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When two or more people come together
with a shared purpose, they form a
culture with its own written and
unwritten rules for behaviour.
Factors Causing Cultural
 Technological development
 Cultural diffusion
 Ideas and ideologies
 Collective action
 Geography and climate

 It’s about respecting diverse women’s experiences,

identities, knowledge and strengths, and striving to
empower all women to realize their full rights.
 It’s about levelling the playing field between genders, and
ensuring that diverse women and girls have the same
opportunities in life available to boys and men.

Liberal Feminism
o Strive for sexual equality via down to earth political and
legal reform. Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that
argues that equality for women can be achieved through
legal means and social reform.

Radical Feminism
o Is a movement that believes sexism is so deeply rooted in society
that the only cure is to eliminate the concept of gender completely.
o Radical feminists suggest changes, such as finding technology that
will allow babies to be grown outside of a woman's body, to
promote more equality between men and women.

Socialist Feminism
o Is a movement that calls for an end to capitalism through a
socialist reformation of our economy. Basically, socialist
feminism argues that capitalism strengthens and supports
the sexist status quo because men are the ones who
currently have power and money.

Cultural Feminism
o Is a movement that points out how modern society is hurt
by encouraging masculine behavior, but society would
benefit by encouraging feminine behavior instead.

 Is the phenomenon of multiple groups of culture existing

within the society largely due to the arrival of immigrant of
this phenomenon.
 Is a systematic and comprehensive response to cultural and
ethnic diversity, with educational, linguistic, economic and
social component, and specific institutional mechanisms.
Three Referents of Multiculturalism

 Demographic-descriptive usage - occurs where the

word multicultural refers to the existence of
linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse
segments in the population of a society or state.
Three Referents of Multiculturalism

 Ideological-normative usage – generates the

greatest level of debate, since it constitutes a slogan
and basis for political action.
 It constitutes a specific focus towards the
management and organization of governmental
responses to ethnic diversity.
Three Referents of Multiculturalism

 Programmatic-political usage – refers to the

specific policies developed to respond and manage
ethnic diversity.
What is multicultural education?
 Multicultural education creates equal educational
opportunities for students from diverse racial, ethnic, and
social-class and cultural groups.
 It supports the idea that students and their backgrounds and
experiences should be the center of their education and that
learning should occur in a familiar contact that attends to
multiple way of thinking.
“ The primary goal of multicultural education is to
transform the school so that male and female
students, exceptional students, and students from
diverse cultural, social-class, racial, and ethnic
groups experience an equal opportunity to learn.
- James Banks (2001)
Approaches of Multicultural Education




Approaches of Multicultural Education

1. Contributions approach – the ethnic heroes

and holidays are included in the curriculum,
recognizing the contributions of various
Approaches of Multicultural Education

2. Additive approach – a unit or course is

incorporated ( for example, a unit of women
in history), but no substantial change is
made to the curriculum as a whole.
Approaches of Multicultural Education

3. Transformation approach – the entire

Eurocentric nature of the curriculum is
changed so that students are taught to view
events and issue from diverse ethnic and
cultural perspectives.
Approaches of Multicultural Education

4. Social action approach – it goes beyond

the transformation approach. Students not
only learn to view issues from multiple
perspectives but also become directly
involves in solving related problems.
 Multicultural education is a progressive
approach for transforming education that
holistically critiques and addresses current
shortcomings, failings, and discriminatory
practices in education.
Basis for understanding

o Every students must have an equal opportunity to

achieve his/her full potential.
o Every students must e prepared to competently
participate in an increasingly intercultural society.
o Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate
learning for every individual student, no matter how
culturally similar or different from themselves
Basis for understanding
o Schools must be active participants in ending oppression of
all types, first by ending oppression within their own walls, then
by producing socially and critically active and aware students.
o Education must become more fully student-centered and
inclusive of the voices and experiences of students.
o Educators, activists, and others must take a more active role
in re-examining all educational practices and how they affect
the learning of all students.
Dimensions of Multicultural Education

1. Content Integration
 It deals with the extent to which teachers use
examples and content from a variety of
cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts,
generalizations, and issues within their
subject area or disciplines.
Dimensions of Multicultural Education

2. Knowledge Construction Process

 It describes how teachers help students to
understand, investigate, and determine how the
biases, frames of reference, and perspectives
within a discipline influence the ways in which
knowledge is constructed within it.
Dimensions of Multicultural Education

3. Prejudice Reduction
 It describes lessons and activities used by
teachers to help students to develop positive
attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and
cultural groups.
Dimensions of Multicultural Education

4. Equity Pedagogy
 It exists when teachers modify their teaching
in ways that will facilitate the academic
achievement of students from diverse racial,
cultural, and social class groups.
Dimensions of Multicultural Education

5. Empowering School Culture and Social

 This dimension is created when the culture and
organization of the school are transformed in ways
that enable students from diverse racial, ethnic,
and gender groups to experience equality and
equal status.

 Refers to cultural group within a larger culture,

after having beliefs or interest at variance with
those of the larger culture. (Oxford English
 Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of
a society’s population.(Sociologists)
“ To work effectively with students from
different cultures, teachers must
understand these varied cultures.
Basic levels

 In terms of a general sense of culture

 what t means to people, for example, to be
English, French, American, and so forth.
 In terms of a specific sense of subcultures
 that is, the various groups we belong to involve
particular sets of norms that apply only when we
participate in these groups.
Functions of Subcultures

1.Permitting specialized activity

2. Identity in mass society
3. Cultural adaptation and change
Cultural Dimension
of Learning,
Teaching, and
Educational Process
Cultural Differences

 Implythe transmission of ideas from

generation to generation by significant
members of the older generation
(parents, teachers, religious leaders, and
other stakeholders.
What is Culturally-Responsive Teaching?

Culturally Responsive Instruction covers areas related to:

o Inclusive content in the curriculum that reflects the diversity of
o Students’ prior knowledge, including their culture and
o The idea that culture is central to student learning, because
there is strong evidence that culture practices affects the
thinking process.
What is Culturally-Responsive Teaching?

Culturally Responsive teaching encompasses elements such

o Communication of high expectations.
o Active teaching methods that promote student engagement.
o Teacher as facilitator.
o Positive perspectives on parents and families of culturally and
linguistically diverse students.
o Cultural sensitivity.
o Reshaping he curriculum so that it is culturally responsive to the
background of students.
o Culturally mediated instruction that is characterized by the use of
culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations
for learning , and culturally valued knowledge in curriculum content.
o Small groups instruction and academically-related discourse.
Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges
cultural diversity in classroom and
accommodates this diversity in instruction. It
does this three important ways:
1. By recognizing and accepting student diversity , it
communicates that all students are welcome and
valued as human beings.
2. By building on students’ cultural backgrounds,
culturally responsive teaching communicates positive
images about the students’ home culture.
3. By being responsive to different student learning
styles, culturally responsive teaching builds on
students’ strengths and uses these to help students