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Module 1:

Basic Concept in Assessing Students Learning

 O’Neil, et al., 2004 – stated that teaching and
learning include a lot of instructional
decisions to enhance and increase student
learning, hence, quality of instruction is
strongly connected to the structure of
information on which these instructional
decisions are made.

 Linn 2003 – stated that student learning

requires the use of a number of
techniques for measuring achievement.

 Cizek 2001- emphasizes that it is necessary to

improve the quality of student thinking by
including the learners into assessment process
so they become integral part of it
Thorndike and Hagen (1986) define
measurement as a “process of quantifying
observation and description about a
quality or attribute of thing or person”

 Process of Measurement
1. Identifying and defining the quality or attribute that is
to be measured;

2. Determining a set of operations by which the attribute

may be made manifest and perceivable; and

3. Establishing a set of procedures or definitions for

translating observations into quantitative statement of
degree or amount.
1. Paper and Pencil- through self-reports,
interviews, questionnaires, test or other

2. Systematic Observation- researcher looks for

specific actions or activities but is not
involved in the actions being observed.

3. Participant Observation- researcher is actively

involved in the proposal being describe and
writes observation at a later time.

4. Clinical- collected by specialist in the process

of treatment.
McMillan (1997) stated that measurement
involves using observation, rating scale, or any
other non-test device that secure information
in quantitative form.

Uses of Educational Measurements

(Mehrens, and Lehmann, 1991)
1. Direct Instructional Decisions
- observing, measuring and drawing conclusions
are ongoing activities in most classroom.

2. Instructional Management Decision

- classification and placement decisions or
counseling and guidance decisions.
3. Entry-Exit Decision
- test are used to help decide;
(1) who should enter particular educational
institutions or programs of study and
(2) who has completed the requirements to leave
that program.

4. Program, Administrative, and Policy Decision

- decision that affect educational programs,
curricula and system.

5. Decisions Associated with Expanding Our

Knowledge Base.
- testing for educational research.
- is the process of making and translating those
observations of some attribute, characteristics, or
phenomenon and translating those observations into
quantifiable or categorical form according to clearly
specified procedure or rules. (Gredler, 1997)

- is a process of summing up the results of
measurement or test, giving them some meaning based
on the value judgments. (Hopkins and Stanley, 1981)

Educational Evaluation
-is the process of characterizing and appraising
some aspect or aspects of an educational process.
1. To demonstrate effectiveness; and
2. To provide a measure of performances for
marketing decisions.

Educational Evaluation is an assessment of

reading, written language, spelling and

- the means used to determined the worth or
value of a training program.
- the process of improving a training process or
deciding whether or not to continue it.

- the process of delineating, collecting and

providing information useful for judging training
decision alternative.

In assessment of student learning, the following are


1. Feedback
- provides quality control over the design and
delivery of activities.
2. Control
- relates training policy and practice to
organizational goals.
3. Research
- is to add to knowledge of training principles to
improve trainings.

4. Intervention
- is the process of using evaluation to affect the
way the program being evaluated is viewed, and
subsequently using this to redefine the sharing of
learning between trainers, trainees, and employing

5. Power
-is to use evaluation information for a political
- is the systematic collection, review and use of
information about educational programs undertaken
for the purpose of improving student learning and

Assessment involves:
1. Setting explicit student learning goals or outcomes
for an academic program;
2. Evaluating the extent to which students are
reaching those goals; and
3. Using the information for program development
and improvement.
The purpose of assessment is to
understand how educational programs are
working and to determined whether they are
contributing to student growth and
development. (Quellmalz, 1991)

Oosterhof (2001) defines assessment as “a

related series of measures used to determine
complex attribute of an individual or group of
Assessment must be:
1. Fair, balanced, and grounded in the art and
science of learning and teaching.
2. Reflective of curricular and developmental
goals and representative of the content that
students have had an opportunity to learn.
3. Used to inform and improve instructions.
4. Designed to accommodate students with
special needs; and
5. Valid, reliable and supported by
professional, scientific and ethical standards
designed to fairly assess the unique and
diverse abilities and knowledge base of all
1. Show criteria and models in advance.
2. Assess before teaching.
3. Offer appropriate choices.
4. Provide feedbacks early and often.
5. Encourage self-assessment and goal
6. Allow new evidence of achievement to
replace old evidence.
1. Formative assessment- provides diagnostic
feedback to students and instructors at
short-term intervals.
2. Summative assessment- provides a
description of students’ level of attainment
upon completion of an activity, module, or
3. Evaluative assessment- provides
instructions with curricular feedback.

High-quality assessment- must rest on strong

educational foundations.
Principle 1: The Primary Purpose of Assessment
is to Improve Student.
Principle 2: Assessment for Other Purposes
Support Student Learning.
Principle 3: Assessment System are Fair to All
Principle 4: Professional Collaboration and
Development Support Assessment.
Principle 5: The Broad Community Participates in
Assessment Development.
Principle 6: Communication about Assessment is
Regular and Clear.
Principle 7. Assessment System are Regularly Reviewed
and Improved.
According to Cohen(1994), when describing
assessments, the distinction is often made
between proficiency test, intended for
administrative purposes, and achievement tests,
intended for assessment of instructional results.

General Purposes Specific Reason for the Assessment

Administrative General assessment, placement, exemption,

certification, promotion
Instructional Diagnosis, evidence of progress, feedback
to the respondents, evaluation of teaching
or curriculum

Research Evaluation, experimental, knowledge of

language learning and language use
- is any type of assessment in which
student create response to a question or task.

Alternate assessment can include:

1. Short-answer questions;
2. Says;
3. Performance assessment;
4. Oral presentation;
5. Demonstrations, exhibitions; and
6. Portfolios.
- is the direct, systematic observation of
an actual student performance and the rating
of that performance according to previously
established performance criteria.

Performance Task
- is a goal directed assessment exercise.
- is a public performance during which a
student showcases learning and competence in
particular areas.
- collections of students’ work over time.

Incorporation Portfolio Assessment

(Gronlund, 2003)
Assessment Portfolio
- is a purposeful collection of student
work designed to showcase a student’s
progress toward, and achievement of, course-
specific learning objective.
1. Provides structure for involving students in
developing standards for quality performance.

2. Improves students’ metacognitive ability to

understand their own learning processes.

3. Promotes integration of various learning

activities and assessments.

4. Enhances awareness of strategies for thinking

and producing work.

5. Promotes an integrated assessment process.

6. Allows assessment of process and progress.

7. Documents time, effort and improvement in

students understanding.

8. Create documentation to submit to authentic

audiences and/or reviewer.

9. Increase student accountability for their own


10. Promotes assessment of a wider range of

learning styles.

11. Encourages students’ active involvement in the

assessment process.
12. Enhances motivation due to the visibility of the
final portfolio.

13. Promotes self-assessment.

14. Encourages the effective use of formative


15. Promotes creativity, individuality, and

uniqueness in the assessment learning.

16. Shifts instructors’ focus from comparative

ranking to improving understanding via

17. Promotes authentic assessment of valued

knowledge and skills.
1. Require additional time for planning
instructional activities.

2. Demands considerable time for assessment.

3. Time-intensive for instructors to implement

since students lack familiarity with portfolios.

4. Requires considerable storage space to

maintain portfolios.

5. May require special equipment.

6. Often does not meet requirements for state or national

7. Subjective nature of grading may be less reliable.

8. May have limited acceptance by parents or


9. Does not provide standardized numerical scores that are

often needed for institutional reports or accreditation.

10. Students may need traditional scores or evidence of

learning for admission criteria, job placement, or similar

11. Development of grading rubrics or criteria takes a

considerable amount of time

12. Performance data from portfolio is difficult to analyze or

1. Documentation
- highlight development and improvement
over time. It showcase the process of learning by
including the full progression of project
2. Process
- to document all stages of the learning
3. Product
- highlight a student’s best work by
showcasing the quality and range of student
1. Planning. Instructors need to determined the
function, type and design of the portfolio.

2. Collection. Students are responsible for assembling

meaningful artifacts that reflect their own
educational progress.

3. Selection. A decision-making process in which

collected artifacts are sorted and elected for
inclusion in the portfolio.

4. Reflection. Considered the most important step in

portfolio development; the metacognitive process
of students reflecting on their own learning
differentiates a portfolio from a simple collection.
5. Connection. Student expand on their reflections
to connect acquired knowledge and skills with
course goals and learning objectives.

Elements of a Portfolio
 Personal Statement – should include one or two
paragraphs highlighting relevant personal goals
and experiences of the student in relationship to
the goals and purposes of the portfolio.

 Table of Content- to ensure the portfolio is

functional and readable, include a table of
content with number pages.
 Entries- the type or purpose of the portfolio
will provide guidance in determining the
entries to be included.
 Reflections- may either appear with each
entry or following all entries.

Characteristic of an Effective Portfolio

(McMilla, 1997)

1. Effective portfolios are continuous and ongoing,

providing both formative and summative
opportunities for monitoring students’ progress
towards achieving learning objectives.
2. Portfolios should be multidimensional and
reflect a wide variety of artifacts.
3. Reflection are an essential part of an
effective portfolio.
4. Portfolios should clearly reflect learning
objectives as identified in the course
5. Effective portfolios provide evidence of
performance-based learning experiences as
well as students’ understanding of course-
specific knowledge and skills.
6. Portfolios are a targeted selection of
student work.
7. Quality portfolios must contain an element
of self-assessment.
8. Evaluation criteria for selecting and
assessing the portfolio contents, as well ass
their own learning experiences, students
can identify their personal strengths and
9. Portfolio should highlight the depth of a
student’s knowledge and skills,
10. While portfolios should be structured to
ensure they meet the goals and purposes of
assessment, it is important to allow a
degree of freedom for student to express
their own individuality and personal
1. While the instructors provides the portfolio
guidelines and requirements, the should
complete the bulk of portfolio development.

2. Items for conclusion in the portfolio are

limited only by the creativity and ingenuity of
the students.

3. The reiterative nature of portfolio

development can be facilitated through peer-
reviews, self-assessment, or instructor-
student dialogues.
4. Encourages students to actively reflects on their
own work by providing structured guidelines
for self-evaluation.
5. Keep portfolios in a location that is easily
accessible to both instructor and students.
6. Provide clear guideline as well as ongoing
assistance in the development.

Polakowki (1993) describes the three portfolio

management techniques she uses concurrently for
instruction and individualized assessment:

1. Teacher-directed – timed centers through

which small groups of students rotate for equal
amounts of time.
2. Child-directed – time centers that children
choose for the allotted time.
3. Child-selected – time centers that include
some “must do” task.

Relationship Between Instruction

and Assessment

According to Gronlund (1998), in preparing for

any type of instructional program the teacher’s
main concern is hoe to effectively bring about
student learning.
Instruction is most effective when:
1. Directed toward a clearly defined set of
intended learning outcomes.
2. The methods and materials of instruction are
congruent with the outcome.
3. The instruction is designed to fit the
characteristics and needs of the student.
4. Instructional decisions are based on
information that is meaningful, dependable and
5. Students are periodically informed concerning
their learning progress.
6. Remediation is provided for students not
achieving the intended learning.
7. Instructional effectiveness is periodically
reviewed and the intended learning outcomes
and instruction are modified as needed.
Assessment is most effective when:
1. Designed to assess a clearly defined set of
intended learning outcomes.
2. The nature and function of the assessment are
congruent with the outcomes.
3. The assessment are designed to fit the relevant
characteristic are fair to everyone.
4. Assessments provide information that is
meaningful, dependable, and relevant.
5. Provision is made for giving the students early
feedback of assessment results.
6. Specific learning weakness are revealed by the
assessment results.
7. Assessment results provide information useful
for evaluating the appropriateness of the
objectives, the methods, and the materials of