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Directions: In your ¼
sheet of paper. Write
only the letter of the
correct answer.
1. What does the Earth’s
unique position with the
sun allow? allow the Earth to
orbit the Sun allow for space travel allow life to survive
d.none of the above
2. Which of the following is a
jovian planet?
a. Mars
b. Venus
c. Mercury
d. Saturn
3. The following are example of
terrestrial planets except:
a. Neptune
b. Earth
c. Mars
d. Venus
4. Earth is the only planet in
the solar system that has:
b.a core atmosphere
d.oceans of water
5. What is a meteorite?

a. a group of stars that appear to make

a pattern
b. a bright streak of light that passes
through the Earth’s atmosphere
c. a large cloud of gas and dust in space
that is beginning or ending of a star
d. a piece of meteor that lands on earth
after passing through the atmosphere
condensation -process of a
substance in a gaseous state
transforming into a liquid
state. This change is caused
by a change in pressure and
temperature of the
precipitation- only comes
down to the ground after it
condenses in the
evaporation - vaporation is the
process by which water changes
from a liquid to a gas or vapor.
Water boils at 212 degrees F
(100 degrees C), but it actually
begins to evaporate at 32
degrees F (0 degrees C); it just
occurs extremely slowly. As the
temperature increases, the rate
of evaporation also increases.
Condensation is when
water vapor turns to
liquid water. We are
surrounded by water
vapor - it's an important
component of the
Transpiration is the
process where plants
absorb water through the
roots and then give off
water vapor through
pores in their leaves.
 Surface run-off -is the flow of water that
occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater,
or other sources flows over the Earth's
surface. This might occur because soil is
saturated to full capacity, because rain
arrives more quickly than soil can absorb it,
or because impervious areas (roofs and
pavement) send their runoff to surrounding
soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface
runoff is a major component of the water
cycle. It is the primary agent in soil erosion
by water.
it starts with the unusual
warming of the central Pacific
Ocean accompanied by the
weakening of the trade winds.
the warming of the central
Pacific Ocean results to an
eastward shift of the low
pressure area (away from the
Indo Pacific).
Earth as a SYSTEM
SYSTEM - A set of interconnected components that are
interacting to form a unified whole.
(Organisms are interrelated and interacting)
The Earth system is essentially a CLOSED SYSTEM.

A closed system is a system in which

there is only an exchange of heat or
energy and no exchange of matter.

The Earth receives energy from the sun and

returns some of this energy to space.
Components or subsystems
of the Earth system
Biosphere Hydrosphere

Geosphere Atmosphere
Major Themes


Major Themes


Processes in the Earth system act on length scales

of microns to thousands of kilometers, and on
time scales of milliseconds to millions of years.
Major Themes

The Earth system is powered by one external
source: the Sun

and two internal ones:

- radioactive decay
- gravitational energy (heat still being lost from
planetary formation).
Major Themes


Material in the Earth system is continually

recycled in numerous overlapping cycles.
The Hydrologic (Water)
Origin of the Biosphere
1.Theory of
primordial soup
2. Deep-sea vent
3. Panspermia

Includes all life

forms on Earth

It covers all ecosystems—from the soil to the

rainforest, from mangroves to coral reefs,
and from the plankton-rich ocean surface to the
deep sea.

The Carbon Cycle

James Lovelock used
the "Daisy World Model"
to illustrate how the
biosphere is capable of
regulating its

The Albedo Effect …


Dynamic mass of
water that is
continuously on the
 Encompasses all the waters found
on earth.
 Includes water in various forms
whether ice, liquid , or vapor
found on the surface of the Earth,
below the surface , and most odf
its water that makes up the oceans
1. About 70% of the Earth is covered with liquid
water (hydrosphere) and much of it is in the
form of ocean water.
2. Only 3% of Earth's water is fresh: two-thirds
are in the form of ice, and the remaining
one-third is present in streams, lakes, and

The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

Precipitation, Evaporation, Runoff, Infiltration, etc...

Condensation, Precipitation, Evaporation,
Transpiration, Infiltration, Surface Runoff.
1. Water could be in liquid form, not
just solid and gas
2. Water has neutral pH
3. Water is a good conductor of heat
and energy
4. Water has a high specific heat
5. Water is a universal solvent

The Solid Earth

extends from the

surface to the center
Connect to Earth

Create a concept map which explains how

the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere,
and biosphere are interconnected.

Use arrows and simple illustrations.

4.6 Billion Years of

Hydrosphere Biosphere


The lithosphere
includes the crust and
the upper part of the
Layers of the Earth

CRUST (continental &


MANTLE (upper & lower)

CORE (outer & inner)

Which layer is it?

- It’s the light and very thin outer

skin of the Earth.
- The outermost layer where energy
and mineral resources are derived.

- Consists of a 5-70 km thick layer of

oceanic and continental crust
- Continental crusts is thicker than
the oceanic crust
Different elements that
compose the Earth’s CRUST
 Oxygen 46.60
 Silicon 27.72
 Aluminum 8.13
 Iron 5.00
 Calcium 3.63
 Sodium 2.83
 Potassium 2.59
 Magnesium 2.09
 Titanium 0.40
 Hydrogen 0.14

Mohorovicic discontinuity
is still a part of the crust
just above the upper
discovered by Andrija

- Less dense layer

- Made up of silicate rocks, mostly
made of the elements silicon,
oxygen, iron and magnesium.

- below the crust

- Contains a sublayer called
asthenosphere that lies on the
upper part of the mantle and
directly below the crust
- asthenosphere has an extreme
temperature and pressure which cause
the rocks to become ductile and thus
move like liquid
- Some rigid parts of the crust just
“float” or move about slowly on this
liquidlike layer, supporting the
movement of plates
- the flow of semimolten rocks in some
parts of the brittle crust causes it to
- it is made up of silicate rocks
- considered to be the thickest layer
of Earth
- It holds almost 84% of the volume
of the Earth

- silicate rocks are embedded or trapped in the

rocks that come straight from a volcano
- The rocks trapped inside magma apparently
contain most of the primary rocks that
originated from the interior of Earth
- Gutenburg discontinuity serve as a
transitional boundary between the
lower mantle and the outer core.
- Discovered by Beno Gutenburg (1889-
- The boundary does not remain
constant because of changes in heat
- When heat in the mantle dissipates,
the molten core gradually solidifies
and shrinks, moving this boundary
deeper and deeper within Earth’s

- Densest layer
- the Earth’s magnetic field
- strengthens the idea that the
Earth’s outer core is molten/liquid.

- Chiefly made up of iron and nickel

- Iron in the outer core is in liquid
form, which is why outer core is
known to be liquid while inner core
is solid
- Iron is very important because this is
the primary source of the Earth’s
magnetic field.
- Magnetic field extends outward to
protect Earth from solar winds by
deflecting them.
- Without this magnetic field, the solar
winds could damage Earth’s
atmosphere and all living forms on
- Lehman disacontinuity was
discoverde in 1929
- Inge Lehmann (1888-1993)

The atmosphere is the

thin gaseous layer
that envelopes the

The present atmosphere is composed of 78%

nitrogen (N), 21% oxygen (O2), 0.9%
argon, and trace amount of other gases.
One of the most important processes by
which the heat on the Earth's surface is
redistributed is through atmospheric
The parts of the Atmosphere

1. Troposphere- starts at the Earth’s
surface and extends 8 to 14.5 km high
 Considered the densest among the
other parts of the atmosphere
 Almost all the weather types are in this
2. Stratosphere-above the troposphere
It extend up to 50 km high
It is the region where we can find the
ozone layer which absorbs and scatters
the solar ultraviolet radiation
3. Mesosphere-this region is above the
stratosphere and extends to 85 km
 Meteors usually burn up in this region
as they approach our planet.

4. Thermosphere- it extends up to 6000

km above the mesosphere
It is where aurora and satellites occur
5. Ionosphere- is the part of our
atmosphere where abundant layers of
electrons, ionized atoms and molecules
 It extend from about 48 km above the
surface to the edge of space up to 965km

This region grows and shrinks and is

dependent on solar conditions
It is subdivided into several sub-regions
It is critical link in chain of the sun-earth
This region makes radio communication
6. Exosphere-this is the upper limit of our
 It extends from the top of the
thermosphere up to 10,000 km (6,
 1. The layer of the atmosphere in
which almost all the weather
types are in this region.

 2. It is the part of our

atmosphere where abundant
layers of electrons, ionized atoms
and molecules occur.
 3. The hottest layer of the
atmosphere in which temperature
can rise higher, even reaching
beyond 1000 degree celsius.

 4. The layer of the atmosphere in

which ozone layer has been
 5. This is a layer above
stratosphere in which the
temperature here reaches a
minimum of -90 degree Celsius
and is considered to be the
coldest layer.
Advancements and
Discoveries on the
Solar System
1. Pluto was once considered the
outermost planet in the solar
system. In 2006, it was observed
to belong to a different region,
the Kuiper belt, which is found at
the outer region of the solar
system and is mostly composed of
frozen volatiles (gases), comets,
and asteroids.
 Studies further validated that
Pluto, mostly composed of ice and
rocks, would be similar to other
objects that belong to Kuiper belt.
 Hence, Pluto was reclassified by
the International Astronomical
Union (IUA) as a dwarf planet
instead of being the 9th planet of
the solar system (Choi, 2014)
2. Mars may have had prehistoric
living forms. The National
Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) has been
obtaining data on Mars through
their space rovers.
 Some findings point to potential
life during the primitive years of
 One evidence found on a dry
lakebed on Mars are sedimentary
rocks shaped by microbes that
are found on Earth.
 The shape of these rocks were
supposedly distinctive features of
fossilized rocks in water settings
anywhere on Earth.
 The same structure and shape
of sedimentary rocks that were
obtained from Mars in that area
also perceived to have
undergone seasonal flooding
billions of years ago (Nora
Noffke, 2014)
 Another evidence is the presence
of elements such as carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur,
phosphorus, and organic
compounds known to be the
“building blocks” or basic
elements that can support life.
 These were found in the powder
obtained from drills done by
space rovers on Mars.
 3. The expansion of the universe
is accelerating. In 1998, two
independent projects, the
Supernova Cosmology Project and
the High-Z Supernova Search
Team, had observed that the
expansion of the universe is not
slowing down or even constant,
but inexplicably accelerating at
an increasing rate (Goldhaber,
 Using advance telescopes, the
distance of the Milky Way to
nearby galaxies was measured
and results proved that while it is
a known fact that the universe
indeed expands, it unexpectedly
has expanded faster in the last
few years.
4. The farthest instellar travel is
outside the solar system.
 The U.S. spacecraft Voyager I was
launched in 1977 and had been in
space traveling for nearly 35years
 In 2012, NASA announced that the
same spacecraft has already left
the solar system, making it very
first spacecraft to have reached
the farthest realms of space.
 The Voyager I mission has enable
humans to take samples and
images of various celestial
Historical Development of
the concept of EARTH SYSTEM
Scientists with Significant
Contributions to Our Knowledge
of Earth
Scientists with Significant
Contributions to Our Knowledge of
the Earth
 James Hutton
 Charles Darwin
 Andrija Mohorovicic
 Beno Gutenburg
 Inge lehmann
 Alexander Oparin
 Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
adaptation-a change in a plant or
animal that makes it better able to
live in a particular place or situation
seismology-science that deals with
earthquakes and with artificially
produced vibration of the earth
velocity- a rapidity of movement, a
quick motion
James Hutton (1726-1797)

 founder of modern geology

 Scottish naturalist and a farmer
 Believed that Earth is endlessly
changing and that by studying the
geological processes such as:
erosion, and sedimentation, it is
possible to learn the history of earth
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
 an English naturalist
 theory of evolution
 joined a voyage around the world to
collect and study specimens to observe
and understand the changes that take
place in them
 developed a revolutionary theory on the
origin of species that was contrary to the
popular view of naturalist during that
 Theory of Natural Selection
• asserting that certain species
evolved based on their
adaptation to a new environment
• adaptation is genetically based,
which means organisms that do
not have genes that allow them
to adapt to the new changes in
the environment eventually
Andrija Mohorovicic ( 1857-1936)
 founder of modern seismology
 Croatian meteorologist and seismologist
 Suggested that there lies a boundary
between the crust and mantle because of
the difference in the behavior of the
seismic waves ( Mohorovicic discontinuity)
 boundary is at a depth of about 35 km
below the continents and at 5-10km
below the ocean’s crust
Beno Gutenburg(1889-1960)
 German seismoligist
 discovered the Gutenburg boundary that
lies between the solid silicate mantle and
the liquid iron-nickel core of the Earth
 observed that the velocities of seismic
waves before hitting the outer core
 the change in velocities was observed
after the waves travelled to the mantle,
then to the Gutenburg after the waves
and finally to the outer core
Inge Lehmann (1888-1993)
 Danish seismologist
 she asserted that Earth’s core is not just a
single molten sphere but it comes with a
solid inner core based on seismic data and
obtained from careful measurements of
seismic waves from earthquake
 established authority on the structure of
the upper mantle
 conducted extensive research and
deduced new theories on the inner parts
of Earth
Inge Lehmann (1888-1993)

 discovered a seismic discontinuity while

on a collaborative study of Earth’s crust
and upper mantle with other scientist
 Lehmann discontinuity that separates the
outer core from the inner core
Alexander Oparin (1894-1980)

 Soviet biochemist
 proposed the primordial soup theory in
1924 to explain the origin of life on Earth
 Primodial soup theory suggests that the
early atmosphere and environment of
Earth contained complex organic
compounds developed from inorganic
material ( organic compounds became the
building blocks of life)
Stanley Miller(1930-2007) and
Harold Urey (1893-1981)

 A Jewish American chemist and

American chemist
 both conducted an experiment in
1952 to test the hypothesis of
Oparin’s primordial soup theory
 they used water, methane, ammonia
and hydrogen
Stanley Miller(1930-2007) and
Harold Urey (1893-1981)
 chemicals were sealed in a container
which the environment was controlled
to stimulate lightning and UV rays
through electrical sparks,
 condensation through temperature
 after several attempt, they were able
to produce different kind of amino
acids which are considered to be the
Directions:In your ¼ sheet of
paper. Identify the following
scientists with significant
contributions to our
knowledge of Earth.
1.He popularized the term

2.They both conducted an

experiment in 1952 to test the
hypothesis of Oparin’s
primordial soup theory.
3. The following chemicals were
used and sealed in a container
which the environment was
controlled to stimulate lightning
and UV rays through electrical
sparks, to be able to produce
different kind of amino acids
which are considered to be the
basic precursor of life.
4.He was the founder of modern
5. He developed a revolutionary
theory on the origin of species and
asserted that certain species
evolved based on their adaptation
to a new environment, which
means organisms that do not have
genes that allow them to adapt to
the new changes in the
From the given choices,
which planet is described
A.Mars E. Earth
B.Mercury F. Uranus
C.Neptune G. Saturn
D.Jupiter H. Venus
1. The planet that is most like the Earth.
2. The planet known for its Great Red
3. The planet which has the most violent
4. The closest to the Sun.
5. The planet where man can survive in
his natural state.
6. The planet known as the ringed