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8D Report training

Yu LaiLai
Nov. 22 2004
1.1 Audience Description
The audience of this procedure is the Company Organization
1.2 Applicability Statement
This document applies to all software, hardware and support processes which
are subject to continuous process and quality improvement.
1.3 Purpose Statement
Define how potential and actual problems will be processes across the
organization in order to be eliminated for ever thanks to the implementation of
this pavement and corrective action system.
1.4 Concept
The preventive and corrective action system allows the organization to
address continuous improvement through preventive and corrective actions
addressing causes and effects of problems.
It applies to Project Management thanks to risk management techniques as
well as Process and Product/Service Quality through Quality Management
This procedure describes the implementation of those concepts in PCS
Toulouse organization.
The hereafter table describes the plans and associated activities implemented
as a consequence and mapped to the SEI/CMM maturity levels.
Solving the problem: Causal analysis and problem resolution.

The Ford 8 D’s methodology must be used to support causal analysis and
problem resolution using the following steps:

• D1 - Use the Team Approach

• D2 - Describe the Problem
• D3 - Implement and Verify Interim Containment Actions.
• D4 - Define and Verify Root Cause(s).
• D5 - Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions.
• D6 - Implement Permanent Corrective Actions and Verify effectiveness.
• D7 - Prevent Recurrence.
• D8 - Congratulate your Team
Characteristics of Effective Group Problem Solving

The characteristics of effective systematic group problem solving are:

• Clear definition of the problem before consideration of solutions

• Assumptions about the causes of problems based on carefully
collected data
• Consideration of a wide variety of solutions before selecting one to be
• A solution implementation plan that includes performance goals and measures
• Monitoring the performance of the implemented solution
• Creativity
• Good teamwork
Barriers to Success

Although there are many benefits of using systematic group problem

solving, it is not always easy to do. This course provides you with the
information and tools you need to overcome these barriers:

• Habits
• Perceptions (feeling)
• Fears
• Assumptions
• History
• Skipping steps in the process
• Resistance to change
• Inability to break a large problem into smaller parts
The Preventive and Corrective actions system provides the
organization with a formal technique to enable continuous improvement
in addressing the problems detected at the organization level and in
the projects.

Everyone in the organization has the opportunity to raise problems as:

• individual
• participant to a project
• member of a PIT (Process Improvement Team)
• Cross function team
• managers
D2----- Problem Description (Definition)
Introduction to Continuous Improvement:

Each day we are faced with solving problems. Some are complex;
others are simple. We can improve the quality and impact of the solutions by using
a systematic approach to problem solving.


A problem can be defined as a gap between what is and what ought to


Systematic problem solving is a structured approach that moves a

problem from its initial recognition through the identification and
implementation of an effective solution. It can be done by groups or
individuals. The focus of this course is on group problem solving.
Effective Problem Statements
• Specific
• Concise (Simple)
• Statements of a “symptom”
• Observable
• Verifiable
• Data
• Time

Same as:
• What is the problem and what is not the problem
• When has the problem been discovered
• Where has it been discovered
• How many times does it occur
• Who was involved when the problem occurs

• Descriptions of undesirable:
– Circumstances
– Conditions
– Events
– Behaviors
Example of an Effective Problem Statement

Customer complaints about poor after-purchase service

have increased 20 percent in the last 2 months.
What to Avoid When writing a problem statement, you should avoid:

• Phrasing the problem in the form of a question.

– Why are customers dissatisfied with our after purchase service?

• Stating the problem in terms of a desired outcome.

– Reduce customer complaints by 20 percent.

• Beginning the problem statement with “Lack of.”

– Lack of customer satisfaction with after-purchase service.

• Stating the problem in terms of its solution.

– Hire new people to work in the customer service department.
D3----- Containment Action(s)

Containment actions plan objective:

Describe the containment action plan to put in place in order to

eliminate the effects of the problem.

special process need to be developed to implement those

containment actions

• Customer impact:

• Internal impact
D4----- Root Cause(s)

•Steps for identification the root causes:

• Use check sheets to collect data for the problem

• Construct a histogram from the data collected on the check sheets.
• Formulate a cause-and-effect diagram from the information available.
• Use cause screening to narrow down the list of possible causes.
• Conduct a series of “experiments” using scatter diagrams and run
charts to record your information.
• Reexamine your problem statement.

After completing the first step in the problem-solving process, you have
arrived at a concise description of the problem. Once you understand
what the current state is, you can move on to analyzing the causes.
Example In June and July, customer complaints about after-purchase service
rose 20 percent to 50 complaints per month. This has only occurred at
our Atlanta store. Possible causes are:

• Telephone is not answered properly.

• Complaint is not recorded accurately.
• Repairs are not made at the time of the first service visit.
• Repair person doesn’t arrive at the scheduled time.
• Something has changed in the Atlanta store.

Tools to Use The following are tools you can use to help you understand that
current situation:
• Cause-and-effect diagrams
• Cause screening
• Control charts
• Check sheets
• Histograms
• Scatter diagrams
• Sampling
• Run charts
• Flowcharts
• Brainstorming
Questions to Ask To decide which tools to use, ask the following questions:

• What data do we need to collect?

• How should we go about collecting the data?
• Who should collect the data?
• What format will give us the most useful information?
• How is the team going to analyze the data?

For the possible root causes, Must ask 5 times

Why’s for each

To see the possible root cause contribution, then

decide which possible root cause is true root cause.
D5----- Chosen Permanent Corrective Action(s)
Based on objective criteria:
payback, return on investment, customer satisfaction improvement,...
define the permanent corrective actions you would like to implement.

• Agree upon a solution target.

• Use brainstorming to identify a wide range of possible solutions.

Questions to Ask the following questions to develop alternative solutions:

• What are possible actions that could be taken to solve the problem?
• too risky, way out, foolish, impossible, etc.?
Group Skills Needed The group skills needed in this step are:

• Summarizing
• Initiating
• Evaluating
• Creativity
• Objectivity
Developing Alternative Solutions

You must generate as many alternative solutions as possible.

Examples Solutions to the customer complaint problem could include:

• Upgrading the telephone system.

• Retraining the service repair personnel.
• Buying better repair tools.
• Going back to the original service-call procedures used in the Atlanta office.
• Tracking and classifying customer problems.
• Providing training for phone operators.

Verify Permanent Corrective actions--------%effect

Explain the tests, simulations, experiences you did to be sure the corrective
actions eliminate effectively the root-causes.

Chose the corrective actions

One or more
D6----- Implemented Permanent Corrective Action(s)

There are two tasks to accomplish in this step:

• Ensure that everyone in the group follows the action plans

• Make a status of the action plan which would contain actions to
get new tools, to provide training and to write/update applicable documented
• Begin tracking results.

Tools to Use You can use the following tools to accomplish:

• Check sheets
• Run charts
• Control charts
Group Skills Needed To complete, group members need to be able to:

• Initiate
• Organize
• Summarize
• Implement action plans
D7----- Action(s) to Prevent Recurrence
Proof system in place
List the proof systems which has been put in place during the course of the
study in order that errors never occur
Updated documents
List the documents which have been updated (control plans, procedures,
audit program,...
List/communicate to other process, project, sites the benefits of this study
to have it reused in similar domain.
Tell where is located the present report in the process database for future
Learn to standardize your solution through:
– Documentation
– Sharing the success
– Extending the improvements to all appropriate areas
D8----- Congratulate Your Team

Put here a congratulation message for your team.

State the savings resulting of this effort.
Encourage publication, presentation in mutual training.
Thank you!