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Prepared by : Mark D.C Domingo

What is Mining?
• Mining is the extraction of valuable geological
matter such as ores, minerals, and stones.

• The configuration and depth of the mineral

deposits dictate the type of extraction procedure
Two Types Of
Open-Pit Mining
• Open-pit mining, also known as opencast
mining, open-cut mining, and strip mining,
means a process of digging out rock or minerals
from the earth by their elimination from an open
pit or borrow.
• For thick, shallow, and flat-lying deposits, open
pit mining is the method of choice.
Underground Mining
• Underground mining is carried out when the
rocks, minerals, or precious stones are
located at a distance far beneath the ground to
be extracted with surface mining.
• If the deposit is steeply dipping and found
deeper underground, underground mining
methods are recommended.
Open-Pit Mining
Underground Mining
• While mining is essential to make technological developments possible, it
also has a number of negative impacts. These may be either be social or
environmental, and may be hazardous to public health.
Impacts of
• In opening a mine, huge areas of forests may have to be cleared, affecting
biodiversity. Furthermore, especially in strip mining, the rich topsoil is
completely is completely removed so that even if the mining has ceased, the
land will remain barren for a very long time. (Deforestation) (Loss of

• Once a mine operates, nearby agricultural farms may be affected from

wastes or mine tailings. Mine Tailings are materials that remain after
extraction of ore minerals. (Contamination of Surface Water)

• Oftentimes, extraction and mine processing involve the use of huge

quantities of water to remove the impurities. This wastewater is loaded with
sediments and may have high concentration of harmful chemicals.

• By law, mine tailings should be kept inside earthen ponds called Tailing
Dams, but sometimes the tailing dams are not big enough and the tailing
are released before they are fully treated.
• Sometimes, the dam accidentally breaks and the tailings are released. These
accidents muddy the streams and rivers. Once river water drains to the sea,
it may also affect the coral reefs and sea grass beds. Heavy loads of
sediments in the water can also clog the gills of fish and kill them as a

• Another negative impacts of mining that can affect public health is Mercury.
Mercury is toxic to the human body. It results in various deformities and
may also cause cancer. It is used to separate gold or silver from impurities.
Unfortunately, the mercury vapor is inhaled by the miner and is released to
the atmosphere.

• Quiz 1-5
1-2: Give the two types of mining methods.
3. Give one example of negative impacts of
4.One of the most harmful chemical that is used to
separate gold or silver from impurities.
5.Materials that remain after extraction of ore