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5/23/15

Abnormal
Psychology
Review
Raissa N. Matunog,
RPm

Day One
Overview
Day One

Morning: Overview and Introduction

Afternoon: Case Analysis: Detection and Causes

Day Two

Morning: Common Disorders and their Causes

Afternoon: Less Common Disorders and their Causes

Day Three

Morning: Culture Bound Disorders and Ethical Principles Review

Afternoon: Make a chart for AbPsych Review


TOS for Abnormal Psychology

Outcome Weight No. Of Items

Distinguish between pathological and non-


pathological manifestations of behaviour 20% 20

Recognise common psychological disorders


given specific symptoms 20% 20
Use major psychological theories, particularly
the commonly recognised ones, in explaining
how psychological problems are caused and 30% 30
how they develop

Identify the socio-cultural factors that may


impact on problem-identification and
diagnosis of abnormal behavior
15% 15

Apply appropriate ethical principles and


standards in diagnosing cases of abnormal
behavior
15% 15
What is abnormal
psychology?
Abnormal psychology…
… is an area of scientific study that attempts to
describe, explain, predict and modify behaviours that
are considered strange and unusual.
(Sue et. al., 2013)

… the branch of psychology that studies abnormal


behaviour and ways of helping people who are
affected by psychological disorders.
(Durand & Barlow, 2013)
I can’t sleep or eat
I keep on
or work because I
colouring my hair
keep on thinking
orange. I have to know about my mistress.
where my boyfriend
is to
I prefer allshout
the about
time.
my feelings on the
mountaintop.
I wash my hands
20 times every time
that girl comes into
contact with me.
What criteria are
used to determine
normal or abnormal
behavior?
ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR

… a behavioral of psychological syndrome or pattern that


reflects underlying psychobiological dysfunction, that is
associated with distress or disability and is not merely an
expectable response to common stressors or losses.

(www. dsm5.org)
Distress
Deviance
Dysfunction
Dangerousness
(Sue et. al., 2013)
Distress
• psychological distress can sometimes show up
either physically or psychologically

• can be manifested in extreme or prolonged


emotional reactions

• intense, exaggerated and so prolonged that it


interferes with the person’s capacity to function
adequately
Deviance

• related to using a statistical average

• abnormality defined in terms of behaviours that


occur least frequently
Dysfunction
• a breakdown in cognitive, emotional or behavioral
functioning

• can also be seen as difference between current


behaviour and expected behavior given the
person’s role (role functioning) or their current
psychological/physical state.

• drawing the line between normal and abnormal


dysfunction is often difficult
Dangerousness
• the dangerousness of clients to themselves and
others

• predicting dangerousness isn’t easy


I keep on
colouring my hair
orange.

I prefer to shout about


my feelings on the
mountaintop.
I can’t sleep or eat
or work because I
keep on thinking
I have to know about my mistress.
where my boyfriend
is all the time.

I wash my hands
20 times every time
that girl comes into
contact with me.
Important Terms to
Remember
Presenting Problem
Prevalence
Incidence
Course
Prognosis
Diagnosis
Etiology
Models of
Abnormality
One-dimensional vs Multidimensional

- psychopathology is caused by a - abnormal behaviour results from multiple


single cause influences
- also called linear causal model - systemic; no influence contributing to
psychopathology can be considered out of
context
Biological Theory
• Deficits or defects in
the structural or
functional integrity of
the nervous system
lead to abnormal
behavior

• All psychological
disorders have a
physical cause
Assumptions
1. Everything that makes people who they are are embedded in
the genetic material of their cells.

2. Thoughts, emotions and behaviours are associated with nerve


cell activities of the brain and spinal cord.

3. A change in T, E and B will be associated with a change in


activity/structure (or both) of the brain

4. Mental disorders highly correlated with inherited predisposition


and/or some form of brain dysfunction

5. Mental disorders can be treated by drugs, genetic manipulation


or somatic intervention
The Brain
The Brain
Biochemical Theories

• Chemical
imbalances underlie
medical disorders

• Actions of the
neurons and
neurotransmitters
Major Neurotransmitters and their Effects
Neurotransmitter Effect

widespread, occurs in muscle control systems & in circuits related


Acetylcholine (AcH) to attention & memory. reduction in AcH implicated in Alzheimer’s
disease
concentrated in small areas of brain, one involved in muscles, in
Dopamine excess, dopamine can cause hallucinations, associated with
schizophrenia

Endorphins found in brain & spinal cord, suppresses pain

Gamma amino butyric widely distributed in brain, works against other neurotransmitters,
acid (GABA) particularly dopamine

occurs widely in CNS, regulates moods and may increase arousal


Norepinephrine and alertness. often associated with mood disorders and eating
disorders
occurs in the brain. works more or less in opposition to
Serotonin norepinephrine, suppressing activity & causing sleep. linked with
anxiety disorders, mood disorders and eating disorders
Genetics
• Research strongly
supports the
influence of genetic
makeup in the
development of
certain abnormal
conditions

• Ex: ANS reactivity,


alcoholism,
schizophrenia,
depression
Psychological Theories
• Psychodynamic - disorders arise from conflict
between id, ego and superego + fixations +
defense mechanisms

• Behavioral - all behaviour is learned through


interaction with environment + abnormality is
simply learned response to stimuli

• Cognitive - person’s thoughts are responsible for


behaviour + faulty/irrational cognitions cause
mental health problems

• Humanistic/Existential - people’s realities are


subjective, to understand their mental health
problem psychotherapists must look at the
problem from their pov + individuals have the
ability to make free choices and are responsible
for their own decisions
• view disorders as a result of childhood trauma or anxieties

• many childhood-based anxieties operate unconsciously -


repressed and expressed through mental defense
mechanisms
Contemporary
Psychodynamic Theories

• greater emphasis on freedom of choice and


future goals (Adler and Jung), ego autonomy
(Freud and Erikson), social forces (Horney and
Sullivan), object relations (past interpersonal
relations) (Kohut and Kernberg) and treatment of
seriously disturbed people (Spotnitz)
Classical Conditioning
Paradigm
Operant Conditioning
Paradigm
• operant behaviour - voluntary and
controllable behaviour

• classical vs operant

• c involved in involuntary behaviors


(fear responses) while o related to
voluntary

• c behaviors controlled by stimuli, o


behaviors controlled by reinforcers

• effect of negative reinforcement and


positive reinforcement
Observational Learning

• individuals learn
new behaviours
simply by
watching other
people perform
them
Cognitive Models
• based on the assumption that conscious thought
mediates or modifies an individual’s emotional state
and/or behaviour in response to a stimulus

• we create our own problems by the ways we interpret


events and situations

• schema - a set of underlying assumptions heavily


influenced by a person’s experiences, values and
perceived capabilities

• 2 possible causes of psychopathology

• actual irrational/maladaptive assumptions and


thoughts

• distortions of actual thought process


A: Activating Event

B: Belief

C: Consequence
Social
Factors
• healthy relationships are important for human development and
functioning

• these relationships provide many intangible health benefits

• when relationships are dysfunctional or absent, the individual may be


subject to mental disturbances
Multicultural Theories

• These theories look into the societal and cultural contexts in understanding
abnormality

• The impact of social forces and the failures of the support system in times of
stress

• These theories stress the importance of cultural conflicts and oppression in


the experience of abnormal behaviour
Name Description

the individual fears that his/her body parts or function


taijin kyofusho are offensive to other people because of appearance,
odor or movements

uncontrollable shouting and seizure-like episodes,


ataque de nervios trembling and crying
Multidimensional Models
Multidimensional Models
Multidimensional Models
Diathesis-Stress Theory
• Diathesis - predisposition to develop illness

• Stressors - environmental forces

• Diathesis + Stressors (activates/suppresses predisposition)


Epigenetics
• Reciprocal gene-
environment interactions
that actually modify the
expression of the genome

• Changes are not a one-


way street

• Ex: adolescent girls prone


to depression may seek
out situations that
promote mood disorders
(seeking out unstable
boyfriends, rumination
behavior)
Critical Developmental
Periods
• Critical developmental periods can influence whether or not
a mental disorder can develop

• Gene-environment interactions that occur at critical periods


can set the stage for later behavioural phenotypes

• Ex: Research on the 5-HTT (serotonin transporter gene)

• long alleles (L/L) more resistant to depression (even


when mistreated)

• short alleles (S/S) and (S/L) are more prone to


depression (when mistreated)
Case Analysis Time
The Ethical Practice of
Psychology in the
Philippines
Universal Declaration of
Ethical Principles
• Principle I - Respect for the Dignity of Persons
and Peoples

• Principle II - Competent Caring for the Well-Being


of Persons and Peoples

• Principle III - Integrity

• Principle IV - Professional and Scientific


Responsibilities to Society
General Ethical Standards
and Procedures
• Resolving Ethical Issues

• Competencies

• Human Relations

• Confidentiality

• Advertisements and Public Statements

• Records and Fees


Ethical Standards and
Procedures in Specific Functions

• Psychological Assessment

• Therapy

• Education and Training

• Research