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# Intersection of surfaces

## Whenever two or more solids combine, a definite

curve is seen at their intersection. This curve is
called the curve of intersection.
The line of intersection of two or more
intersecting surfaces has to be determined in
order to develop any of the surfaces.

## Methods used in drawing lines of intersection:

1. Cutting plane method
2. Element method
Cutting plane method
Involves drawing a series of horizontal cutting planes, each of which
cuts through both the intersecting surfaces.

Question.
A vertical cone, diameter of base 74 mm and height 100 mm, is
completely penetrated by a cylinder of 44 mm diameter and 80 mm
long. The axis of the cylinder is parallel to horizontal plane and
perpendicular to vertical plane and intersects the axis of the cone at a
point 30 mm above the base. Draw the projections of the solids
showing curves of intersection.
1. Draw the front, side and top views of the cone, showing the
intersection of the cylinder on the side view, the intersection being
a circle.
2. Divide the end view of the cylinder into twelve equal parts
numbered 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
3. Project these points across to the front view to represent a series of
horizontal cutting planes through the cylinder and cone.
4. Project the cutting planes from the front view on to the top view,
where they are represented by circles.
5. Project the points 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from the side view up to the
top view and along the cylinder. The distances between lines of
similar numbers, for example 1-1 on top view, is the width of the
cylinder section at that level.
6. The intersections of lines 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 drawn along the
cylinder on the top view with the circles drawn by projecting the
cross-sections of the cone at these levels represent points on the
line of intersection. Join these points with a smooth curve to give
the line of intersection.
7. Project the points 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from the line of intersection
on the top view down to the front view to intersect the
corresponding line on that view to give points on the line of
intersection. Join them with a smooth curve.
Element method
Involves the use of line elements drawn on the surfaces of the
intersecting shapes, and passing through the area where the line of
intersection occurs.
1. Draw the front, side and top views of the cone, showing the
intersection of the cylinder on the side view, the intersection being
a circle.
2. Draw two identical sets of three elemental lines on the side view
from the apex to cut the base at a, b and c, and cutting the cylinder
at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
3. Project these elemental lines on to the top view and then down on
to the front view as indicated by the arrows.
4. Project points 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from the side view to intersect
the elemental lines on the front view and then up to the top view to
give corresponding points 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the line of
intersection of the cylinder and cone on each view.
5. Draw a smooth curve through the points to give the line of
intersection on each view.