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HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Presentation
HISTORY & INTRODUCTION
• Hydrochloric acid was discovered by JABIR BIN HAYYAN (A Muslim scientist)in
year 8000 AD
• Later then Basilius Valenlintus prepared HCL and its manufacturing was
started at industrial scale in England
• At early stages HCL was produced as a bi-product of SODA Ash by LE-Blanc
method and it was exhausted in the air in form of gas but after passage of
time this act was restricted and industries started to absorb the HCL through
water. That was a start of manufacturing of HCL at Production scale
ALTERNATE NAMES OF HCL ACID
• Muriatic acid
• Ant acid
• Mineral acid
• Spirit of salt
WHAT IS HCL
• Hcl is a colorless and odorless solution of hydrogen chloride and water, with
chemical formula of HCL
• It is highly corrosive chemical compound with several applications In industry
• It’s a strong acid and can change into its ions quickly
• It contains all properties of a strong acid
• HCl exists in the form of gas at normal temperature and pressure
• It is also water soluble in all compositions and exists in all states of matte
COMMERCIAL GRADES OF HCL
• There are three types of HCL composition is available in market
• 1.14 sp.gr(18 Be’) or 27.9%
• 1.60 sp.gr (20Be’) or 31.5%
• 1.179 sp.gr (22Be’) or 35.5%
METHODS OF MANUFACTURING
• There are five methods to manufacture HCl at industrial state
1. Sulphate Method
2. synthetic method
3. By chlorination of organic compounds
4. By product of soda ash process
5. Hcl acid solutions
SYNTHETIC METHOD
Raw materials:
H2 gas
Cl2 gas
Water

Chemical reaction:
2500ºC
H2+Cl2 2HCl (gas)
MANUFACTURING STEPS
• Burning of Hydrogen and chlorine gas in furnace
• Cooling of HCl gas
• Absorption of HCl gas in water
• Recovery of HCl acid
• Packing & storage
PRODUCTION OF HCL GAS
• In first step of production, hydrogen and chlorine is introduced in the
synthetic furnace and started to burn at 2500 degree Celsius temperature
• Pure HCl acid production is directly proportional to pure gases used in
combustion
• A special type of furnace is used in production of HCl gas
• Both gases are burned together at a high temperature and produce HCl;
gas
• Temperature must be controlled during combustion otherwise side reactions
can takes place
COOLING OF HCL GAS
• In the next step the discharged HCl gas is forwarded to the cooler
• The temperature is decreased by passing the gas through cooler to make it
suitable to absorb in water
• Different types of coolers are used to cool the HCl gas for example forced
draft cooler ,induced draft cooler but it depends on the user
• Some coolers are likely to be a part of absorber
• After cooling ,the gas is introduced in absorber
ABSORPTION OF HCL GAS
• In this process the HCl acid is achieved by passing the HCl gas through
absorber
• Absorber consists of a cylindrical shell which is made of iron and steel.
Containing grating plate as a supporting packing material
• Gas is introduced through lower section of absorber and water is showered
from the top of absorber
• After an intimate counter current contact the gas absorbed in water and
produced HCl acid
• Contact time must not be very short or very long otherwise the product will
not achieve its desired quality
• Hcl acid is then discharged from the bottom of absorber and stored at its
proper place
PACKING AND STORAGE
 In bulk it is supplied in Rubber lined and FPR tank trucks. Also
supplied in HDPE 35 kg cans and 250 kg drums. Hydrochloric acid
must be stored in well-ventilated ware houses.
 Do not store it along with caustic soda and other alkaline
materials.
PIPES AND
INSTRUMENTS USED
 Plastic and PVC pipes(corrosion
resistant)
 These pipes are specially made for
flow of acids and corrosion making
liquids.
 Packed Absorption Tower
Uncooled or adiabatic towers can be
used to produce 33.5 wt.% acid, and
cooled towers will produce 35–36%
acid with negligible vent losses when
using a feed gas containing 10–100%
HCl.
 Packed tower type cooler
This type of cooling equipment provides
not only gas cooling but some degree
of gas cleaning as well.
 Compressor
Compressor is an equipment which is
used to increase the pressure of a hot
gas and sometimes it purifies minimum
amount of gas
Unit operation Unit process
• Inserting H2 and Cl2 gas ion furnace • Formation of HCl by combustion of
• Maintaining the temperature hydrogen and chlorine gas
between 2000ºc to 2500ºc • Formation of HCl acid
• Burning of both gases
• Cooling of hot HCl gas
• Absorption of cool HCl gas in water
• Storage of Liquid HCl acid
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF
HCL
 It is sued in the production of organic compounds such as venyle
chloride
 Dilute HCl is used in steel pickling (removal of rust and scale on
metal)
 Hcl is highly powerful acid and used as a cleaning agent
 Hcl is used to neutralize water ion making it safe for bathers
 Hcl is used to regulate the ph. level in a wide range of
manufacturing and treatment process including the production
of drinking water,pharmaceuticals,foods,baverages etc.
 High quality HCl is used to regenerate the ion exchange resins
 It is used in the production of inorganic compounds
 Hcl can be used to regulate the basicity of solutions
 It is also used in petroleum industry
PROPERTIES
• Molecular formula • HCl
• Molecular weight • 36.5 gm/mole
• Appearance • Colorless liquid
• Odour • Pungent
• Boiling point • -85ºc
• Melting point • -114ºc
• Density • 1.179 gm/ml ( 35.2% HCl)
• Solubility • Extremely soluble in water
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Safety is of utmost importance when handling dangerous
chemicals like hydrochloric acid. The Environmental Protection
Agency regulates hydrochloric acid as a toxic substance, and it
should be treated as such.it is recommended to wear the following
protective equipment when you are at an HCl plat
 Vapor respirator
 Rubber gloves
 Boots
 Full suit
 Face shield
CHEMICAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
 Safety glasses are to be worn whenever working with acids, bases, or any
flammable materials.
 Use heat-resistant gloves and/or tongs when handling hot glassware, chinaware,
etc.
 Use plastic gloves when handling any hazardous materials to prevent skin contact.
 If the acid or mist come into contact with the skin, eyes, or internal organs, the
damage can be irreversible or even fatal in severe cases.so follow the safety
instructions to prevent from serious damage.
 It reacts with most metals with evolution of hydrogen which may cause fire or
explosions with air.
 irritating effects of high atmospheric concentration of hydrogen chloride.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 HCl is a strong, monoprotic acid, which means it can release only one H+ ion
(proton).
 Being a strong acid, it gets completely dissociated in water to give the
hydronium and chloride ions.
 It readily reacts with bases to form chloride salts.
Concentrated HCl dissolves many metals and forms oxidized metal chlorides
and hydrogen gas.
 Dilute HCl can break down or digest many chemical and biological samples.
INDUSTRIAL REFERENCES

Sitara chemical industries LTD


Chemical products
 Bleaching powder
 Ammonium chloride
 Causted soda flakes
 Hydrochloric acid
 Hydrated lime
 Liquid chlorine
 Sodium hypochlorite
 ITTEHAD CHEMICALS LIMITED
Chemical products
 Caustic soda
 Sodium hypochlorite
 Hydrochloric acid
 Zinc Sulphate
 Calcium chloride
NIMIR INDUSTRIES
Chemical products
 Caustic Soda
 Sodium Hypochlorite
 Hydrochloric Acid
• Cleaning & Bleaching
• Steel
• Water Treatment