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Overview and Concepts

introduction to project management 07/08/2019 1

Course Name Engineering Project Management
Instructor Dr. Nadeem Ehsan
Ph.D. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Semester Spring, 2015
Credit Hours Three (03)


Required Text Project Management, A Managerial Approach

Fourth Edition
By Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel. Jr

Reference Books 1) Project Management, By Maylor, 2nd Edition
Pearson Education Asia
2) Practical Project Management
Ghattas R.G, Mckee,F.L,
Pearson Education Asia
3) A Guide to the Project Management Body of
Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 2000 Edition,
Project Management Institute, Newton Square,
Pennsylvania, USA

Teaching Assistant: Ibtisam Mirza


Yahoo Group

Objective of this Course
 Understand the concept of project management
 Effectively select, plan, implement, control, monitor, assess and terminate
the social sector and infrastructure projects.
 Manage the schedule of projects with a view to achieve the pre-assigned
goals of the organization.
 Understand about project manager, project organization and the software
used to apply various tools during project management.
 Manage change in the scope and requirements of the projects.
 Enhance skills to become an effective project manager in any institutional
 Understand the internal, external and physical environment of an
organization, project managers, vendors, and users of the projects’ end
products (deliverables) in the context of project management.
Projects are the building blocks of an investment plan. Due to several
economic factors, the investments of various types in the contemporary
world are shrinking day by day. The majority of projects do not terminate
on time or to budget and they rarely deliver to all the original project
specifications due to poor management. The current project management
techniques and methods require a departure from traditional approach as it
requires improved systems methodology and use of software on project life
cycle. The project management is now a profession that has to be learnt
by the successful managers for increased customer satisfaction. Project
management techniques are equally useful for social sector as well as the
infrastructure projects. These techniques are used by the NGOs,
consultancy companies, international organizations and the engineering

This course will particularly be of a great value to you once you will be
the middle and senior level managers, project planners, team leaders,
coordinators and volunteers and will be directly or indirectly involved
with the projects , or if you are expected to be engaged in such
activities in future. The course will be useful for you if you join industry,
social sector development organizations, engineering, academia,
international funding agencies/NGOs, and journalism or chose to be
independent consultants.

Broad Course Contents
Introduction to Project Management
• What is a Project?
• What is Project Management
• Relationship to other Management Disciplines
• Related Endeavors
• Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
• Project Stakeholders
• Organizational Influences
• Key General Management Skills
• Social-Economic-Environmental Influences

Project Management Processes

• Project Processes
• Process Groups
• Process Interactions
• Customizing Process Interactions
• Mapping of Project Management Processes

Broad Course Contents
Project Quality Management
• Quality Planning
• Quality Assurance
• Quality Control

Qualitative & Quantitative Project Risk Management

• Risk Management Planning
• Risk Identification
• Qualitative Risk Analysis
• Quantitative Risk Analysis
• Risk Response Planning
• Risk Monitoring and Control

Broad Course Contents
Project Communication Management
• Communications Planning
• Information Distribution
• Performance Reporting

Leadership of Project Team/ Managing Human Resources Team

• Organizational Planning
• Staff Acquisition
• Team Development

Introduction to Networking Techniques

• Arrow Diagrams
• Precedence Diagrams
• Program Evaluation and Review Technique
• Networking & Scheduling Computations

Broad Course Contents
Crashing a Project
• Time-Cost Relationship
• Project Crashing
• Cost vs. Crashing

Resource Leveling
• Work Breakdown Structure
• Time & Resource Estimates

Earned Value Analysis

• Cost Control
• Performance Indices
• Forecasting
• Schedule Variance
• Cost Variance

Course Schedule
The course consists of 16 Week Schedule out of which there will be One
Week for Mid Term examination and One Week for Final Examination.

Grade Distribution

Mid Term Exam 20%

Final Exam 30%
Homework/Assignments 15%
Quiz 10%
Group Project 25%
Total 100%

Research Paper Instructions
Topics should be innovative and must have strong relevance with the
subject and real life. You may choose organization in public or private
sector (Service or Manufacturing).

To encourage students to write technical research papers, students will

suggest topics to write technical research papers to be published in
reputable journals or conferences. A good paper written by group of
students may fetch a better grade in the course. A paper shall have to be
completed within the course time period. The instructor and RAs will help
the students selecting a paper topic and will keep guiding the students
throughout till the publication of papers. The students will not be allowed
to publish the same paper in other courses.

Requirements of Presentations?
Professional presentation by the Group on approved topic.
Three hard copies of the final paper and one electronic copy
must reach course instructor positively on the same day of
presentation. There will be 10 percent academic penalty on late

Each group will be given 20-25 minutes to present, with 10

minutes of Q&A session.

Suggested Topics for Papers

 Budgeting and Cost Estimation for Projects

 Financial Analysis of Projects
 Evaluation Techniques in Project Management
 Project Management in Service or Manufacturing Organization
 Project Monitoring and Evaluation
 Information Systems and Project Control techniques
 Applying MS Project or Primavera for a real life Project
 Negotiating and Managing Conflicts in a project

Instructions for students
Class Participation (On Campus Students Only)
•Asking questions and discussion of course material will be encouraged.

Project Instructions (DLs Only)

•DLs must actively partake in completion of final projects and
assignments to get good grades.

•Submitted work for this course must be original. Individual homework
means individual effort.
•Timely submission of Homework /Assignments is mandatory and if not
turned in when due, the student will be graded negatively.
•DL students must email the assignments to TA on the due date + 2
•Homework may be submitted via E-Mail and Fax in case individual is out
of town/ Country.

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Instructions for students
Quiz Policy
•There will be surprise quizzes.

Final and Midterm Papers

•Students must pay full attention to lectures, assignments and
recommended material/books to perform well in exam.

•The students should be in classroom five minutes before schedule time so
that he/ she participates in the lesson from the very beginning

•100 % attendance is desirable.

Code of conduct
•The students must comply with the professional ethics

•All classes are Smoke and Mobile Free.
introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 17
 “Cost and Fatigue Damage Analysis of Static and Dynamic Loads on Flexible Pavements” Nadeem Ehsan, Thesis,
Ph. D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Ebtisam Mirza, M. Ahmed, “ Impact of Computer-mediated communication on virtual
Teams Performance : An empirical study”, Information Technology, 2008, ITSim 2008, Kuala Lumpur, ISBN : 978-1-
 Nadeem Ehsan, Sohail Anwar, Muhammad Talha,“ Professional Ethics in Construction Industry of Pakistan”,
Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol I, WCE 2009, July 1-3 2009, London, U.K.
 Gillespie, T D, Karamihas, S M, SAYERS, M W, Nasim, M A, Hansen, W. Ehsan, N, Cebon, D, “”EFFECTS OF
ISSN: 0077-5614
 M. Tahir Nawaz, Nadeem Ehsan, “ Role of Female Employee’s in Apparel Industry of Pakistan”, (Accepted for
Publication in Pakistan Journal of Science)
 M. R. Saleem, Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Z. M. Khan, M. B. Khan, “Photonic Band Gap Structures of Nano-Polymer
Composite”, Proceedings of the IBCAST 2009, Pakistan (UP)
 Nadeem Majeed, Muhammad Tahseen Majeed and Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, “Risk Analysis and Management in IT
Industry of Pakistan”,CICM January 02-03, 2008, Lahore – Pakistan
 Shazia Nauman, Azhar Mansur Khan, Nadeem Ahsan ‘”Patterns of Empowerment and Leadership Style in Project
Environment” Journal: International Journal of Project Management, JPMA1189, DOI,
 Ilyas Mahmood A Qureshi, Khalid Mahmood, Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Ebtisam Mirza 2010 "Applicability of
Standards for Pakistani R&D Organizations"Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management onference
ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Usman Ghani, Shafqat Malik, Hasan Sikandar Rana 2010 "IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL
Technology Management Conference ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3

introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 18

 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Ebstisam Mirza and Afshan Naseem 2010 "Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurants in Pakistan:
What affects Customer’s Satisfaction?" Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Conference ISBN
: 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Bilal Mehmood, Khurram Raiz, Ebtisam Mirza 2010 “A competitive analysis of “Quality of
Software Product” using” House of Quality Matrix” Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management
Conference ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Zeeshan Rabbani, Muhammad. Khalil 2010 " Identification of Road Traffic Congestion using
GSM Network" Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Conference ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Gohar Majeed, Ebtisam Mirza, Azam Ishaq 2010 “Manufacturing Modern Structures: A Drift
in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies” Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management
Conference ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Sameer Ahmed, Farah Akhtar, Ebtisam Mirza 2010"Score Normalization in Voice
Biometrics: Comparison of Different Techniques Used for Score Normalization in Speaker Verification and its
Application in Pakistan" Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Conference ISBN : 978-971-
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Sameer Ahmed and Hammad Raza 2010 "Total Quality through Forecasting and
Optimization of Human Resource in Public Organization” Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology
Management Conference ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Shahzad Gul, Abdul Basit, Ebtisam Mirza 2010 "Up gradation Project for New Services of
Core Networks in Local Telecom Company" Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology Management Conference
ISBN : 978-971-94544-0-3
 “Design of Unmanned Intelligent Vehicle for Bio-Sphere Monitoring” Nadeem Ehsan, Report, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. (Program funded by NASA, USA).
 Spittler, J.R., C.D. Kim, N. Ehsan, R.I. Carr, "Urban Bus Transit Impact on Flexible Pavement Condition and Life
Cycle Costs, Preliminary Background," October, 1989, 105 pp
 N.Ehsan, A. Syed Abbas, S. Zafar Ali, E. Mirza, A. Akhtar “Effective Implementation Strategy for ERP Solution in
Pakistani Enterprises” International Association of Technology, Education and Development INTED2010 Spain
introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 19
 N. Ehsan, I. Ahmad Bhatti, H. Tahir Mehmood, M. Wasim Bhatti “Comparison of Professionalism between
Engineers, Doctors and Managers” International Association of Technology, Education and Development INTED2010
Spain ISDN:978-84-613-5538-9
 Ali, N. Ehsan, E. Mirza “Conventional Medical Care and E-Hospital Applications in Healthcare Sector of Pakistan”
International Association of Technology, Education and Development INTED2010 Spain ISDN:978-84-613-5538-9
 N. Ehsan, S. Saadat Kakakhel, S. Ashraf, Z. Sarwar “Impacts of Gender Discrimination on the Motivation of
Female Employees” International Association of Technology, Education and Development INTED2010 Spain
 M. Rauf Khan, M. Haider, A. Hussain, N. Ehsan, E. Mirza “Assessment of Project Management Maturity in Public
Sector R&D Organizations of Pakistan” International Association of Technology, Education and Development
INTED2010 Spain ISDN:978-84-613-5538-9
 M. Ajmal Khan, N. Ehsan, H. Rehman, E. Mirza, A. Ishaque “Impact of Quality Certification on Software Industry
of Pakistan” International Association of Technology, Education and Development INTED2010 Spain ISDN:978-84-

introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 20

What is Engineering? What is Management?

• The profession in which a • A set of activities (including

knowledge of the planning and decision making,
mathematical and natural organising, leading and
science gained by study, control) directed at an
experience, and practice is organisation’s resources
applied with judgement to (human, financial, physical
develop ways to utilize, and informational) with the
economically, the materials aim of achieving
and forces of nature for the organisational goals in an
benefit of mankind efficient and effective manner.
(1979, US. Engineering (Griffin)

Introduction 21
Engineering Management

 Engineering Management is concerned with the

direct supervision of engineers and the
management functions (planning, organising,
leading and controlling) in a technological
 Prepare engineers to become effective
leaders in meeting the challenges in this
new millennium

Introduction 22
Major Premises

 Technology and business savvy represents a

very powerful combination of great demand
in society
 Market environment is rapidly evolving
(changing marketplace complexities, web-
based technologies, globalization)
 Leaders with understanding of technology
and management perspectives are needed
 Engineers with proper management and
leadership training have great opportunities
to add value

Introduction 23
Typical Engineering
 Design/development of products/processes
 Project engineering/management
 Value engineering and analysis
 Technology development and applied R&D
(laboratory, field)
 Production/manufacturing and construction
 Customer service

Introduction 24
Work of an Engineer
As Technical Contributor
 Understand objectives of tasks specified
 Develop action plan for implementation
 Define standards (performance metrics)
 Select methodology/techniques
 Implement task with proper efforts
 Generate results and secure value
 Report findings (impact, lessons)

Introduction 25

 Make engineers more effective as technical

contributors (understand managerial points
of view, effect teams coordination, drive to
add value)
 Ready engineers for managerial positions
(managerial functions, success factors,
leadership talents, business/management
perspectives, expectations, contributions)

Introduction 26
Dual Aims
 Make engineers more  Make managers more
effective as technical effective in decisions
contributors (understand involving technologies
managerial points of (understand engineering
language, limitations and
view, effect teams possibilities)
coordination, drive to
 Ready managers for
add value)
contributing effectively
 Ready engineers for in the management of a
managerial positions technology-critical
(success factors, organisation.
leadership talents,
Introduction 27
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)

 Mining Engineer
 six primary functions of management:
 forecasting
 planning
 organizing
 commanding

coordinating } leading
controlling (feedback->adjustment)

Introduction 28
Engineering Management

Introduction 29
Engineering Management
 Planning (forecasting, setting objectives, action
planning, administering policies, establishing
 Organizing (selecting organizational structure,
delegating, establishing working relationship)
 Leading (deciding, communicating, motivating,
selecting/developing people)
 Controlling (setting performance standards,
evaluating/documenting/correcting performance)

Introduction 30
Enterprise Objective:
Value Addition
Management-speak: Engineering-speak:
 Increase Sales Revenue (new  Efficiency - Accomplishing
and enhanced products/services tasks with the least amount
- faster, better, cheaper - to of resources (time, money,
create greater customer equipment/facilities,
satisfaction) technology - know-how,
procedure, process, skills) -
 Reduced Cost to Do Business
do things right
(simplified product design, new
technologies, improved  Effectiveness -
productivity, raised efficiency, Accomplishing tasks with
reduced inventory via supply efforts commensurate with
chains, new production and the value created by these
marketing partnerships and
alliances) tasks - do the right
Introduction 31
Managerial Decision Making

 What, where, who, how – managers faces

numerous and challenging decisions

 Decision making qualities - knowledge,

information, and decision making skills

Introduction 32
Beware of Our Weakness:
We Are Poor at Learning from the Past
How to improve our management “intuition”?
 Should fully utilize past information to update both
current beliefs and future predictions
“We are active learners, but tend to filter information
to confirm our opinions.”
 Draw unbiased insights about the current state of the
world from available data
We are frequently poor observational statisticians.
 Conservation bias: reluctant to give up prior beliefs
about the world, even in light of new information,
revision of beliefs towards right direction is often
insufficient, or overly conservative

Introduction 33
Learnable Skills

 Management knowledge and skills (operational,

strategic, financial/accounting, interpersonal
skills/communications, etc.)

 Decision making skills/ tools (what-if analysis,

risk analysis, problem solving, root cause
analysis, decision tree, optimization, etc.)

Introduction 34
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
 Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods
based on a scientific study of the tasks.
 Scientifically select, train, and develop each worker
rather than passively leaving them to train
 Cooperate with the workers to ensure that the
scientifically developed methods are being followed.
 Divide work nearly equally between managers and
workers, so that the managers apply scientific
management principles to planning the work and the
workers actually perform the tasks.
Introduction 35
SEEM 3530

 Knowledge and skills in decision-making

 Appreciation of management issues and
complexities in implementing decisions

Introduction 36
 Planning
 Project Scheduling
 Project Budgeting and Selection
 Organising
 Strategic decision-making
 Game theory
 Leading
 Incentives and Productivity (Principal-agent theory)
 Controlling
 Project Management
 Performance evaluation

Introduction 37
Beware of Our Weakness:
We Are Myopic
“If we isolate a single critical
fault in human abilities to act
as efficient decision makers, it
is that we do not think ahead.”

We are often unable to look

ahead more than one period or

Introduction 38
Heuristic vs. Analysis
 A technique to solve a problem with a “good” but not
necessarily “optimal” solution
 Based on experiences, hunches/instincts, and judgment

 Formulate the decision model for the problem
 Use of computer and other tools to conduct an
extensive and thorough analysis to produce an
“optimal” solution

Introduction 39
When Do Heuristics Work Well?

 Optimal answers are often obvious

Draw on life experience to come up with an answer

 Task environments are forgiving of mistakes

A wide range of behaviors/solutions are optimal or near-

 One can learn by trial and error

Reinforcement learning: be more likely to repeat actions that
generate good results and less likely to repeat acts that
produce bad ones

Introduction 40
When Do Heuristics Fail Us?

 Ambiguity of Feedback
The trial and error method does not work: the decision is not
repeated or feedback is ambiguous

 Complexity of Decision
The problem is not intuitive: beyond our cognitive

 High Penalty for Mistakes

A small mistake could lead to serious consequences

Introduction 41
Tips for Engineering
 Demonstrate Technical Competence & Innovative
 Brush Up Communications skills (ask, listen, write
and talk)
 Show unfailing reliability to induce trust and
 Be Proactive in seeking challenging tasks
 Exhibit readiness for assuming larger responsibilities
(take courses, practice skills, gain experience)

Introduction 42
What is a Project?

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What is a Project?

“A project is usually a one-time activity with a well-defined set of desired

end results…complex enough that the subtasks required careful
coordination and control in terms of timing, precedence, cost and
Project Management: A Managerial Approach
Jack R. Meredith and Samuel J. Mantel, Jr.

The assignment of resources to accomplish specific results

(deliverables) with a well-defined schedule and budget.
Accenture (1999)

“something that is contemplated, devised, or planned; a plan; a scheme;

an undertaking”
The Macquarie Concise Dictionary
Third Edition (1998)

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Project Characteristics

A Project…

 Has specific objectives

 Has a start and end date
 Has a budget
 Has an ‘owner’/’sponsor’
 Produces specific deliverables
 Can vary vastly in size,complexity and duration
 May be a phase within a larger project or a phase
within a program

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What is an Operation?

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Operations and Projects
 Operations and projects share many characteristics:
 Performed by people.
 Constrained by limited resources.
 Planned, executed, and controlled.

 Operations may include activities such as:

 Financial management and control
 Continuous manufacture
 Product distribution

 Projects may include activities such as:

 Developing a new product or service.
 Effecting a change in structure, staffing, or style of an organization.
 Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system.

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Projects are Temporary

 Temporary means that every project has a definite

beginning and a definite end.
 The end is reached:
 When the project’s objectives have been achieved, or
 When it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or
cannot be met and the project is terminated.
 Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration:
 many projects last for several years.
 The duration of a project is finite:
 projects are not ongoing efforts.

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The Product of a Project is Unique
 A product or service may be unique even if the category it belongs to is large.

 For example, many thousands of office buildings have been

developed, but each individual facility is unique—different
owner, different design, different location, different
contractors, and so on.

 Because the product of each project is unique, the

characteristics that distinguish the product or service must be
progressively elaborated.

 Progressively means “proceeding in steps; continuing steadily

by increments”

 Elaborated means “worked out with care and detail; developed


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Costs of Poor Project Management

 31% of all new software development

projects are cancelled before

 53% of projects cost >189% of original


 16.2% of software projects completed

on time and on budget

 Average overrun is 222% of original

Costs of Poor Project Management

 31% of all new software development A survey on overall applications

projects are cancelled before development projects revealed:
– 46% of IT projects were
 53% of projects cost >189% of original "challenged" (completed over
estimates budget and past the original
 16.2% of software projects completed
on time and on budget – 6% of projects succeeded.

– 28% of projects failed.

 Average overrun is 222% of original
What is Project Management ?

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What is Project Management?

 Project management is the application of knowledge, skills,

tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or
exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project

 Meeting stakeholder needs and expectations involves balancing

competing demands among:

 Scope, time, cost, and quality.

 Stakeholders with differing needs and expectations.
 Identified requirements (needs) and unidentified requirements
 (expectations).

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The Triple Constraint of Project Management

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Managing triple constraint

1. Builds the dashboard you use for controlling the project.

2. Without this dashboard, you have no way of knowing where the project is
currently headed, how far off course it is, or what action to take to get it back
on course.

3. If you neglect this function, you and all project stakeholders are subject to
unhappy surprises.
4. Uncontrolled projects rarely reach their goal.

Time Cost
(Schedule) (Budget)

Manage the Triple Constraint

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Project Management and Other
Management Disciplines

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The Context for Project Management

 The Project Life Cycle

 Project Stakeholders
 Organizational Influences
 Key General Management Skills

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The Project Life Cycle

 The project life cycle serves to define the beginning

and the end of a project
 The life cycle is normally divided into a number of
 Each project phase is marked by completion of one
or more deliverables
 A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product
such as a
 feasibility study, a detail design, or a working prototype

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A Generic Life Cycle

The level of uncertainty is highest and, hence, risk of failing to achieve

the objectives is greatest at the start of the project. The certainty of
completion generally gets progressively better as the project
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Project Stakeholders

 Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations who

are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may
be positively or negatively affected as a result of project
execution or successful project completion

 The project management team must identify the

stakeholders, determine what their needs and expectations
are, and then manage and influence those expectations to
ensure a successful project

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Key Stakeholders

 Key stakeholders on every project include:

• Project manager
• the individual responsible for managing the project.
• Customer
• the individual or organization who will use the project product
• Performing organization
 the enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the
work of the project.
• Sponsor
 the individual or group within the performing organization who
provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the project.
• Project team members
• the people doing the work on the project to “realise” a product

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Organizational Influences
 Conduct of Projects is influenced by:
• Organizational Structure
• range from fully functional to totally project oriented
• Organizational Culture
• Conservative or Aggressive
• Participative or Authoritarian
• Organizational Systems
• Suitability of support functions such as finance, human resource
management or strategic planning for project work

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Influence of Organizational Structure
on Projects

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Key General Management Skills
 General management encompasses planning, organizing, staffing,
executing, and controlling the operations of an ongoing enterprise.

 General management also includes supporting disciplines such as

computer programming, law, statistics and probability theory,
logistics, and personnel.

 Some general management skills are critical for successful project


 • Leading
 • Communicating
 • Negotiating
 • Problem Solving
 • Influencing the Organization

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introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 65

 Leadership is about integrity
 Transformation leaders interact with team members in a
positive and inspiring manner.
 A leader has a vision that is fueled by an overall
confidence and willingness to take risks.
 Sharpens and utilizes people’s skills, intelligence, and
talents to attain a goal, create an excellent product,
accomplish a task or mission, or reach goals and

introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 66


introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 67


 Exchange of information
 Internal & external
 Formal & informal
 Vertical and horizontal

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 Negotiating involves conferring with others

to come to terms with them to reach an
agreement. Negotiations can be on the
 Scope, cost and schedule
 Changes to scope ,cost and schedule
 Contract terms and conditions
 Assignments and resources

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Problem solving

 A combination of problem definition and

decision making
 Problem definition requires distinguishing
between causes and symptoms
 Decision making includes analyzing the
problem to identify viable solution

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Influencing the organization

 Ability to get things done

 Requires an understanding of both the formal
and informal structures of all the
 An understanding of the mechanics of power
and politics

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Project Management Process

 The purpose of the Project Management

process is to identify, establish, coordinate
and monitor activities, tasks and resources
necessary for a project to produce a product
and/or service meeting the agreed

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Outcomes of Project Management
 As a result of successful implementation of the process:
 the scope of the work for the project will be defined;
 the feasibility of achieving the goals of the project with available
resources and constraints will be evaluated;
 the tasks and resources necessary to complete the work will be
sized and estimated;
 interfaces between elements in the project, and with other
projects and organizational units, will be identified and monitored;
 plans for execution of the project will be developed and
 progress of the project will be monitored and reported;
 actions to correct deviations from the plan and to prevent
recurrence of problems identified in the project, will be taken
when project targets are not achieved.

introduction to engineering management 07/08/2019 73


 In an electronic environment, abstracts are more

important that they have ever been.
 This “snippet” is the only thing a reader or
researcher will see and it is the one chance we
have of persuading them to download the full
text of the paper.
 Structured abstracts will help the Editor in their
preliminary review of a paper and will certainly
help the journal reviewers get an overview of a
paper even before conducting the review.





 Supply up to six keywords for tagging the paper

when archived in the database.
 Researchers will likely to retrieve the paper by
typing a keyword, if your paper is suitably
 Avoid overarching terms like "Management“.

 Do not make up new terms for an old concept.


 To produce a structured abstract for the

journal, following fields should be completed.
 Purpose
 Design
 Findings
 Value
 Research limitations/implications and
Practical implications may be omitted if not

 Title: Internal brand building and structuration:

the role of leadership

 Author(s): Christine Vallaster, Leslie de


 Journal: European Journal of Marketing

 Year: 2006 Volume: 40 Issue: 7/8 Page: - 784


 Purpose
 The paper aims to clarify the relationship between organisational
structures and individual brand supporting behaviour. It proposes
modelling the social transformation process and outlining why and
how leadership is important throughout the internal brand building
process. The study aims to expand the domain of corporate branding
by including a broader range of human resource and leadership-
related aspects than is normally found in the branding literature
 Design/methodology/approach
 The paper opted for an exploratory study using the open-ended
approach of grounded theory, including 30 depth interviews and one
expert group discussion with employees representing middle and
senior management having mainly a marketing and corporate
communications background. The data were complemented by
documentary analysis, including brand documents, descriptions of
internal processes, and copies of employee magazine articles.

 Findings
 The paper provides empirical insights about how change is brought
about during internal brand building. It suggests that successful
leaders act as “integrating forces” on two levels: integrating the
elements of corporate identity structures, and mediating between the
corporate branding structures and the individual.
 Research limitations/implications
 Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may
lack generalisability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test
the proposed propositions further.
 Practical implications
 The paper includes implications for the development of a powerful
brand image, the development of “brand ambassadors” and for
managing the balance between stability and change.

 Originality/value
 This paper fulfils an identified need to study how brand-supportive
behaviour can be enabled.
 Keywords
 Brand management, Corporate branding, Leadership, Social change.
 Article Type
 Research paper.
Research Topics

Pesticide procurement policy, storage environment, obsolescence parameters and

disposal issues.

Hospital wastages, quantification, health hazards and disposal issues.

Textile wastages, quantification energy value and cost effects.

Coal reserves in Pakistan, official and unofficial quantification, impurities,

purification techniques, energy value and usability in various industries.

Agriculture waste in Pakistan, its usability and govt policy issues.

Usability of Natural gas other than burning, cost effective solutions and

Existing motivational theories, common and uncommon parameters and gaps for
implementation in under developed countries.


Sample IEEE Paper for A4 Page
First Author#1, Second Author*2, Third Author#3
#First-Third Department, First-Third University

Address Including Country Name
*Second Company

Address Including Country Name


This document gives formatting instructions for authors

preparing papers for publication in the Proceedings of an
IEEE conference. The authors must follow the
instructions given in the document for the papers to be
published. You can use this document as both an
instruction set and as a template into which you can type
your own text.


This document is a template. An electronic copy can be

downloaded from the conference website. For questions
on paper guidelines, please contact the conference
publications committee as indicated on the conference
website. Information about final paper submission is
available from the conference website.

Page Layout
 An easy way to comply with the conference paper formatting
requirements is to use this document as a template and simply type
your text into it.
 Page Layout
Your paper must use a page size corresponding to A4 which is
210mm (8.27") wide and 297mm (11.69") long. The margins must be
set as follows:
 Top = 19mm (0.75")
 Bottom = 43mm (1.69")
 Left = Right = 14.32mm (0.56")

Your paper must be in two column format with a space of 4.22mm

(0.17") between columns.

Page Style

All paragraphs must be indented. All paragraphs must be

justified, i.e. both left-justified and right-justified.
The entire document should be in Times New Roman or
Times font. Type 3 fonts must not be used. Other font
types may be used if needed for special purposes.
Recommended font sizes are shown in Table 1.
Title must be in 24 pt Regular font. Author name must
be in 11 pt Regular font. Author affiliation must be in 10
pt Italic. Email address must be in 9 pt Courier Regular
Font Sizes for Papers

Font Size Appearance (in Time New Roman or Times)

Regular Bold Italic
8 table caption (in Small reference item
Caps), (partial)
figure caption,
reference item
9 author email address (in abstract abstract heading
Courier), body (also in Bold)
cell in a table
10 level-1 heading (in Small level-2 heading,
Caps), level-3 heading,
paragraph author affiliation
11 author name
24 title

Page Style
 All title and author details must be in single-column format and
must be centered.
 Every word in a title must be capitalized except for short minor
words such as “a”, “an”, “and”, “as”, “at”, “by”, “for”, “from”,
“if”, “in”, “into”, “on”, “or”, “of”, “the”, “to”, “with”.
 Author details must not show any professional title (e.g.
Managing Director), any academic title (e.g. Dr.) or any
membership of any professional organization (e.g. Senior
Member IEEE).
 To avoid confusion, the family name must be written as the last
part of each author name (e.g. John A.K. Smith).

Page Style

 Each affiliation must include, at the very least, the name of the
company and the name of the country where the author is
based (e.g. Causal Productions Pty Ltd, Australia).
 Email address is compulsory for the corresponding author

Section Headings

No more than 3 levels of headings should be used. All headings must be in

10pt font. Every word in a heading must be capitalized except for short
minor words as listed in Section III-B.
 Level-1 Heading: A level-1 heading must be in Small Caps, centred and
numbered using uppercase Roman numerals. For example, see heading “III.
Page Style” of this document. The two level-1 headings which must not be
numbered are “Acknowledgment” and “References”.
 Level-2 Heading: A level-2 heading must be in Italic, left-justified and
numbered using an uppercase alphabetic letter followed by a period. For
example, see heading “C. Section Headings” above.

Section Headings

 Level-3 Heading: A level-3 heading must be indented, in Italic

and numbered with an Arabic numeral followed by a right
parenthesis. The level-3 heading must end with a colon. The
body of the level-3 section immediately follows the level-3
heading in the same paragraph. For example, this paragraph
begins with a level-3 heading.

Figures and Tables
 Figures and tables must be centered in the column. Large
figures and tables may span across both columns. Any table
or figure that takes up more than 1 column width must be
positioned either at the top or at the bottom of the page.
 Graphics may be full color. All colors will be retained on the
CDROM. Graphics must not use stipple fill patterns because
they may not be reproduced properly. Please use only
SOLID FILL colors which contrast well both on screen and on
a black-and-white hardcopy, as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 A sample line graph using colors which contrast well
both on screen and on a black-and-white hardcopy
Figures and Tables
 Fig. 2 shows an example of a low-resolution image which
would not be acceptable, whereas Fig. 3 shows an example
of an image with adequate resolution. Check that the
resolution is adequate to reveal the important detail in the
 Please check all figures in your paper both on screen and on
a black-and-white hardcopy. When you check your paper on
a black-and-white hardcopy, please ensure that:
 the colors used in each figure contrast well,
 the image used in each figure is clear,
 all text labels in each figure are legible.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 2 Example of an unacceptable low- Fig. 3 Example of an image with

resolution image acceptable resolution

Table Captions

 Tables must be numbered using uppercase Roman

numerals. Table captions must be centred and in 8 pt
Regular font with Small Caps. Every word in a table
caption must be capitalized except for short minor words
as listed in Section III-B. Captions with table numbers
must be placed before their associated tables, as shown
in Table 1.

Page Numbers, Headers and Footers

 Page numbers, headers and footers must not be used.

Links and Bookmarks

All hypertext links and section bookmarks will be removed from

papers during the processing of papers for publication. If you
need to refer to an Internet email address or URL in your paper,
you must type out the address or URL fully in Regular font.


 The heading of the References section must not be

numbered. All reference items must be in 8 pt font.
Please use Regular and Italic styles to distinguish
different fields as shown in the References section.
Number the reference items consecutively in square
brackets (e.g. [1]).

 When referring to a reference item, please simply use the

reference number, as in [2]. Do not use “Ref. [3]” or
“Reference [3]” except at the beginning of a sentence,
e.g. “Reference [3] shows …”. Multiple references are
each numbered with separate brackets (e.g. [2], [3], [4]–
Examples of reference items of different categories shown in the
References section include:
 example of a book in [1]
 example of a book in a series in [2]
 example of a journal article in [3]
 example of a conference paper in [4]
 example of a patent in [5]
 example of a website in [6]
 example of a web page in [7]
 example of a databook as a manual in [8]
 example of a datasheet in [9]
 example of a master’s thesis in [10]
 example of a technical report in [11]
 example of a standard in [12]

[1] S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Laser Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M.

Osgood, Jr., Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
[2] J. Breckling, Ed., The Analysis of Directional Time Series: Applications to Wind
Speed and Direction, ser. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Berlin, Germany:
Springer, 1989, vol. 61.
[3] S. Zhang, C. Zhu, J. K. O. Sin, and P. K. T. Mok, “A novel ultrathin elevated
channel low-temperature poly-Si TFT,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 20,
pp. 569–571, Nov. 1999.
[4] M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, “High resolution
fiber distributed measurements with coherent OFDR,” in Proc. ECOC’00,
2000, paper 11.3.4, p. 109.
[5] R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF
converter,” U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997.


[6] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available:

[7] M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available:
[8] FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996.
[9] “PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland.
[10] A. Karnik, “Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback:
TCP/ABR and rate adaptive TCP/IP,” M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore, India, Jan. 1999.
[11] J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, “A stochastic model of TCP Reno
congestion avoidance and control,” Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA,
CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999.
[12] Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
Specification, IEEE Std. 802.11, 1997.

 The version of this template is V2. Most of the formatting
instructions in this document have been compiled by Causal
Productions from the IEEE LaTeX style files. Causal Productions
offers both A4 templates and US Letter templates for LaTeX and
Microsoft Word. The LaTeX templates depend on the official
IEEEtran.cls and IEEEtran.bst files, whereas the Microsoft Word
templates are self-contained. Causal Productions has used its best
efforts to ensure that the templates have the same appearance.
 Causal Productions permits the distribution and revision of these
templates on the condition that Causal Productions is credited in the
revised template as follows: “original version of this template was
provided by courtesy of Causal Productions


 The heading of the Acknowledgment section and the

References section must not be numbered.
 Causal Productions wishes to acknowledge Michael Shell
and other contributors for developing and maintaining
the IEEE LaTeX style files which have been used in the
preparation of this template. To see the list of
contributors, please refer to the top of file IEEETran.cls in
the IEEE LaTeX distribution.

That’s End ……