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5.

6 THE PRODUCTION OF
ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
• A simple cell consists of two electrodes and
an electrolyte.
• The more reactive metal is the negative
terminal which releases electrons whereas
the less reactive metal acts as a positive
terminal which receives electrons.
A simple cell

Copper

Magnesium

Copper
sulphate
solution
Refer to the diagram above:
• Magnesium and copper strips are used as
electrodes with copper sulphate solution
as the electrolyte.
• Magnesium (negative terminal) is more
reactive than copper (positive terminal).
Therefore, magnesium atoms release
electrons to form magnesium ions which
move into the electrolyte. As a result,
the magnesium strip becomes thinner.
• The electrons flow to the copper strip through
the wire and this produces electricity.
• Positively-charged copper ions from the
electrolyte receive the electrons and form
copper atoms. This causes copper to be
deposited on the copper strip. Therefore, the
copper strip becomes thicker. At the same time,
the blue colour of the copper sulphate solution
fades.
SIMPLE CELL : ZINC - COPPER

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLJLm0QLpg
SCIENCE MODULE P.121-123

• file:///C:/Users/Tan%20SE/Documents/Science%20For
m%204/Sc%20F4%20C5/05%20Modul%20Sains%20F
4%20Bab5(CSY4p).pdf
Type of cell Uses Advantages Disadvantages
Dry cells Used in portable • Light • Non-rechargeable
devices such as • Small • Not long-lasting
radios, cassette • Portable • Leakage may happen
players, cameras • Cheap when the zinc case
and toys becomes thinner

Lead-acid Used in vehicles • High voltage • Heavy


accumulators • Rechargeable • Expensive
• Long-lasting if • Acid might spill
well taken • Distilled water needs
care of to be added
Type of cell Uses Advantages Disadvantages
Alkaline Used in radios, • Long-lasting • Non-rechargeable
batteries torch lights and toys • Large current
which need large • Constant
electric current for voltage
long-lasting periods

Mercury cell Used in watches, • Small • Expensive


calculators, hearing • Portable • Non-rechargeable
aides and • Steady voltage
measuring • Constant
instruments current
•Long-lasting
Type of cell Uses Advantages Disadvantages
Nickel-cadmium Used in electronic • Rechargeable • Expensive
batteries devices such as • Long-lasting
digital cameras
DRY CELL
SILVER-OXIDE ZINC BATTERY
LEAD-ACID ACCUMULATOR
NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY
LITHIUM ION SMARTPHONE BATTERY
NEW GEN LI-ION BATTERY
ELECTRIC CAR : TESLA MODEL 3
LITHIUM-ION BATTERY