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3.

Problem statements, Research questions,


Hypothesis, statement of purpose
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NURS3010- Research Methods 1
Learning Objectives (Polit)

1. Describe the function and characteristics of research


hypotheses and distinguish different types of hypotheses
(e.g., directional versus non-directional, research versus
null)
2. Distinguish forms of problem statements, statements of
purpose, research questions and hypothesis for
quantitative and qualitative studies
3. Critique statements of purpose, research questions, and
hypotheses in research reports with respect to their
placement, clarity, wording, and significance
4. Define new terms
NURS3010- Research Methods 2
A Reminder

 Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is closely


linked to the Research Process
 The Research Process is closely linked to
the Nursing Process

NURS3010- Research Methods 3


• Formulating the problem
Phase 1 - • Reviewing the related research Literature
Concept • Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions
ual • Formulating hypothesis/research questions
Phase

• Selecting Research Design


• Develop protocol (if Intervention)
• Identify population to be studied
The Research Process

Phase 2: • Design Sampling Plan


Design & • Specify methods to measure variable
Planning • Develop methods to protect human subjects

• Collecting Data
Phase 3: • Preparing for data analysis
Emperical
Phase

• Analyzing the data


Phase 4: • Interpreting the data
Analytic
Phase

Phase 5: • Communicating the findings


Dissemina • Utilizing research as Evidence
tion
Sept 27,2010 Pauline Anderson-Johnson 4
Phase UWISON
NURS3010- Research Methods 4
Lets review

 You have decided on a research problem that


needs solving.
 A research problem is:
 An area of concern where there is a gap in knowledge base
needed for nursing practice (Burns & Gove, 2009)

 Remember not all problems are researchable - Research deals


with facts – that is, phenomena that can be observed in the real
world. The answers from the research should explain, describe,
identify, substantiate, predict or qualify the research question

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Phase 1 of the Research
Process

 You have decided on a research problem that


needs solving
 Thru the development of an argument, a problem
statement will be developed that will articulate the
problem
 A statement of purpose (summary of overall goal) is
sometimes presented
 Research questions are posed (queries to be
answered)
 Hypotheses are stated for testing

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Problem Statement

 Presented early in the report


 It is the push/impetus for the research
study
 Often begins with the first statement of the
introduction

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Problem Statement

 Expresses the baffling & unsolved


situation that needs to be studied
 It incorporates a rationale for the study
 It is a well structured formulation of the
unsolved problem

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Problem Statement
– 6 components

1. Problem identification (What is wrong with the


current situation)
2. Background (what is the nature of the problem that
readers need to understand)
3. Scope of the problem (How big is the problem; # of
persons affected)
4. Consequences of the problem (what is the cost of not
fixing it)
5. Knowledge gaps (what info is lacking)
6. Proposed solution (how will this new study
contribute to solving the problem)
NURS3010- Research Methods 9
Problem Statement

 Effective problem statement answer the


question “Why does the research need to
be conducted”.

NURS3010- Research Methods 10


Problem statement

 Examples

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Statements of Purpose

 The research goal is often written as a


statement of purpose
 It is usually easy to identify because the
word “purpose” is clearly stated- “the
purpose of this study was ….”
 gives the general direction of the study
which is stated in 1-2 sentences
NURS3010- Research Methods 12
Statement of Purpose –cont..

Quantitative studies – it will


 identify the key study variables
 their possible relations;
 the population

NURS3010- Research Methods 13


Statement of Purpose –cont..

 Example
Handwashing helps to prevent the spread of
nosocomial infections.
 Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs
more effective in preventing these infections?

 Identify the independent, dependent variables and the


population
 State the purpose of the study

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Statement of Purpose

 Hip fracture is common in elderly patients


after falling.
 I have an elderly patient who exhibits an
unsteady gait.
 Would a hip protector be a useful
preventative measure for this patient?
 Identify the independent, dependent variables and the
population
 State the purpose of the study
NURS3010- Research Methods 15
Statement of Purpose –cont..

Qualitative studies –
 indicates the nature of the inquiry,
 the key concept or phenomenon,
 the group, community or setting under study

 Example: The purpose of this study was to describe


satisfactory and unsatisfactory experiences of
postpartum nursing car from the perspective of
adolescent mothers.

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Statement of Purpose –cont..

 The use of verbs are important


 Can often tell the type of study used to
solve the problem
 Explore, Describe, Test
 Evaluate, Examine relationship
 Understand etc.

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Research Question

 Sometimes direct wording of the statement of


purpose
 Eg The purpose of this study was to describe the
relationship between sexual risk taking behaviours
and substance use among pregnant adolescents at
the UHWI Health Center, Kingston Jamaica

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Research questions Cont..

Quantitative studies – it will identify


 the key study variables
 their possible relations;
 the population
 the variables are measureable concepts
 questions suggest quantification

NURS3010- Research Methods 19


Research questions Cont..

Qualitative studies – the statements


 Identifies the phenomenon of interest and the
group being studied
 Type of question vary by the qualitative
traditions
 Grounded theory – process questions
 Phenomenologists – meaning questions
 Ethnographers – descriptive questions

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Hypotheses

 Is a statement predicting the relationship of two or more


variables
 Used in quantitative studies
 Predict answers to a query, eg
 The research question “What is the relationship between sexual
risk-taking and substance abuse among teenage mothers in
Jamaica

 Teenage mothers who are substances abusers are more likely to


high levels of sexual risk-taking behaviour

NURS3010- Research Methods 21


 Knowledge and diabetes management
 Does Knowledge of persons with diabetes
 Does the level of knowledge of DM
influence self care management among
persons with diabetes

NURS3010- Research Methods 22


Hypotheses cont..

 Testable hypotheses
 State the expected relationship between the
independent variable and the dependent
variable in a population
 Adolescents and young mothers who do not take
sexual risks and are substances abusers are more
likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS, compared
to those who take risks…
 It is tested thru statistical procedures

NURS3010- Research Methods 23


Hypotheses - Types

Wording - Should be worded in the present


tense
Types
 Simple or complex hypotheses
 Directional or non-directional hypotheses
 Research or Null hypotheses

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Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 Simple or complex hypotheses


 SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS – predicts the
relationship between a single IV and a single
DV
 COMPLEX HYPOTHSIS – predicts the
relationship between 2 or more IV or 2 or
more DV

NURS3010- Research Methods 25


Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 Simple or complex hypotheses

 Hyperlink to page 159

NURS3010- Research Methods 26


Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS – specifies not


only the existence but the expected direction
of the relationship between the variables
 NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS -
 Does not say the direction of the relationship

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Hypothesis (cont)

 Hyperlink page 160 Eg 1-6

NURS3010- Research Methods 28


Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS – eg:


incontinent patients who receive Two-hourly
change in position are less likely to develop
decubitus ulcers compared to those receiving
daily position change

 NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS eg:


Frequency of change in position of
incontinent patients is related to the
development of decubitus ulcers
NURS3010- Research Methods 29
Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
 (scientific hypothesis)– states the actual
prediction of relationship between variables

 NULL HYPOTHESIS (statistical hypothesis) -


expresses the absence of a relationship EG

NURS3010- Research Methods 30


Hypotheses – Types Cont…

 NULL HYPOTHESIS (statistical hypothesis) - EG Null:


- incontinent patients who receive two-hourly change
in position are just as likely to develop decubitus
ulcers as those receiving 4-hourly position change

 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (scientific hypotheses) eg


 incontinent patients who receive two-hourly change in
position are less likely to develop decubitus ulcers
compared to those receiving daily position change
 Frequency of change in position of incontinent patients is
related to the development of decubitus ulcers

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Hypothesis testing

 Hypotheses are tested thru statistical


analysis
 Hypotheses are never proved, they are
accepted or supported
 They are increasingly supported with more
evidence

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Research problems -Examples of terms

 (p.147, Polit & Beck, 2010)

NURS3010- Research Methods 33


References

1. Polit, D., & Beck, C.T. (2010). Essentials of nursing


research –Appraising evidence for Nursing practice.
Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
2. Gerrish, K., & Lacey, A. (2010). The research process
in nursing. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
3. Polit, D., & Beck, C.T. (2012). Nursing research:
Generating and assessing evidence for Nursing
practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

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