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Wine production

Wine Production
• Wine is a fermented beverages produced from
grape and has a large acceptability across the
world and has immense potential for local
marketing as well as export.
Grape is one of the most perishable fruits and
during the process of distribution and
marketing, substantial losses are incurred which
ranges from a slight loss of quality to total
spoilage. Processing is an alternative method of
preservation of this fruit for long durations.
Composition of wine
The chemical composition and flavours of wine:
Scientific analysis has shown that there are
some 250 different components in wine. The
character and originally of each wine depends
on the variation in the proportions of these
• Water: 85 to 93% vol of biologically pure
water that is drawn directly from the earth by
the vines.
• Ethanol (Alcoho): 7 to 15% vol of ethanol
(alcohol), produced by fermenting the grape-

• Aroma components: 1 to 2 grams/L includes

carbonyls, acetals, higher alcohols, esters and
• Nitrogen compounds: 0.05 to 0.9 grams/L
includes amino acids, biogenic amines
• Phenolics: 0.2 to 1.3 grams/L red, 0.05 to 1.3
grams/L white includes anthocyanins and
• Minerals: 1.3 to 4.4 grams/L
• Trace elements: 0.1 to 30 mg/L
• Vitamins: 250 to 500 mg/L
• Sugar (Glucose/Fructose): varying amounts
of residual sugars depending on the style of
wine (0–100 grams/ L)
• Organic (Fruit) acids: varying amounts of fruit
acids like acid 0.1 to 0.5 g/L, tartaric acid 1.0
to 3.0 g/L, malic acid 0.0 to 4.0 g/L, lactic acid
1.0 to 3.0 g/L, succinic acid 0.5 to 1.5 g/L,
acetic acid 0.2 to 0.8 g/L
• Glycerol: 4 to 15 grams/L
• Additives: total sulphur dioxide (50 to 300
mg/L), sorbic acid (0 to 200 mg/L)
• Carbon Dioxide: 0.1 to 10 grams/L
Wine Production : Main Steps
1. Viticulture
2. Harvesting
3. Stemming/Crushing
4. Fermentation
5. Draining
6. Pressing
7. Mixing
8. Clarification
9. Aging
10. Bottleing
Wine Production: Process
Wine Production
1. Viticulture
Factors which inflence grape’s flavor:
•climate of the vineyard’s region
•drainage around the vines
•humidity of the region
•sun exposure.
•soil quality
Wine Production
2. Harvesting
•Grappes are picked up by hand or
•Descision of harvest informed by level of
sugar and acid
•weather forecasts
Wine Production
3. Stemming/Crushing

Stemming is the separation of the stems and

grapes (which are sends to the press)

Crushing: A horizontal press squeezes

the broken grapes, separating the
fresh juice (must) from the skins
After crushing starts the fermentation
Wine Production
4. Fermentation
•sugar and acids that naturally react
with wild yeasts
•Vineyard adding their own yeasts
•fermentation can take from 10 to
30 days to convert natural sugar to

5. Draining or racking
Liquid wine is drained from the vat without being pressed and go into
barrels (free-run wine). The remaining pulp retains about 20% of the
Wine Production
6. Pressing
The remaing pulp, after draining, is pressed to
squeeze out the press wine. The press wine tends
to be dark, harsh and unpalatable, and is mixed
with free-run wine to produce something decent.

7. Mixing
The free-run wine and press wine, always from the same source, are mixed
together in appropriate ratios to obtain the desired balance.
Wine Production
8. Clarification
Clarification is the step of stabilisation of fermentation.
During clarification all remaining solids are removed from the fermented
Clarification done in numerous ways:
•fining, a process that calls for the addition of substances that cause the
solids in the liquid to adhere to one another and sink to the bottom of
the vat
•running the liquid through coarse and fine filters
•siphoning the liquid off the top of the fermenting vats after the solids
have settled to the bottom
Wine Production
9. Aging
The final stage in vinification is aging the
wine. At this point, the clarified wine is
transferred into either wooden barrels or
metal vats in which the wine is allowed to
further mature and develop flavors. If a
winemaker chooses to age the wine in
wooden casks, he will be allowing the wine
to pick up flavors from the wood, adding
greater depth to its flavors. While this can
add body to some wines, keep in mind that
the “woody” flavor isn’t suited to all types
of wine, hence the use of metal vats.
Wine Production
10. Bottleing
The final step of wine production.
A dose of sulfite is added to help
preserve the wine and prevent
unwanted fermentation in the
The wine bottles then are
traditionally sealed with a cork,
although alternative wine
clossure such as synthetic corks
and screwcaps, which are less
subject to cork taint, are
becoming increasingly popular.
Reading assignment
• Why wine bottles placed by their side or
• What is the difference between red and white
• Recall the wine making process In detail