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What is History?
 History is the story of
the past.
-It is the story of people, places and events.
✣ a branch of knowledge that ✣ It seems that a definition of
records and explains past history should include all things
events –Merriam- Webster that have ever happened, that
✣ the study of or a record of definition would include all
past events considered physical events and occurrences.
together, especially events of ✣ It would also seem that the
a particular period, country, definition of history would be
or subject – Cambridge synonymous with a definition of
Dictionaries Online the past -Robert Milton
Underwood, Jr.
Who is the father of
(Father of History)
-Herodotus, the son of Lyxes and Dryo, a man of Halicarnassus, belonged to a
prominent family and had a brother, Theodoros.

-It was in the early days of the Peloponnesian War that Herodotus completed
his History and published it. It was something new, something unique. It was
not a chronicle, nor was it a local history.

-It is no coincidence that Herodotus wrote his work at this time. Herodotus
the author of the History wanted to do more than retell the events of the past,
he want to prove a point and make sure the people of the future remembered
and learned from the events of the past. He did not want to relate his story.
He wanted to relate history.
Why do we study
• We study history for us to know more
about the roots of our current culture.
-To learn about the mistakes of those who have gone before us.
-To learn about human nature in general by looking at trends that
repeat through history.

-To learn historical facts.

-To learn about how different factors shape society e.g. religion,
greed, the intersection of different cultures, technology, etc.
✣In sum, we study
history to learn
about who we are—
both our past and
our present.
Sources of History
• Historical source refers to something which
gives an information about the past.
• According to scholars, it can be anything that
gives us a clue about history “Sources.”
• It is a foundation to understand a particular
• They help us to gain knowledge about
important events, inventions, cultures,
civilizations and many other aspects about
2 forms of Historical
✣ Primary ✣ Secondary
-considered to be a source -considered to be a source
from the time period. that was not present at the
-generally from someone events that is providing
who is present when the information about.
event occurred.
To understand it better, we will
give some examples:
In Primary it could be:

Written Visual Oral Artefacts

Diaries Paintings Interviews Tools
Letters Photos Speeches Bones
Census Jewellery
In Secondary sources it could be:

• A textbook is a secondary source as it was written long

after most of the events that it describes.
• Biography
• Movies
• TV or radio documentary
• Internet
• History books
• Encyclopedias
• Magazine or news articles dealing with issues from the
* Many secondary sources are put together using many different primary
Who investigates

- A study that
deals with past
human life
and activities
by studying the
bones, tools,
etc., of ancient

-The study of
human beings, and
their ancestors
through time and
space and in
relation to physical
environmental and
social relations,
and culture.
Oral Historians
(oral history)

- Recorded information
about the past that you
get from talking to
people about their
experiences, families,

- science that
deals with the
structure and
properties of
substances and
with the changes
that they go
- The study of language and
the way languages work.