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Micro-controller

Emergers
Technologies
Introduction:
What is Micro-controller?

A highly integrated chip that contains


all the components comprising a controller.
Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some
form of ROM, I/O ports, serial ports,
sensors and timers.
What is Microprocessor?
A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world
of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and
CPU are used interchangeably. Microprocessors also
control the logic of almost all digital devices, Three
basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors:
Instruction set : The set of instructions that the
microprocessor can execute.
Bandwidth :  The number of bits processed in a
single instruction.
clock speed : Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock
speed determines how many instructions per second
the processor can execute. In both cases, the higher
the value, the more powerful the CPU.
For example, a 32-bit microprocessor that runs at
50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor
that runs at 25MHz.
Block diagram of
microprocessor

Accumulat
or Decode
&
Control
Working unit
registers

Arithmetic & Logic unit


(ALU)

Program Interrupt
counter(PC circuit
)

Stack Clock
Pointer(SP) circuit
What is intelligent device?

The device is which will make decision that


device is called intelligent device.
Devices in Microprocessor
1. Working registers
2. Program Counter (PC)
3. Stack Pointer
4. ALU
5. Decode & Control Unit
6. Instruction register
7. Interrupt block
8. Clock Circuit
9. Bus logic
Block diagram of Microcontroller

CPU RAM ROM

Timers / I/O Serial


counters ports port

ADC/DA
Sensors
C
ROM : It is permanently storing the data.

Timer : It is used to generate the delay.

Counter : It is used to count the external events.

I/O ports : Used for communicating the peripherals(Parallel


communication).

Serial ports : It is used for serial communication for


peripherals.

Sensors : It is also called transducer. Transducer is a


conversion of one energy to another energy. To convert that
energy we required ADC/DAC for the communication
between microcontroller & peripherals.
Difference b/n microcontroller & microprocessor

microcontroller microprocessor
 It is an application or  It is a general purpose
program specific microcontroller.
microcontroller.  CPU with peripherals
 CPU, ROM, RAM, timers etc externally interfaced.
are in built on to a single
chip.
 It is slower.
 It is faster.
 It is less hardware
complex.
 Hardware complex is more.
 Cost
 Cost
production  cheap. production  costly.
design  costly. design  cheap.

Ex: 8051, 8052, PIC Ex : 8-85, 8086, 68HC11,


microcontroller, ATMEL, Z8Zilt, ARM processor
ARM controller, Tiny etc. etc.
Instruction Set Architecture

CISC RISC
1. Complex Instruction Set 1. Reduced Instruction Set
Computer. Computer.
2. It consists of more no. of 2. It has less no of
instructions which is
instructions which
inclusive of simple and
complex instructions. consists of only single
instruction.
3. More number of
instructions results in 3. Code size is bigger.
smaller code size as direct 4. Hardware complexity is
instructions are available. less.
4. Hardware complexity is
5. Pipelining is easy in
more as more no. of
opcodes are available. RISC.
5. Pipelining is difficult in 6. Less memory address
CISC. location are available.
6. More memory address
locations are available.
Ex : ARM, PIC
Ex: 8051, 8052 etc. microcontroller etc.
Instructions are used in CISC and RISC

MOV MOVX MOVC


RAM RAM ROM
Internal External Both( Int /
Ext )

CISC

MOV MOVC
RAM ROM
Int/Ext both

RISC
Memory Architectures

There are 2 types of architectures:

1. Harvard Architecture
2. Von – neumann Architecture
Harvard and Von-neumann
Architecture
 In Harvard architecture  In von-neumann
data memory and architecture data
program memory are memory and program
physically separated. memory are located in
 It is faster a single memory.
 Data is less secure.  It is slower.
 Data is more secure.
Ex : 8051, ARM7 etc.
Ex : ARM9, ENIAC (series
connection of
microcontroller).
Types of memory

1. RAM
2. ROM
3. Hybrid
Memory

RAM ROM
Hybrid

DRAM SRAM PROM EPROM Masked Non


EEPROM flash
ROM volatile
RAM
RAM(Random Access Memory):
RAM is an acronym for random access
memory, a type of computer memory that can
be accessed randomly. It is a volatile memory.

There are 2 types of RAM:

DRAM(Dynamic RAM) is one of the most


commonly found memory modules in PC
compatible personal computers and
workstations. It holds the data up to 0.12sec.
It is called refreshment time.

SRAM(Static RAM) is a type of RAM that holds


data in a static form, that is, as long as the
memory has power.
ROM (Read Only Memory):

ROM is a type of built-in memory that is


capable of holding data and having that
data read from the chip, but not written to
and it’s a non volatile memory.

There are 3 types of ROM:

 PROM (Programmable ROM).


 EPROM (Erasable PROM).
 Masked ROM.
PROM: It’s a memory chip on which data can be written
only once. Once a program has been written onto a
PROM, it remains there forever.

EPROM:EPROM is a special type of memory that retains


its contents until it is exposed to ultraviolet light. The
ultraviolet light clears its contents, making it possible to
reprogram the memory. To write to and erase an EPROM,
you need a special device called a PROM programmer
or PROM burner.

Masked ROM: Mask refers to parts of an integrated


circuit, a thin electronic circuit for processing data, that
is covered with opaque plates called photomasks. These
plates contain transparencies, or holes, to allow light in
certain areas while blocking light in others to create
distinctive patterns. We can write the code at once and it
will read the code line by line. It is used for protecting
the code.
Hybrid:
Non volatile RAM: As name itself says it’s a non volatile
because it will get power from CMOS battery, when the CPU
will switch OFF.

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM): EEPROM is a


special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an
electrical charge. Like other types of PROM, EEPROM retains
its contents even when the power is turned off. Also like other
types of ROM, EEPROM is not as fast as RAM. To erase the
64kB of data it will take 0.14sec.

Flash: Flash memory is a type of EEPROM. The name


comes from how the memory is designed -- a section of
memory cells can be erased in a single action or in a
"flash." A common use of flash memory is to store the
BIOS settings in a computer's ROM. When the BIOS
needs to be changed, the flash memory can be written
in blocks, rather than bytes, making it easy to update.
Interrupts:

i. Maskable Interrupts.
ii. Non- Maskable Interrupts.

iii.Software Interrupts(Internal Interrupts).


iv. Hardware Interrupts(External Interrupts).

v. Vectored Interrupts.
vi. Non- Vectored Interrupts.