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Sine and Cosine are the y and x components of a

point on the rim of a rotating wheel

sin( )  cos(90   )  cos((  90 ))   cos(  90 )

cos( )  sin(90   )  sin((  90 ))   sin(  90 )
Degree and radians on the unit circle

Equivalence relation

360  2 * r
for unit circle r  1

360  2
s (m) = r (m) * θ (radians) arclength = radius * radians
Periodic Function
Sinusoidal wave Amplitudes
Wavelength (meters)
Wavelength defined between any two
points on wave that are one cycle apart
(2*pi radians).


•Zeros crossing
•Sin(θ) where θ is an point.

Wavelength of a sine wave, λ, can be

measured between any two points with the
same phase, such as between crests, or
troughs, or corresponding zero crossings as
Wave Period T (s) and Linear Frequency 1/T (s-1 )

The period of a wave is the time interval for the wave to complete one cycle (2*pi
radians). What is this waves period?
Wave parameters

T: wave period (s) λ: wave length (m) f=1/T : linear frequency 1 (2π /s-1 or cycles/s)

Wave Velocity or Speed: v (m/s) = λ/T = λ * f

Angular wave number: k = 2π/ λ

Angular frequency: ω = 2π/ T = 2π*f

Wave solution: u(x,t) = A * sin( k*x – ω *t ) (m)

Wave snapshot in space and time
F(x,t) amplitude in space/time

Wavelength Wave period

Translation (space or time) of Sinusoidal wave

Horizontal axis units are radians/2*pi.

• if f(θ=w*t) = sin( w*t ) = sin( 2π*(t/T) ) >> t=T >> sin(2 π)

• if f(θ=k*x) = sin( k*x ) = sin( 2π*(x/λ) ) >> x= λ >> sin(2 π)
Phase of
sinusoidal wave

y  sin( x)
y  sin( x   / 4)
Three phase power: three
y  sin( x   )   phase sinusoids phase separated
by 120⁰.

sin( )  cos(90   )

cos( )  sin(90   )

Phase advance/delay and Unit circle

f ( )  A *sin( f (  )) Note minus sign in phase argument.

The red sine phase is behind (negative)

 : initial phase
the blue line phase; hence, red sin
function leads the blue sin function.
Wavefront: where and what is it ?
Pulse wave versus Sinusoidal wave

A pulse is a compact disturbance in space/time.

A sinusoidal wave is NOT compact, it is everywhere in


A pulse can be ‘built’ up mathematically as a sum of

sinusoidal waves.
Superposition of wave pulses

Which is the space (x) axis and which the time (t) axis?
Waves move KE/PE energy (not mass) in time
f ( x, t )  A *sin(k x x   t )

f (r , t )  A *sin(kr r   t )

f ( )  A *sin( ),   k x x  

f ( )  A *sin( ),   kr r  
Longitudinal (P) vs. Transverse (S) waves: vibration
versus energy transport direction
Water and Rayleigh waves particle motions

•Acoustic medium (water)

•Prograde circular particle


•Elastic medium
•Rayleigh surface wave

•Synchronized P-SV

•Retrograde Circular
particle motion
Two different wavelength waves added Two 1-dimensional wave pulse traveling
Together: beating phenomena And superimposing their amplitudes
Huygen’s wavelets: secondary wavefronts propagated to interfere
constructively and destructively to make new time advanced wavefront
Standing waves on a string.
Fixed endpoint don’t move; wave is trapped.
Harmonic motion: two forces out of phase

A mechanical wave propagates a

pulse/sinusoid of KE+PE energy
because the inertial forces load the
springs by pushing and pulling on the
springs which permits the wave
energy to propagated in time.