the following:
• Wing tanks or spaces.
• Double bottom tanks or spaces.
• For crude oil tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above and product carriers of 30,000 tonnes deadweight
and above, the total capacity of the wing tanks and double bottom tanks, forepeak tanks and after peak shall be
more or less than the capacity of segregated ballast tanks necessary to meet the requirements of Regulation 18
(segregated ballast tank requirements) of the said Technical Annex I.

6.8 PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF OIL POLLUTION FROM OIL TANKERS CARRYING HEAVY GRADE OIL AS CARGO

Heavy grade oil means any of the following: Crude oils with density of 15 degree Celcius higher than 900 kilogram
per cubic meter; or fuel oil with a density of 15 degree Celcius higher than 900 kilogram per cubic meter or
bitumen, tar, and their emulsions.
• All oil tankers of 600 tonnes deadweight and above but less than 5,000 tonnes deadweight, carrying heavy grade
oil as cargo are required to be fitted with both double bottom tanks or space and wing tanks or spaces arranged
pursuant to requirements of the Technical Annex I. The requirements should not be later than the date of
delivery of the ship in year 2008.
• If the ship is 5,000 tonnnes deadweight and above, these should comply with the requirements for double hull
and double bottoms delivered on or after July 6, 1996. As such, the entire cargo tanks length shall be protected
by ballast tanks or spaces other than tanks that carry oil.

6.9 EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS ON THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF MARINE POLLUTION BY OIL
• Regulation 31 requires that oil tankers of 150 GT and above should be equipped with an oil discharge monitoring
and control system. This system and equipment must be approved by the administration.
• The system shall be fitted with a recording device to provide a continuous record of the discharge in liters per
nautical mile and total quantity discharged as well as the oil content and rate of discharge.
• The record shall be identifiable. It means that the time and date must be kept for at least three consecutive
years. The oil discharge monitoring and control systems shall come into operations where there is any discharge
of effluent into the sea.
• It must ensure that any discharge of oil mixtures is automatically stopped when the instantaneous rate of
discharge of oil exceeds that which is permitted by the regulations of the Technical Annex. In case there is a
failure of the oil discharge monitoring and control system, a manually operated alternative method may be used.
A tanker with a detective oil discharge monitoring and control system may undertake one

6.10 PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF OPERATIONAL DISCHARGE OF OIL FROM CARGO AREA OF OIL TANKERS
• Regulation 34 of the revised Technical Annex I of Marpol 73/78 provides the limitations for the control of
discharge of oil outside special areas, within the special areas and the general requirements for all areas. Table
6.4 gives the prevention and control rules.

TABLE 6.4 – Prevention and Control of the Discharge of Oil from Cargo Tank Area of Oil Tanker within and Outside
Special Areas
• Within designated special areas, there should be no discharging into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from the
cargo area of an oil tanker, except for clean and segregated ballast water.
• Likewise, outside of special designated sea areas, oil tankers of all sizes are prohibited to discharge oil and oily
mixtures originating from their cargo tank areas into the sea. However, discharge may be allowed if it is clean or
segregated ballast or when the tanker met all of the following condition:
• The tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land.
• The tanker is proceeding en route.
• The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil does not exceed 30 liters per nautical mile.
• The total quantity of oil discharged does not exceed 1/15, 000 (for tankers delivered on or before December 31,
1979) or 1/30,000 (for tankers delivered after December 31, 1979) or the total quantity of cargo that are carried
on the previous voyage.
• The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system.
• The tanker is equipped with the required slop tank arrangement requires by Regulation 29 and 31 of the revised
Technical Annex 1.

• The regulations concerning control of discharge of oil from cargo tank areas of oil tanker are applicable to all oil
tankers only. When a tanker is within a designated special area, the discharge of oil and oily mixtures is
prohibited, except for clean and segregated ballast water.
• Only clean or segregated water is allowed to be discharged in the special areas. If the tanker has no segregated
ballast tank (SBT), it must be fitted with dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT). Clean ballast tank, which has been
so cleared that the effluent from there does not create a visible sheen or the oil content does not exceed 15
ppm.
• However, you can always check the local regulations of the port to ensure if clean ballast is permitted in port
areas. MARPOL 73/78 provides that clean ballast discharged through oil discharged monitoring and control
system is accepted as being clean, as long as oil content of the discharge recorded by the equipment is not more
than 15 ppm.
• Special areas are established in which normal oil discharge are totally prohibited, except where the safety of ship
is threatened. The special areas are those that have been enumerated earlier in this chapter (i.e. Mediterranean
Sea, Black Sea, Gulf Area, etc.) These areas are all enclosed by land and because of limited exchange of water
with big oceans, are considered as particularly vulnerable to pollution.
• If the tanker is outside special areas, it is also prohibited to discharge oil and oily mixtures. However, if it is
within 50 nautical miles of the nearest land, it can discharge clean or segregated ballast water. This regulation
ensures that only clean ballast or segregated ballast may be discharged within 50 nautical miles of the nearest
land.
• Likewise, when the tanker is outside special areas, the discharge of cargo oil residues or oils coming from cargo
tank areas may be allowed when all of the conditions enumerated in Table 6.5 are met. It is reiterated, at this
point that the tanker must not be within any designated special areas and it is more than 50 nautical miles from
the nearest land.
• Apart from being outside the special areas and beyond the 50 NM location from the nearest land, the tanker is
permitted to discharge cargo oil residue if the tanker is proceeding en route. This eliminates possible
concentration of the permitted discharge, which ensure even distribution of said discharge at sea. The rate of
discharge should also be instantaneous and the oil content does not exceed 30 liters per miles.
• Experiment show that 30 liters per nautical miles instantaneous rate of discharge gives rapid dispersal of oil.
Instantaneous rate of discharge, means discharge of oil in liters per hour at any instant over the speed of ship in
knots at the same instant. This is to make sure that very small quantity of oil or oily effluent is discharged at that
instant and that volume should not reach the shore.

• The revised Technical Annex 1 further requires that oil tankers should be fitted with oil discharge monitoring and
control equipment. The total quantity of discharge for tankers which were delivered on or before December 31,
1979 is one per 15,000 (1/15,000) of the total quantity of particular cargo, which residue forms apart. It means
that the contents of dilution should be one part of oil per 15,000 part of water.
• The requirement puts a limit on the total amount of oil that can be discharged even at the reduced rate set out
in the instantaneous rate of discharge. For oil tankers of 70,000 deadweight and above should be fitted with
segregated ballast tanks. Segregated Ballast Tank are tanks are ballast tanks which are completely separated
from the cargo oil and fuel oil tanks. A segregated ballast tank is a tank requirement for tankers.
• Segregated ballast tank remains empty during the cargo leg of the voyage. It is fitted with ballast water only on
return trip to the oil terminals. The tank should be protectively located to ensure that it would help in processing
the cargo tanks when incident of collision or grounding happens.
• The requirements for fitting the tankers with segregated tanks was later on extended to crude tankers of 20,000
deadweight and product tankers of 30,000 deadweight. The installation of a segregated ballast system
eliminates the need to load ballast water into cargo tanks that contain oil residues. This method reduces the risk
of marine pollution caused by discharging dirty ballast water into the sea.
• The volume of potential pollution for operational activities of tanker is limited through the provisions of
Segregated Ballast Tank (SBT), and also Crude Oil Washing Techniques. Under MARPOL 73/78 crude oil tankers of
20,000 deadweight and over are required to be equipped with a crude oil washing (COW) system. All pre-
MARPOL crude oil tankers of 40,000 deadweight and over must operate with COW system unless they are fitted
with SBT.
• COW has been required to replace the old system of cleaning tanks by seawater, in the COW system, instead of
using seawater in tank cleaning jet spraying of cargo tanks with crude oil itself is done. Oil as a cleaning agent is
considered to be more effective than water. By using COW technique in cleaning the mixture of oil and water
resulting from the previous system is avoided.
6.11 THE OIL RECORD BOOK – PART I (MACHINERY SPACE OPERATIONS)

• The oil record book is one of the most important requirements of MARPOL 73/78. This directly concerns the
master of the ship and the officers and personnel on board who are given the task to complete the recording
and filling out of the entries on the book.
• The revised Technical Annex I of Marpol 73/78 provides separate regulations for the use of oil record book. The
oil record book is actually composed of two (2) parts; namely, Part I (Machinery Space Operations Records) and
Part II (Cargo Ballast Operations Records).
• Regulation 17 of the revised Technical Annex I provides that every oil tanker of 150 GT and above and every ship
of 400 GRT and above other than oil tankers should be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery
Space Operations). The book should follow the form and contents prescribed by the Technical Annex I.
• The oil record book contains reference list about oil quantity of the tank. The entries recorded in Part I and Part
II of the book is different. However, in both records, the information or entries are grouped in letter categories
or operational code (e.g. A, B, C, etc.) and item number (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.).
• The Oil Record Book Part I should be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis, if appropriate.
Regulation 17.2 of the revised Technical Annex I requires that the Oil Record Book machinery space operations
entries should be completed, whenever the following operations takes place in the ship.
1. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks.
2. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks.
3. Collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge and other oil residues)
4. Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has been accumulated in machinery spaces.
5. Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil.

TABLE 6.5 – Guidelines to Oil Record Book Entry

• The date, operational code (e.g. A, B, C, etc.) and the item number (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.) should be indicated.
• The officer or officers-in-charge should sign each completed page of the book with the date.
• All entries in the oil record book should be accurate and be made as soon as possible after any operations has
been completed.
• Each completed page must be signed by the master ship.
• Entries should be at least in English, or Spanish.
• Any failure of the oil filtering equipment shall be recorded.
• The record of operations must be done without delay. The master should give much importance to the correct
keeping of Oil Record Book. The manner should be similar to the keeping of the ship’s official logbook. The
master should regard the Oil Record Book as important evidence in establishing that he has not violated
regulations concerning oil discharge.
• In the 1994 amendments on the implementation of MARPOL 73/78, all ships should be inspected when in ports
of other Parties to the convention to ensure that crews are able to carry out essential shipboard procedures
relating to marine pollution. Any government official may inspect ships and may also wish to see the
International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) Certificate.
• In loading ports, master should be prepared for inspection of cargo tanks and slop tanks by shore
representatives for the purpose of ensuring compliance with procedures on retention of oil on board.
• The terminal operators and/or cargo receivers must be prepared to accept oil residues or cargo mixed with
retained residues. They must be prepared to advice both shore and ship management of any requirements to
segregate retained slops from incoming cargo. In these activities, an Oil Record Book is one of the most
important sources of references regarding quantity of oil in tanks.
• 6.12 LIST OF ITEMS TO BE RECORDED IN THE OIL RECORD BOOK PART I
• The following are the activities and items to be recorded in Part I of the Oil Record Book (Machinery Space
Operations for All Ships):
• 1. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks – items to be recorded include identity of tank(s) ballasted, type of oil
carried, cleaning process, ballasting.
1. . Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks – items include identity of tanks, position of
ship at the start and completion of discharge, ship’s speed of discharge, method of discharge and quantity
discharged.
2. . Collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge) – items included in the collection are quantities of oil residues
retained on board, separated sludge, and other residues. Items include in the disposal of residue are quantity of
oil residues disposed of the tanks emptied, quantity of contents retained to reception facilities, transferred to
another tank, incinerated, and other methods.
3. . Non-automatic discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has been accumulated in
machinery spaces – items include quantity discharge or disposed of time of discharge or disposal (start and
finished), method of discharge or disposal.
4. . Automatic discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has been accumulated in
machinery spaces – items include time and position of ship when the system has been put into automatic mode
of discharge operations, time when the system has been put into automatic mode of transfer operation of bilge
of water to holding tank, time when the system has been put into manual operations, and method of discharge
overboard.
5. . Automatic discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has been accumulated in
machinery spaces – items include time and position of ship when the system has been put into automatic mode
of discharge operations, time when the system has been put into automatic mode of transfer operation of bilge
of water to holding tank, time when the system has been put into manual operations, and method of discharge
overboard.
6. Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system – items include time system failure, time when system
has been made operational, and reasons for failure.
7. Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil – items include time of occurrence, place or position of ship at
time of occurrence, approximate quantity and type of oil and circumstances of discharge.
8. Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil – items include bunkering’s place, time, type, and quantity of fuel oil
and identity of tank/s and type and quantity of lubricating oil as well as identity of tank/s.
9. Additional operational procedures and general remarks.

6.13 OIL RECORD BOOK – PART II (CARGO BALLAST OPERATIONS RECORD)

Regulation 36 of the revised Technical Annex I requires that every oil tanker of 150 GT and above shall be provided
with an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/Ballast Operations). The record book shall be completed on each occasion,
on a tank-to-tank basis. If appropriate and whenever the following operational activities take place aboard the ship.

1. Loading of oil cargo.


2. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage.
3. Unloading of oil cargo.
4. Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks.
5. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing.
6. Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks.
7. Discharge of water from slop tanks.
8. Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations.
9. Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop
tank discharge operations.
10. Disposal of residues.

• The details of activities and items to be recorded in book are as follows:


1. Loading of oil cargo – items to be recorded include place of loading, type of oil loaded and identity of tank/s
and total quantity of oil loaded.
2. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage – items include identity of tank/s from and to, response if tank/s
was/were emptied, if not state quantity retained.
3. Unloading of oil cargo – items include place of unloading, identity of tank/s unloaded, and response if tank/s
was were emptied. State retained quantity if not emptied.
4. Crude oil washing (COW) tankers only – items include data for each tank crude oil washed. These are the port
where crude oil washing was carried as identity of tank/s washed, number of machines in use, time of start washing
pattern applied, washing line pressure, time washing was completed, method of establishing that tank/s was were
dry and other remarks.
5. Ballasting of cargo tanks – item include position of ship at start and end of ballasting and ballasting process.
6. Ballasting of dedicated clean ballast tank (CBT tankers only) – item include identity of tank/s ballasted, position
of ship when water intended for flushing or port ballast was taken to dedicated clean ballast tank/s, position of ship
when pump/s and lines were flushed to slop tank, quantity of the oily water which after line flushing’s transferred
to the slop tank/s, position of ship when additional ballast water was taken to dedicated clean ballast tank/s, time
and position of ship when valves separating the dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines was
closed, and quantity of clean ballast taken on board;
7. Cleaning of cargo tanks – items include identity of tank/s cleaned, port of ship’s position, duration of cleaning,
and tank washing transfer operations.
8. Discharge of dirty ballast – items include identity of tank/s, position of ship at start and completion of discharge
into the sea; ship’s speed during discharge, response if there was discharge monitoring and control system used
during discharge, response if regular check was kept on effluent and surface of water in the locality of the
discharge, quantity of oily water transferred to slop tank/s,, and discharged to shore reception facilities.
9. Discharge of water from slip tanks into the seas – items include identity of slip tank/s, time of setting from last
entry to last discharge of residues, time position of a ship at start of discharge, ullage of total contents at start of
discharge, ullage of oil/water, interface at start of discharge, bulk quantity discharged and rate of discharge, final
quantity discharge and rate of discharge; time and position of ship on completion of discharge, response if the
discharge monitoring and control system was used during discharge, ullage of oil/water interface on completion of
discharge, ship’s speed during discharge, response if a regular check on the effluent and the surface of the water in
the locality of discharge was made, and confirmation that all applicable valves have been closed on completion of
discharge.
10. Disposal of residues and oil mixtures not otherwise dealth with – items include identity of tank/s, quantity
disposed of from each tank, and method of disposal.
11. Discharge of clean ballast contained in cargo tanks – items include position of ship, start of discharge, identity
of tank/s discharge, response if tank/s was/were empties on completion, position of ahip on completion and
response whether regular check was kept on effluent and the surface of the water in locality of the discharge.
12. Discharge of ballast from dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT tankers only) – items include identity of tank/s
discharged, time and position of ship at the start and completion of discharge, quantity discharged, response if
there is an indication of oil contamination, and time and position of ship when valves were closed.
13. Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system – items include time of system failure, time when
system was operational, and reasons for failure.
14. Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil – items include time of occurrence, port or ship’s position at
time or occurrence, approximate quantity and type of oil, and circumstances of discharge or escape.
15. Additional operational procedures and general remarks.

6.14 THE OIL RECEPTION FACILITIES

Chapter 6, Regulation 38 of the revised Technical Annex I provides the regulations concerning establishment of
reception facilities for the prevention of pollution by oil. The regulations set separate requirements for facilities
outside special areas, within special areas, and the general requirements.
Reception facilities are fixed or mobile facilities where ballast and tank cleaning slops from tankers can be
discharged. This regulation is one of the most difficult to implement among the oil prevention regulations.
Adherence to or compliance with the discharge limitations is only achieved by retaining the residues on board.
Basically, the rule says that sludge (residual fuel) should not discharged into the sea. The mixtures should be
accumulated in either a slop tank or in a cargo tank that is designated as a slop tank. These residues are disposed of
ashore when reaching the port.
MARPOL 73/78 requires that all ships of 400 GRT and over should be fitted with sludge tank. The capacity of the
tank depends on the type of fuel used and the daily consumption and voyages. The sludge capacity is one cubic
meter for ships for less than 4,000 GRT and with sludge incinerator.
• For ships over 4,000 GRT, two cubic meters are required. Correspondingly, ship lines and the lines of store
facilities must be fitted with standard connection. The design and dimension are also prescribed. All tankers of
150 GRT or over must have slop tanks. Oil tankers of 70,000 deadweight or over should be fitted with discharge
monitoring system (Reg. 15, A-1).
• Arrangement should be provided in the system to transfer the oily waste into slop tanks or combination of slop
tanks in such a way that any effluent discharge into the sea can comply with the control regulations. If the
reception facilities are not available, the recovered oil and slops should be retained on board for either
segregation or combination with new cargo. As explained earlier in this textbook, the described loading process
is called Load on Top. Residues should never be discharged into the sea, unless the safety of ship or its personnel
is in danger.

• 6.15 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE MASTER


Before reaching the loading port, the master has to advise the ship owner or the charterer (person who hires the
ship) about the quantity of retained residues or sludge on board before ship’s arrival. This can be handled in the
following manner:
• a. Residue is pumped ashore at the loading port.
• b. Residue is retained on board and the new cargo is loaded on top of them (load on top.
• c. Residue is retained on board but segregated from the new cargo to pump them ashore at the port of
discharge, where reception facility is available.
If the ship is carrying non-oil products, residue must be discharged immediately to reception facilities of the loading
port or certain on board for disposal ashore at a subsequent port. There may be problems when the vessel is also
carrying chemicals that need special treatment before disposal to reception facilities.

Sometimes, a reception facility does not have special treatment services for the product. When this happens, the
master has to seek the help of the ship owner or charterer, whichever the case may be, so that residues can be
disposed appropriately.
Before leaving the port, the master has to obtain a certificate from the responsible officer of the port reception
facilities. The certificate should state important details of the ship’s disposal. The quantity
and type of residue disposed should be indicated on the certificate. It should be duly signed by the authorized and
responsible port official. The certificate must be attached to the oil record book.

6.16 RECEPTION FACILITIES OUTSIDE SPECIAL AREAS


• Regulation 38.A contains the requirements for provision of reception facilities outside special areas.

TABLE 6.6 – Control and Prevention of Marine Pollution by Oil Through the Provisions of Oil Reception Facilities
Outside Special Areas
• 1. Reception facilities should be established in crude oil loading ports and terminals where, prior to arrival, the
tankers have completed a short ballast voyage of less than 72 hours or 1,200 nautical miles.
• 2. Reception facilities should be available in all ports and terminals in which oil, other than crude oil, is loaded at
an average of 1,000 per day.
• 3. Reception facilities should be available in all ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities.
• 4. Reception facilities should be available in all ports and terminals that handle ships with sludge tanks and ships
needing to discharge bilge.
• 5. Reception facilities should be available in all loading ports for bulk cargoes in respect of oil residues from
combination carries which cannot be discharged under all permissible conditions required for within and outside
special areas.

• 6.17 RECEPTION FACILITIES WITHIN SPECIAL AREAS


• Regulation 38.B provides that all oil loading terminals and repair ports within the special area should provide
facilities adequate for reception and treatment of all the dirty ballast and tank washing water from oil tankers.
• Moreover, all ports within the special areas are required to provide adequate reception facilities for other
residues and oil mixtures from all ships. The facilities should have adequate capacity to meet the needs of the
ships using them without causing undue delay.
• With respect to Antartic Area, the government of each Party to the Marpol 73/78 Convention from which ships
depart from or arrive to Antartic Area should ensure that adequate facilities are provided for the reception of all
sludge dirty ballast, tank washing water, and other oily residues and mixtures, without delay.
• Before entering the Antaric Area, the ships should be fitted with a tank or tanks of sufficient capacity on board
for the retention of all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing water, and other oily residues and mixtures while
operating in the area. The master should see it that the ship has concluded arrangements to discharge its oily
residues at a reception facility after leaving the area.