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# SMK TAT BENG

PHYSICS
FORM 4

## 2.4 Linear Momentum

Concept of Linear Momentum
 Momentum is defined as the product of mass and
velocity.
Momentum, p = Mass (m) x Velocity (v)
 Momentum is a vector quantity (has direction and
magnitude). The direction of the momentum follows the
direction of the velocity. A "+" sign denotes the right
direction and a "-" sign denotes the left direction.
 The SI unit of momentum is kgms-1 or Ns and can be
shown as follows:
Momentum = m v

kg ms-1
unit = kgms-1
Concept of Linear Momentum
 Momentum increases when ……
(a) the mass increases
(b) the velocity increases
(c) both of the mass and velocity increase.
Momentum, p = mass x velocity

## Momentum, p = mass x velocity

 Momentum is a derived physical quantity.
Example 1

## Find momentum trolley A and B.

Solution
(a) Momentum of trolley A = mv
= 2kg x 3ms-1
= 6 kgms-1 (Ns)
(b) Momentum of trolley B = mv
= 2kg x (-2ms-1)
= - 4 kgms-1 (Ns)
Principle of Conservation of Momentum
 The study of the concept of momentum is important for
predicting the motion of an object after the occurrence of
a collision (perlanggaran).
 The principle of conservation of momentum states that
the total linear momentum of a closed system of bodies
is constant.
 This means that the total momentum before the collision
is equal to the total momentum after the collision, if no
external forces act on the system.
Total momentum = Total momentum
before collision after collision
Type of Collision
 There are three types of collision in the study of momentum,
i.e.
(a) elastic collision,
(b) inelastic collision,
(c) explosion.
 An inelastic collision is a collision where the two colliding
objects stick together after colliding. An inelastic collision
occurs when a lump of plasticine hits the floor without
bouncing.
 An elastic collision is a collision where the two colliding
objects separate after colliding. An elastic collision occurs
when a rubber ball is dropped and bounces after hitting the
floor.
Type of Collision

Inelastic collision

Elastic collision
The differences between elastic collision.
inelastic collision and explosion

## Both bodies will separate after collision

u1 u2
m1 m2
Total initial momentum = m1u1+m2u2
v1 u2
Elastic m1 m2
collision
Total final momentum = m1v1+m2v2

## From the principle of conservation of momentum

m1u1+m2u2 = m1v1+m2v2
The differences between elastic collision.
inelastic collision and explosion

## Both bodies will move together after collision

u1 u2
m1 m2
Total initial momentum = m1u1+m2u2
Inelastic m m v
1 2
collision
Total final momentum = (m1+m2)v

## From the principle of conservation of momentum

m1u1+m2u2 = (m1+m2)v
The differences between elastic collision.
inelastic collision and explosion

## Two or more bodies in contact will be separated

After the collision
m1 m2 u = 0

## Explosion Total initial momentum = (m1+m2)0

collision v1 u2
m1 m2
Total final momentum = m1v1+m2v2

## From the principle of conservation of momentum

(m1+ m2)u = m1v1+m2v2
The differences between elastic collision.
inelastic collision and explosion

## Total momentum and kinetic energy are

Elastic
conserved.
collision
Total energy is conserved.

## Total momentum is conserved.

Total kinetic energy is not conserved
Inelastic
because some of the energy has changed
collision
into heat energy and sound.
Total energy is conserved.

## Total momentum is conserved.

Explosion
Total kinetic energy is not conserved.
collision
Total energy is conserved.
The differences between elastic collision.
inelastic collision and explosion

Elastic
collision

Inelastic
collision

Explosion
collision
Example 2

## (Before collision) (After collision)

Total momentum Total momentum
= m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v + m2v
= 2(10) + 3(0) =2v+3v
= 20 kgms-1 = 5 v kgms-1

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

T. momentum before the collision = T. momentum after the collision
20 = 5 v
v = 4 ms-1
Example 3

## (Before collision) (After collision)

Total momentum Total momentum
= m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
= 2(10) + 3(3) = 2(8) + 3 v2
= 29 kgms-1 = 16 + 3 v2 kgms-1

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

T. momentum before the collision = T. momentum after the collision
29 = 16 + 3 v2
v2 = 13/3 ms-1
Example 4

## (Before collision) (After collision)

Total momentum Total momentum
= m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
= 2(10) + 1(-2) = 2(6) + 1 v2
= 18 kgms-1 = 12 + v2 kgms-1

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

T. momentum before the collision = T. momentum after the collision
18 = 12 + v2
v2 = 6 ms-1
Closed System
 Principle of conservation of momentum states that the total
momentum in a closed system is constant.
 A closed system is not affected by external force

##  Figure above shows an inverted vase in a stationary state.

 The momentum of the system is zero.
 The momentum of the system will remain zero unless acted
upon by external forces. Hence, momentum is conserved.
 If the vase is pushed (in other words acted by external forces),
the vase will move. Hence, the momentum is not zero and it is
not conserved. This is because the system, is exposed to
external forces.
Closed System
 Figure below show four balls A, B, C and D which are hung at
the same level. Ball A is released to knock ball B.
 After the collision, ball A will remain stationary and ball D will
move upwards.
 If the mass of ball A is the same as the mass of ball D, ball D
will move with the same
 The momentum of the initial system = the momentum of ball A
 The momentum of final system = the momentum of ball D
 It can be seen that momentum is conserved if there is no
external force acting on the system.
 If there is an external force such as a resistance acting on the
system, momentum is not conserved and the movement of
the ball will finally stop.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
 Rocket and jet engines function according to the principle of
conservation of momentum.
 The exhaust gas from the rocket and jet will produce a momentum
backwards. This will provide a momentum forward to the jet, which
is of the same magnitude, but in the opposite forward direction.
 The principle is explained in detail in Figure below.

 The balloon will glide forward when the air is released at the hack.
 The balloon will move forward with a momentum of the same
magnitude as the momentum of the gas released at the back.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
Rocket

##  The rocket works according to the principle of conservation of

momentum.
 The fuel, a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, are pumped into
the combustion chamber (ruang pembakaran).
 The mixture is burned in the combustion chamber.
 This combustion produces exhaust gases at high temperature
and high pressure.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
Rocket (continue …..)
 The gases are expelled from the exhaust at a very high
velocity thus producing a large momentum backwards. A
forward thrust of momentum of the same magnitude is
produced on the rocket in the opposite direction.
 This will propel the rocket with an increasing acceleration to
the sky because:
(a) the mass of the fuel decreases, thus the mass of the
rocket decreases.
(b) the lower part of the rocket separates when the fuel inside
it is used up.
(c) the density of air decreases, hence the resistance of the
rocket decreases.
 the gravitational attraction decreases when the rocket is
getting further away from the earth.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
Jet engine

##  The principle of the jet engine also depends on the principle

of conservation of momentum.
 The fuel used is kerosene and the oxygen supplied from the
air helps the combustion.
 When the engine is ignited (dinyalakan), the air is sucked in
from the front part, then it is compressed and pushed into the
combustion chamber.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
Jet engine (continue…..)
 In the combustion chamber, the air is mixed with kerosene
vapour.
 When the mixture is burned, hot exhaust gases at a high
temperature and high pressure are produced.
 The hot exhaust gases expand and are expelled from the
back at a high speed.
 The exhaust gases produce an equal and opposite
momentum to propel the jet engine forward.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
Technique in a Soccer Game

##  A soccer player runs before kicking the ball.

 The ball can be kicked further in this way-compared to
being kicked by a player who is not running.
 This is because a bigger momentum is produced when
running and this momentum is transferred to the ball.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
The Cuttlefish

##  The cuttlefish ejects a big volume of black ink backwards

at high pressure as a way to escape from its enemies.
This produces a backward momentum.
 The backward momentum will produce a forward thrust on
the cuttlefish. This obeys the principle of conservation of
momentum as the total momentum of the system is zero.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
The Wooden Boat
 The wooden boat used in swamps employs the principle
of conservation of momentum.
Applications of Conservation of Momentum
The Water Hose

## • Water from the water hose has a high momentum at the

front.
• This will produce a momentum of the same magnitude to
the back.
• Hence, several firemen are required to hold the water
hose.
Problems Involving Linear
Momentum
Example 5
A 3 kg object moves at a velocity of 10 m s-1 and hits a 6 kg object
which moves in the opposite direction at 2 m s-1. If the second
object rebounds at 6 m s-1, what is the velocity of the first object?

Solution

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1+ m2u2 = m1v1+ m2v2
3(10) + (6)(-2) = 3v1+(6)(6)
3v1 = -18
V1 = -6ms-1
First object moves at 6 ms-1 the opposite direction.
Example 6
A 100 g bullet is shot from a 1 kg gun. If the bullet is
travelling at 150 ms-1 after being shot, what is the jerk of the
gun?

Solution
Total initial momentum = 0
Total momentum after the bullet is shot
(m1+ m2)u = m1v1+ m2v2
0 = 1(v) + 0.1(150)
Hence v = -15 ms-1
direction opposite to that of the movement of the bullet.
Example 7
A trolley of mass 4 kg moves at 3 m s-1 and collides with a
trolley of mass 2 kg which is moving in the opposite direction
at 1 ms-1. After the collision. both trolleys move together with
the same velocity. What is the velocity?

Solution
From the principle of conservation of momentum,
m1u1+ m2u2 = (m1+ m2)v
(4)(3) + (2)(-1) = (4+2)v
v = 5/3 ms-1
Example 8

## A hammer is used to separate the system of two trolleys shown in

Figure above. What is the distance x if both trolleys I the wooden
blocks at the same time?
Example 8
Solution
Momentum before explosion = 0
From the principle of conservation of momentum,
(m1+ m2)u = m1v1+ m2v2
0 = m1 (s1 / t ) + m2 (s2 / t)
= 2(1.5 / t) + 3 ( -x / t)
= 3 / t – 3x / t
By the principle of conservation of momentum.
0 = 3 / t - 3x / t
x = 1m
Example 9
A bullet of mass 20 g is fired towards a stationary target
with a mass of 2 kg. The bullet is embedded in the target
and both move together at a common velocity of 2 m s-1.
Find the velocity of the bullet before hitting the target.

Solution

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1+ m2u2 = (m1+ m2)v
0.02u1 + 0 = (0.02+2)v
u1 = 202 ms-1
Example 10
Trolleys P and Q of the same mass move towards each
other as shown in Figure below. The magnitude and
direction of their respective velocities are as shown. What
is their common velocity if both the trolleys stick to each
other after collision?
Example 10
Solution
u1 = 2 v m1 = m
U2 = -V m2 = m
v’ = common velocity
(The negative sign for u2 indicates that trolley Q is travelling
in the opposite direction to that of trolley P.)

## From the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1+ m2u2 = (m1+ m2)v’
m(2v) + m (-v) = (m + m) v’
mv = 2mv’
v’ = ½ v
The common velocity of the trolleys after collision = ½ v
Example 11
A car of mass 1200 kg was involved in a head-on collision
with a lorry of mass 4800 kg travelling at 79.2 km h-1. After
the collision, the car and the lorry were locked together and
continued moving at a velocity of 21.6 kmh-1. Find the
velocity of the car before the collision.

m1 = 1200 kg
m2 = 4800 kg
u1 = ?

u2 = 79.2 kmh-1
= (79.2 x 1000) / (60 x 60)
= 22 ms-1
v = 21.6 kmh-1
= (21.6 x 1000) / (60 x 60)
= 6 ms-1
Example 11
Solution
From the principle of conservation of momentum,
m1u1+ m2u2 = (m1+ m2)v
(1200 x u1) + (4800 x 22) = (1200 + 4800)v
1200u1 = 36000 - 105600
u1 = - 69600 / 1200
u1 = - 58 ms-1
Example 12
A bullet of mass 10 g is fired from a 4 kg rifle with a velocity
of 200 ms-1. Find the recoil velocity of the rifle.

Solution

m1 = 4 kg v1 = recoil velocity
m2= 10 g = 0.01 kg v2 = 200 ms-1

m1v1 = m2v2
4v1 = 0.01(200)
= 0.5 ms-1
Example 13

## The ticker-tape shown in Figure 2.32 is obtained from the

inelastic collision of trolleys P and Q. Trolley Q is initially at
rest while trolley P is moving towards it with uniform velocity. If
the mass of trolley P is 2 kg and the ticker-tape is connected
to a 50 Hz power supply, find:
(a) the velocity of trolley P before collision,
(b) the common velocity of trolleys P and Q after the collision,
(c) the mass of trolley Q.
Example 13
Solution
(a) Velocity of trolley P before collision
u1 = distance / time
= 5 cm / 5 x 0.02s
= 50 cms-1

## (b) Common velocity of P and Q after collision,

v = distance / time
= 6 cm / 12 x 0.02s
= 25 cms-1

## (c) From the principle of conservation of momentum,

m1u1+ m2u2 = (m1+ m2)v
(2 x 50) + 0 = (2 + m2)25
100 = 50 + m2
m2 = 2kg
THE END