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College of Veterinary & Animal Science, Navania,

Vallabhnagar, Udaipur

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

Innate Immunity
Immunity
 The state of protection from infectious disease .
 Has both of a less specific & more Specific components.
 Less Specific component is : Innate Immunity
 It is first line of defense against infection
 Before the onset of infection Disease Resistance
mechanism

Encountered pathogens
Innate Immunity
 It Comprises :-
Anatomical Barriers
Physiological Barriers
Phagocytic Barriers
Inflammatory Barriers
Physiological Barriers
 Temperature
 Low pH
 Chemical mediators
Lysozyme- cleaves bacterial call wall
Interferon- induces antiviral stage in
uninfected cell
Complement- lyses microorganism or
facilitates phagocytosis
Toll like receptors- recognize & signal cell
secrete cytokines
Collectins- disrupt cell wall of pathogens.
Temperature

 Normal body temp. inhibits growth of some pathogens


 Fever also response to inhibits growth of pathogens
 Ex. – Chickens have innate immunity against anthrax
disease.
Low pH

 Acidity of stomach contents kills most ingested microorganism


 Susceptibility to infection - New born > adults
Interferon :-
- Group of protein
produced by virus
infected cell
- Ability to bind with
nearby cells & induce
a generalized antiviral
state.
Lysozymes:-
 Hydrolytic enzymes that found in mucous secretion & tears
 Able to cleave the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell wall
 Complement is a group of serum proteins that circulate in an inactive state
Immunological mechanism

Active state

Ability to damage the memb. of


pathogen either function as effector
system that trigger to activation of
innate immunity & facilitates
phagocytosis.
Collcetins
 These surfactant proteins , disrupt lipid membrane of bacteria
 Enhance bacterial susceptibility to phagocytosis
Toll Like Receptors :-
 Pattern recognition
 TLR2 recognizes the LPS found on gram negative bacteria
leads to an acute inflammatory response, result in elimination
of the bacterial challenge.
 Never found in multicellular organism.
Phagocytic barriers

 Plasma membrane of a cell expand around the particulate


matter; include pathogen , to form large vesicles called
phagosomes.
 Most phagocytosis is conducted by specialized cells such as
-Blood monocyte
-Neutrophils
-Macrophage
-Pinocytosis
-Endocytosis
Phagocytic barriers
Inflammatory Barriers
 Tissue damage and infection induce leakage of vascular fluid
 Induce a complex sequence of events
 Inflammatory response
 Given by Celsus
 Modified by Galden
 Cardinal sign of Inflammation :-
Rubor (Redness)
Tumor (swelling)
Calor (heat)
Dolor (pain)
Functio laesa (loss of function)
Inflammatory Barriers
 Acute phase protein  C-reactive protein
 Histamin -> one of the principal mediator ( Vasodialation &
increase permeability )
 Kinins peptidase
 Activation of blood cloting system  Fibrin  Fibroblast 
Accumulate capillary & form scar tissue.