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Principles of Teaching

1. Principle of Context
2. Principle of Focus
3. Principle of Socialization
4. Principle of Individualization
5. Principle of Sequence
6. Principle of Evaluation
Principle of Context

Learning depends largely on the setting

particularly including the use of materials in
which the process goes on with this scales of
Level 1: Textbook only

• Predominantly verbal
• No problem-solving experience
• Lacks dynamic appeal
• Limited verbal responses to verbal stimuli
Level 2: Textbook with collateral/
supplemental material

• Wider context
• More readings of expository
• More extensive reading
Level 3: Non-academic and
current materials

• Concrete, specific, actual, and immediate

• Reality vs. theories
• Leads to extensive discussion
Level 4: Multi-sensory aids

• Effective when used as aid in learning

• Related to contemplated learning
• Ineffective if learner is passive
Level 5: Demonstration and Presentation
by Experts

• Concrete Setting
• Learning beyond classroom setting
Level 6: Field Experiences and
Community Immersion

• Concrete, abundant, dynamic, readily apprehended setting

for learning
• Goes beyond verbalization
• Concrete and firsthand experiences
Principle of Focus

Instruction must be organized about a focus or

Level 1 Focus established by page assignment
in textbook

• Uniform structure
• Learning without unity
• Memorization
Level 2 Focus established by announced topic together with
page or chapter reference

• Insight and understanding

• Varied learning pattern
Level 3 Focus established by broad concepts to be comprehended
or problem to be solved

• Directed at the mental processes of the

• More varied learning pattern
Level 4 Focus established as a concept or a problem to be solved, a
skill to be acquired to carry an undertaking

• Flexibility
• Acquisition of more facts and
Principle of Socialization

Instruction depends upon the social setting in which

it is done, with this scales of application and where
social patterns are characterized.
Level 1 – Social pattern characterized
by submission

• Rudimentary level of socialization

• No group function
• Teacher-controlled
Level 2 – Social pattern characterized by

• Sympathetic and positive discipline

• Freedom
• Lacks authority
Level 3 – Social pattern characterized by

• Goes beyond friendliness and sympathy

• Teacher as an organizer
• Positive team spirit
Principle of Individualization

Instruction must progress in terms of

the learners’ own purposes, aptitudes,
abilities and experimental procedures.
Scales of Application
1. Individualization through different
performance in uniform
2. Individualization through homogenous
3. Individualization through contract plan
Scales of Application
4. Individualization through individual instruction
5. Individualization through large units with optional-
related activity
6. Individualization through individual undertakings,
stemming from and contributing to the joint
undertaking of the group of learners
Principle of Sequence

Instruction depends on effective ordering of a series of

learning task
Sequence is a movement

1. From meaningless to emergent of meaning

2. From immediate to remote
3. From concrete to symbolic
Scales of Application
1. Sequence through logical succession of blocks of content
(lesson and course)
2. Sequence through knitting learning/ lesson/ course
together by introductions, previews, pretests, reviews
3. Sequence organized in terms of readiness
4. Sequence organized in terms of lines emerging meanings
Scales 1
Learning sequence can pass through the following stages:
1. Define the principle.
2. Define the principle within models.
3. Generate the principle.
4. Receive feedback.
5. Define principle or practice.
Scales 2
Knotting learning of a particular lesson by
1. Supplementing discussion
2. Studies
3. Analysis of lesson
4. By introductions
5. Reviews related to the lesson at han
Scales 3
Principle of Evaluation

Learning is heightened by a valid and

discriminating appraisal of all its aspects
Scales of Application

1. Evaluation on direct results only

2. Evaluation related to objectives and
3. Evaluation on total learning process and
Types of Evaluation
1. Diagnostic Evaluation
– Done at the beginning of the unit or course to
determine the different levels where students
can be grouped whether:
a. Slow
b. Average
c. Fast
Types of Evaluation
2. Formative Evaluation
– The phase of evaluation where what the
teacher does in the course of his teaching
and what he is to do next are given focus.
– Example: a short test after the lesson proper
Types of Evaluation
3. Summative Evaluation
– This phase of evaluation calls for “summing
up” all pertinent data related to the
performance of the individual learners.
Aquino (1988) mentioned the principles of good teaching to
include the following:

1. Active learning
2. Many methods
3. Motivation
4. Well-balanced curriculum
5. Individual differences
6. Lesson planning
7. The Power of Suggestion
Aquino (1988) mentioned the principles of good teaching to
include the following:

8. Encouragement
9. Remedial Teaching
10. Democratic environment
11. Stimulation
12. Integration
13. Life-like situations
14. Independence
The Basic Principles of successful teaching across
levels (Ohlsen)

1. Educate the whole child.

2. Keep the program informal, flexible and democratic.
3. Capitalize upon present pupil interests.
4. Let motivation be intrinsic.
5. Make learning experiences vivid and direct.
6. Stress problem-solving, the basis of functional learning.
7. Provide for the achievement of lasting pupil satisfactions


• Search on the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives