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DENSITY & BUOYANCY

BUOYANCY
• BUOYANCY = the ability to float in a
fluid.
• Examples of fluids = water, air
• BUOYANT FORCE = the upward
force that acts on a submerged
object.
– It acts opposite of gravity
WEIGHT OF OBJECT

THE BIGGER FORCE


WINS, SO THE BLOCK
SINKS
BUOYANT
FORCE
Which one is easier to pick up?
Why?
This beach ball floats.
Why?
Because the Buoyant Force is greater
than the weight of the ball.
ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
The buoyant force acting on a
submerged object is equal to the
weight of the fluid the object displaces.
ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE states
that the WEIGHT of the amount of
water displaced is equal to the
BUOYANT FORCE.
Mass = 90 kg
Mass = 90 kg

A B

WHICH ONE IS MORE


LIKELY TO FLOAT?
DENSITY
DOESN’T DENSITY HAVE
SOMETHING TO DO WITH IF
SOMETHING SINKS OR FLOATS?
DENSITY
d=m/v

DENSITY OF WATER = 1 g/cm3

• If the object has a higher density, it sinks.


• If the object has a lower density, it floats.
• if the object has the same density, it flinks
(floats in the middle of the water).
DENSITY & BUOYANCY
• Having a lower density than water means
that the beach ball’s buoyant force is
higher than the weight of the beach ball.

SO THE BEACH
BALL FLOATS.

WATER
DENSITY & BUOYANCY
• Having a higher density than water means
that the cinder block’s buoyant force is
lower than the weight of the cinder block.

SO THE CINDER
BLOCK SINKS.

WATER
DENSITY & BUOYANCY
• Having the same density as water means
that the boot’s buoyant force is equal to
the weight of the boot.
SO THE BOOT
NEITHER SINKS
NOR FLOATS, IT
FLINKS
WATER
CHANGING DENSITY
You can change an object’s density by:
1. Increasing/decreasing its mass
2. Increasing/decreasing its volume

m
d=
v
AN OBJECT FLOATS
CAUSES:
• Weight is less than the buoyant force.
• Object is less dense than the fluid
• Object decreases its mass and becomes
less dense than the fluid.
• Object increases its volume and
becomes denser than the fluid.
AN OBJECT SINKS
CAUSES:
1. Weight is greater than the buoyant force.
2. Object is denser than the fluid
3. Object increases its mass and becomes
denser than the fluid.
4. Object decreases its volume and
becomes denser than the fluid.
Q) Which weighs more:-
A kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of iron?

DENSITY
What is Density?
If you take the same volume of different substances,
then they will weigh different amounts.
Wood Water Iron

1 cm3 1 cm3 1 cm3

0.50 g 1.00 g 8.00 g


IRON

Q) Which has the greatest mass and therefore the most dense?

Density is the Mass per unit Volume


Density Equation:
g or kg

Density = Mass
m
Volume
gcm-3 or kgm-3

V
cm3 or kg3

= m Example:
Q) Liquid water has a density of
V 1000kgm-3, while ice has density
of 920kgm-3.
V = m = 0.25 = 0.000250m3
 1000 Calculate the volume occupied by
0.25kg of each.
V = m = 0.25 = 0.000272m3
 920
DENSITY OF A REGULAR SOLID

m = 240 g
 Find the Mass of
the solid on a
2.0 cm balance.
 Measure the
three lengths and
 = m = 240 =10.0 g/cm3 calculate the
3.0 cm
V 24 Volume.
(ie V = l x w x h )
 Calculate the

4.0 cm Density.
DENSITY g/cm3
Aluminium 2.70
Iron 7.86
Brass 8.50
Wood 0.50
Slate 2.80
Glass 2.50
Lead 11.3
Marble 2.70
Wax 0.89
DENSITY OF AN IRREGULAR
SOLID
m = 360 g
 = m = 360 =12.0 g/cm3
V 30
 Find the Mass of the solid
on a balance.
80 cm3 Fill the Measuring Cylinder
with Water to a known
Volume.
50 cm3
 Add the Object.

 Work out the Volume of


Water that is displaced.
 Calculate the Density.
DENSITY OF AN IRREGULAR
SOLID
 OR use a Eureka Can to find the Volume.
 Find the mass of the solid on
m = 440 g
a balance.
Add water until just

overflowing.
 Place a Measuring Cylinder

under the spout.


 Add the Object.
40.0 cm3
 Collect the Water and read off

the Volume.
 = m = 440 =11.0 g/cm3
V 40 Calculate Density
Mass of Liquid = Mass of Measuring Cylinder and Liquid – Mass of
DENSITY OF A LIQUID
empty Measuring
Cylinder  Find the Mass of an empty
Measuring Cylinder.
45.0 g  Add a certain Volume of Liquid.
25.0 g
 Find the Mass of the Measuring
Cylinder and Liquid
20.0 cm

3
Calculate the Mass of Liquid.
 How?
 Calculate Density of Liquid.
45 – 25 = 20 g
 = m = 20 =1.00 g/cm3
V 20
DENSITY OF A GAS
 Remove the air from
To vacuum flask a flask of a known
Volume, using a
vacuum pump.
 Find its Mass.
150.0
170.0gg
 Add the gas to be
1000 cm3 tested.
 Reweigh.
170 -150 = 20.0g  The difference is the
Mass of gas.
 = m = 20 =0.0200 g/cm3  Calculate Density.
V 1000
DENSITY PROBLEMS

What is the volume of a


tank that can hold 18
754 g of methanol
whose density is 0.788
g/cm3 ?
DENSITY PROBLEMS

What is the density of a


board whose dimensions
are 6.64 cm x 30.6 cm X
1.99 cm and whose mass
is 286 g?
DENSITY PROBLEMS
 The Italian government is
giving Michelangelo's David
a bath. If the statue is 4900
cm3 and the density of
marble is 2.76 g/cm3 what is
the mass?