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Introduction to Computational

Fluid Dynamics

Adapted from notes by:


Tao Xing and Fred Stern
The University of Iowa
Outline
 What is CFD?
 Why use CFD?
 Where is CFD used?
 Physics
 Modeling
 Numerics
 CFD process
 Resources

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What is CFD?
 What is CFD and its objective?

– Computational Fluid Dynamics


– Computer simulation for prediction of fluid-flow phenomena.
– The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids with
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into an
algebra problem (Taylor series), solve it, validate it and achieve
simulation based design.

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Why use CFD?
 Why use CFD?
– Analysis and Design
 Simulation-based design instead of “build & test”
– More cost effectively and more rapidly than with experiments
– CFD solution provides high-fidelity database for interrogation of
flow field
 Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult to be
measured by experiments
– Scale simulations (e.g., full-scale ships, airplanes)
– Hazards (e.g., explosions, radiation, pollution)
– Physics (e.g., weather prediction, planetary boundary layer,
stellar evolution)
– Knowledge and exploration of flow physics

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Where is CFD used? (Aerospace)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
F18 Store Separation
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports Wing-Body Interaction Hypersonic Launch
Vehicle
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Where is CFD used? (Appliances)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas Surface-heat-flux plots of the No-Frost
refrigerator and freezer compartments helped
– Power Generation BOSCH-SIEMENS engineers to optimize the
– Sports location of air inlets.

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Where is CFD used? (Automotive)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing External Aerodynamics Undercarriage
Aerodynamics
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports
Interior Ventilation
Engine Cooling 7
Where is CFD used? (Biomedical)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
Medtronic Blood Pump
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
Temperature and natural
– Power Generation convection currents in the eye
following laser heating.
– Sports
Spinal Catheter 8
Where is CFD used? (Chemical Processing)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical Polymerization reactor vessel - prediction
of flow separation and residence time

– Chemical Processing effects.

– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
Twin-screw extruder
– Power Generation modeling

– Sports
Shear rate distribution in twin-
screw extruder simulation 9
Where is CFD used? (HVAC&R)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
Particle traces of copier VOC emissions
– Biomedical colored by concentration level fall
Streamlines for workstation behind the copier and then circulate
– Chemical Processing ventilation through the room before exiting the
exhaust.
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports Flow pathlines colored by
pressure quantify head loss
Mean age of air contours indicate
location of fresh supply air
in ductwork 10
Where is CFD used? (Hydraulics)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports
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Where is CFD used? (Marine)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports
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Where is CFD used? (Oil & Gas)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
Volume fraction of gas
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
Flow vectors and pressure Volume fraction of oil
– Chemical Processing distribution on an offshore oil rig
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine Volume fraction of water

– Oil & Gas


Analysis of multiphase
separator

– Power Generation
– Sports
Flow of lubricating
mud over drill bit 13
Where is CFD used? (Power Generation)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
Flow around cooling Flow in a
– Chemical Processing towers burner
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports Pathlines from the inlet
Flow pattern through a water colored by temperature
turbine. during standard 14
operating conditions
Where is CFD used? (Sports)

• Where is CFD used?


– Aerospace
– Appliances
– Automotive
– Biomedical
– Chemical Processing
– HVAC&R
– Hydraulics
– Marine
– Oil & Gas
– Power Generation
– Sports
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Physics

 CFD codes typically designed for representation


of specific flow phenomenon
– Viscous vs. inviscid (no viscous forces)
– Turbulent vs. laminar
– Incompressible vs. compressible
– etc…

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Physics
Fluid Mechanics

Inviscid Viscous

Laminar Turbulence

Internal External
Compressible Incompressible (airfoil, ship)
(pipe,valve)
(air, acoustic) (water)

Components of Fluid Mechanics


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Software and resources
 CFD software was built upon physics, modeling, numerics.
 Two types of available software
– Commercial (e.g., FLUENT, CFX, Star-CCM, COMSOL)
– Research (e.g., CFDSHIP-IOWA, U2RANS)
 More information on CFD can be got on the following website:
– CFD Online: http://www.cfd-online.com/
– CFD software
 FLUENT: http://www.fluent.com/

 COMSOL http://www.comsol.com/

 CD-adapco: http://www.cd-adapco.com/

– Grid generation software


 Gridgen: http://www.pointwise.com

 GridPro: http://www.gridpro.com/

– Visualization software
 Tecplot: http://www.amtec.com/

 Fieldview: http://www.ilight.com/
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UAS
 Buat penyelesaian Kasus CFD dengan
memanfaatkon SolidWorks Flow
Simulation / Flow Express (Tidak perlu
menyertakan cara membuat geometrinya)
 Pengumpulan Tugas Berupa:
– Softcopy MS Word mengenai cara penyelesain
analysis pada Solidworks
– File SolidWorks hasil analysis (save format
2012)
– Dikumpulkan Paling Lambat 6 Hari setelah
UAS 19