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Cell Division

Mitosis & Meiosis


The Cell Cycle
The Cell Cycle
• Interphase
– G1 - primary growth

– S - genome replicated

– G2 - secondary growth

• M - mitosis
• C - cytokinesis
Interphase
• G1 - Cells undergo majority of growth
• S - Replication of DNA
-Each chromosome replicates
(Synthesizes) to produce sister chromatids
– Attached at centromere

• G2 - Chromosomes condense - Assemble


machinery for division such as centrioles
MITOSIS
• A process by which two identical
daughter cells are produced from a
single parent cell
• Occurs in body cells
• Each cell have its own cytoplasm
and DNA
Prophase
–During prophase, chromosomes
condense and spindle fibers form.
Prophase
The Cell begins
the division
process

The nucleolus
disappears,
The nuclear
membrane
breaks apart
3. The
chromosomes
become visible

4. The spindle
apparatus forms
and attaches to
the centromeres
of the
chromosomes
Metaphase
–During metaphase, chromosomes
line up in the middle of the cell.
4. The Nuclear
Membrane is
completely gone
2. The
duplicated
chromosomes
line up along the
cell's equator.
Anaphase
– During anaphase, sister chromatids separate
to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase
–During telophase, the new nuclei form
and chromosomes begin to uncoil.
Cytokinesis

–Cytokinesis is
the division of
the cytoplasm
into two
individual cells.
Meiosis
• The form of cell division by which
GAMETES, with HALF the number of
CHROMOSOMES, are produced.
• Occurs only in GONADS (testes or
ovaries).
Male: SPERMATOGENESIS -sperm
Female: OOGENESIS - egg or ova
During Meiosis gamete (sex) cells
undergo a “double division”,
maintaining the DNA, but reducing the
chromosomal count to 23

+ =

Sperm + Egg = Fertilized


(23) (23) Cell (46)
• Meiosis reduces the
number of chromosome
sets from diploid to
haploid
• Meiosis takes place in
two sets of divisions
– Meiosis I reduces the
number of chromosomes
from diploid to haploid
– Meiosis II produces four
haploid daughter cells
Longest and most complex phase
(90%).
Chromosomes condense.
Synapsis occurs - Homologous
chromosomes come together
to form a tetrad.

23
OR

Homologs line up at equator or metaphase


plate
24
Homologous chromosomes separate
and move towards the poles.
Sister chromatids remain attached at
their centromeres.
Each pole now has haploid (1n)
set of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis occurs and two
haploid daughter cells are formed.
Same as Prophase in mitosis
 Nucleus & nucleolus disappear

 Chromosomes condense

 Spindle forms
Same as Metaphase in mitosis

Chromosomes
line up at equator
Same as Anaphase in mitosis
SISTER CHROMATIDS separate

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Same as Telophase in mitosis.
Nuclei and Nucleoli reform, spindle
disappears
CYTOKINESIS occurs.
Remember: FOUR HAPLOID
DAUGHTER cells are
produced.
Called GAMETES (eggs and sperm)