Sie sind auf Seite 1von 99

The Early Earth

◦According to the fossil record, the first single-


celled bacteria appeared some 3.5 billion to 3.9
billion years ago.
◦These microscopic creatures lived in the water,
converting the Sun’s light into chemical energy.
◦This metabolic process, called photosynthesis,
released oxygen gas as a byproduct.
◦Photosynthesis slowly changed the
composition of the early atmosphere, adding
more oxygen to what scientists believe was a
mixture of sulfur and carbon gases and water
vapor.
The Systems of Earth
◦Geosphere – the solid matter of the Earth
◦Hydrosphere – all water on earth: the portion of
Earth's surface that is water, including the seas and
water in the atmosphere
◦Atmosphere – mixture of gases surrounding any
celestial object that has a gravitational field strong
enough to prevent the gases from escaping
◦Biosphere – Earth’s zone of air, soil, and water that
is capable of supporting life
Gaea hypothesis
◦States that organisms interact with their
inorganic surroundings and establish a self-
regulating, complex system that helps
maintain the conditions necessary for life on
the planet.
Geosphere
◦Is the solid portion of Earth that includes the interior
structure, rocks, and minerals, landforms, down to the
deep depths of the core, and the processes that
shape Earth’s surface.
◦“ Geosphere” covers all of the solid part of Earth
◦“Litosphere” covers ONLY the crustal part and upper
mantle of Earth.
EARTH
The Composition and Structure of Earth
GOLDILOCKS
ZONE
A zone in outer space where life exist
CORE
Innermost layer of the Earth
-Inner core
-Outer core
Lehman discontinuity
◦Transitional boundary between the inner core
and outer core
◦Discovered by Danish seismologist Inge
Lehman when a large earthquake occurred
near New Zealand
◦The magnetosphere is the region
surrounding Earth in which the planet's
magnetic field deflects the solar wind.
◦The outermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere,
the corona, is so hot that it continually escapes
into space. The resulting stream of charged
particles that blows across the entire solar
system is called the solar wind.
Gutenburg discontinuity
◦The transitional boundary between the mantle
and the core.
◦It was named after its German discoverer,
Beno Gutenburg.
◦This boundary is not fixed because of changes
of heat flow.
MANTLE
It is made of solid rock, is the largest part of Earth, makes
up 84% of Earth’s total volume.
Mohorovicic Discontinuity
◦Discovered by Crotian seismologists Andrija
Mohorovicic in 1909 while studying the seismic
waves in an earthquake
◦The velocity of the seismic waves behaved differently
as they traveled through the layer before the mantle
(“discontinuity”)
◦Mohorovicic Discontinuity or “Moho” is now
recognized as the transitional boundary that divides
the crust from the mantle
CRUST
Earth’s outer surface ; a cold, thin, brittle outer
shell made of rock. 
2 types of Crust
◦Oceanic crust is composed of magma that erupts on
the seafloor to create basalt lava flows or cools
deeper down to create the intrusive igneous rock.
◦Continental crust is made up of many different
types of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary
rocks. The average composition is granite, which is
much less dense than the mafic igneous rocks of the
oceanic crust. 
Litosphere
◦Divided into larger plates called tectonic
plates that move about.

◦7 major tectonic plates


Hydrosphere
◦Total amount of water found on Earth
◦Covers 70% of the entire surface of Earth, and most
of it is ocean water
◦Water has been associated with the existence of life.
◦Critical component of most organisms that drying up
would mean dying.
The Hydrologic (Water)
Cycle
◦ refers to the continuous circulation of water
within the Earth’s hydrosphere
◦transforms into its various phases of solid
(ice), liquid (water), and gas (vapor), with
the total mass of water remaining fairly
constant
Evaporation
◦the process by which liquid water changes to water
vapor and enters the atmosphere as a gas.
◦Evaporation of ice is called sublimation.
◦Evaporation from the leaf pores, or stomata, of plants
is called transpiration.
◦If evaporation did not replenish the water lost by
precipitation, the atmosphere would dry out in ten
days.
Condensation
Water vapor cools as it rises, condensing into
droplets of water to form clouds.
Precipitation
◦occurs when water vapor in the atmosphere
condenses into clouds and falls to the Earth
◦ Precipitation can take a variety of forms, including
rain, snow, ice pellets, and hail.
◦About 300 cubic kilometers (about 70 cubic miles) of
precipitation falls each day.
◦ Precipitation falls from the clouds and the water
returns to Earth, continuing the hydrologic cycle.
GROUNDWATER
& SURFACE
RUNOFF
◦Groundwater flow runs through rocks and soil.
◦ Groundwater flows from areas where the water
table is higher to areas where it is lower.
◦Precipitation and meltwater percolate into the
ground and reach a level, known as the water
table, at which the ground is saturated with
water.
◦Water that flows down streams and rivers is
called surface runof.
◦ Runoff is not constant—it decreases during
periods of drought or dry seasons and
increases during rainy seasons, storms, and
periods of rapid melting of snow and ice.
Distribution of Water on
Earth
The Atmosphere
◦Earth’s atmosphere is a thin
blanket of gases and tiny
particles — together called
air. We are most aware of
air when it moves and
creates wind. All living
things need some of the
gases in air for life support.
Without an atmosphere,
Earth would likely be just
another lifeless rock.
Composition of Atmosphere
ASSIGNMENT
◦What are the different layers of the
atmosphere?

◦Describe each layer of the atmosphere.


Energizer
◦THE DANCING BLUE BIRD

◦In and out the dancing blue bird(3x)


◦You will be my partner

◦Tapiti tapiti on my shoulder


◦Tapiti tapiti on your shoulder

◦Tapiti tapiti on my shoulder


◦You will be my partner
LAYERS OF
EARTH'S
ATMOSPHERE
The Earth's Atmosphere
◦The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by
blocking out dangerous rays from the sun.
◦ The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes
thinner until it gradually reaches space.
◦ It is composed of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), and
other gases (1%).
◦Oxygen is essential to life because it allows
us to breathe.
◦Some of the oxygen has changed over time to
ozone. The ozone layer filters out the sun's
harmful rays.
Layers of the Earth's
Atmosphere
◦The atmosphere is divided into five layers. It
is thickest near the surface and thins out with
height until it eventually merges with space

◦Thickness, temperature, density


◦The troposphere is the densest among the
layers of the atmosphere because of the
weight of all the other layers compressing it.
Weather occurs in this layer.
◦Tropopause (a thin buffer zone prior to
stratosphere)
◦The air in this layer has strong, steady
horizontal winds which are advantageous to
long-distance flights
◦Many jet aircrafts fly in
the stratosphere because it is very stable.
◦Stratopause (zone that separates the
stratosphere and mesosphere )
Ozone in the Stratosphere
◦About 90% of the ozone in the Earth's atmosphere is
found in the region called the stratosphere. Ozone
forms a kind of layer in the stratosphere, where it is
more concentrated than anywhere else.
◦Ozone and oxygen molecules in the stratosphere
absorb ultraviolet light from the Sun, providing a
shield that prevents this radiation from passing to the
Earth's surface.
◦Meteors or rock fragments burn up or break
down into smaller pieces in the mesosphere.
◦Considered to be the coldest layer of the
atmosphere
◦Mesopause (thin buffer zone above
mesosphere) is actually the coldest region in
the entire Earth
◦The thermosphere is the hottest layer because
it absorbs highly energetic heat from the sun
◦Lower part of the thermosphere
(ionosphere)where collision of oxygen and
nitrogen particles are electrically charged by the
solar wind
◦is a layer with auroras (borealis & australis)
◦The atmosphere merges into space in the
extremely thin exosphere. This is the upper
limit of our atmosphere
BIOSPHERE
Is a closed system that makes up all the living
components of Earth
Biosphere
◦It is made by many different biomes
◦In this system an organism can consume
another organism to allow energy to circulate
to the ecosystem.
◦Composed of all organisms on Earth, including
those on land, in water, and in air.
Examples of biome
Savanna
Grassland
with individual
scattered
trees
Grasslan
d
Vegetation is
mostly grass
Grazing
animals
Desert
dry area: an area
of land, usually in
very hot climates,
that consists only
of sand, gravel, or
rock with little or
no vegetation, no
permanent bodies
of water, and
erratic rainfall
Tundra
Permafrost
(permanent
frozen subsoil)
Taiga
Coniferous
forest
Biosphere
◦It is made by many different biomes
◦In this system an organism can consume
another organism to allow energy to circulate
to the ecosystem.
◦Composed of all organisms on Earth, including
those on land, in water, and in air.
1%

10%

100%
DECOMPOSE
RS
These organisms
break down dead
plants and
animals into the
nutrients needed
by plants to
survive.
Primary
producers
Plants are primary
producers. All life
in an ecosystem
depends on
primary producers
to capture energy
from the Sun,
convert it to food
that is stored in
plant cells, and
pass this energy on
to organisms that
eat plants.
Primary
consumers
Primary
consumers are
animals that feed
on plants. When
primary
consumers eat
primary
producers
(plants), the
energy in plant
cells changes
into a form that
can be stored in
animal cells.
Secondary
consumers
Secondary
consumers
are a diverse
group of
animals—
some eat
primary
consumers
and some eat
other
secondary
consumers.