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# Introduction to Machinery

## Vibration and Noise

What is vibration?
• Vibration is simply the motion of a machine or machine part
back and forth from its position of rest
• An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose
equilibrium has been disturbed, or of an electromagnetic
wave.
• The simplest way to show vibration is to follow the motion of
a weight suspended
What causes vibration?
• mechanical trouble in a machine cause vibration
• Unbalance of rotating parts
• Misalignment of couplings and bearings
• Bent shafts
• Worn eccentric or damaged gears
• Bad drive belts and drive chains
• Bad bearings anti friction type
• Torque variation
• Aerodynamic forces
• Looseness
Harmful effects of Vibration

## 1. Produced excessive stresses

2. Produce undesirable noise
3. Reduce the machine element life
4. Partial or complete failure
5. Energy waste.
The characteristics of vibration
• Vibration Frequency – Number of cycles moved by a body per unit of
time.
• Vibration displacement – The total distance traveled by the vibration
part.
- Also called as “peak to peak displacement”.
- Normally expressed in mils.
- In English
1 mils = 0.001 inch
- In metric
1 micron = 0.000001
• Vibration Velocity - is measured in peak units such as inches per
second (ips) or millimetres per second (mm/s).
• Vibration Velocity - is measured in peak units such
as inches per second (ips) or millimetres per
second (mm/s).
• Vibration Acceleration – The rate of change of
velocity
• Phase – The position of a vibration part at a given
instant w/ reference to a fixed point or another
vibrating part.
-Usually expressed in degrees 0 – 360degrees
-1 complete cycle of vibration = 360degrees.
Significance of Vibration Characteristic
1. Importance of vibration frequency
- allow us to identify w/c part is at fault and what the problem
is.
2. Importance of displacement, velocity and Vibration.
- helps us to determine the amount or severity of the vibration
- Acceleration of vibration is often referred to as the
“amplitude” of the vibration.
3. Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration w/c should be used?
For finding “peak velocity”
𝐹
𝑉𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 = 52.3 𝐷 𝑥 10−3
1000
Where:
Vpeak - Vibration velocity in inch/sec
D – Peak to peak displacement
F – Frequency in Cycle/Sec.

## For finding Vibration acceleration

(g’s peak).
𝑔𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 = 14. 1𝐷 𝐹/1000 2 𝑥10−3
4. Importance of phase
• Importance of phase - Vibration phase
becomes particularly important in not only
dynamic balancing, but also in helping to
understand relative motion between
machine train components and resolving if
dominant forces are rotating or stationary.
How much is vibration is too much?
What is noise?
•Define as the unwanted sound.
•Noise is type of sound which:-
•Carries no information
•Random
•Undesirable and unwanted
What causes noise?

## •Vibration of solid structure

•Movement of air over solid structure
•The turbulent mixing of fast moving air w/
relatively slow moving air.
The characteristics of noise

• Propaganda velocity – the speed or velocity that sound radiates or simply the speed
of sound.
(the speed of sound in std. temp. ,pressure is 1130 ft/ sec )

• Frequency – The number of sound waves or regions of compression w/c move past a
fixed point during specific period of time.
- For standardization of unit hertz(hz) is used.
Infrasonic – sounds w/c are at frequencies below the range of human
hearing(less than 15hz).
Audio sonic – sounds w/c are at frequencies within the human hearing (15hz-
20,000hz).
Ultrasonic – sounds w/c at frequencies above the range of human
hearing.(greater than 20,000hz)
Wavelength – The distance between regions
of compression

𝒇 = 𝒄/ Ҕ
f = propagation Velocity
Ҕ = characteristic of sound
C = wave length
Importance of Noise Frequency and
Wavelength
• First, noisy frequency is the key to identifying the noise
source
• Secondly, the disturbing frequencies of noise being
generated also determine
• Finally, wavelength is an important factor to consider
when positioning the microphone for measurement.
Noise Amplitude
• A measure of how far the air pressure rises above
atmospheric pressure (compression) and then sinks
below atmospheric pressure (rarefaction). The
maximum amount by which the pressure differs from
atmospheric pressure is called the pressure amplitude of
sound
• Sound pressure amplitudes are usually expressed in
“microbars”, where one microbar equals one millionth of
a bar
• Decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit used to measure sound
level. It is also widely used in electronics, signals and
communication. The dB is a logarithmic way of describing a
ratio. The ratio may be power, sound pressure, voltage or
intensity or several other things.

## • Sound field is the technical name given to the dispersion

of sound energy within given boundaries. ... When
loudspeakers pump sound energy into a room,
the sound starts to bounce around within the room and very
rapidly, something called a reverberant field is achieved.
Directional Noise Sources
• This is “sound field directionality.” What this
means is that not all noise sources radiate the
same level of noise in all direction. If they radiate
more noise in one direction than another, they
are said to be directional noise sources.
Weighting Network
• A network having a loss that varies with frequency in a
predetermined manner, and which network is used for improving
or correcting transmission characteristics, or for
characterizing noise measurements.

## • How Much Noise Is Too Much?

• When it comes to noise, the louder the sound, the less time it
takes for that sound to cause hearing loss. Eight hours a day or
more of repeated or prolonged exposure to sounds at 85 dB or
louder can permanently damage your hearing.
Noise Levels Established By Legislation

## •Where persons are exposed to certain high

noise levels for extended periods of time, it has
been found that permanent hearing loss can
occur.
•Acceptable Noise Levels for Different Work
Areas
THE END