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HOMEOSTASIS

OBJECTIVES:
1. Differentiate positive and negative
feedback mechanism
2. Outline the homeostatic control of
temperature regulation, osmotic balance
and glucose level regulation; and
3. Describe some disorders that result from
the disruption of homeostasis
Questions:
• What are shown in a report card?
• What is the purpose of a report card?
• To pass the subject, what grade must
you get? If you are running for
honors, what is the acceptable range
for your grades?
• How will you reach your target
grades?
Activity: A Balancing Act
1. Students should stand up and
balance themselves on one foot.
2. After one minute, put other foot
down.
3. Let them share with each other
what they experienced.
4. Take their resting pulse for 15
seconds.
Questions:
1. What do you feel standing on one
foot only?
2. How do you feel standing on both
feet?
3. What do you think will happen to
you if you stand on one foot
longer?
Activity: Jogging Time
Students will jog in place for 1
minute then take their pulse again
for 15 seconds. Multiply this by 4 to
have their pulse rate in 1 minute. Let
them share with each other what
they experienced.
Questions: Based On Your Activity
1. What do you observed with your
pulse after jogging for 1 minute?
2. What do you with your pulse after
jogging for 4 minutes?
3. What did you do to normalize you
pulse?
4. Why is there a need to normalize it?
Homeostasis…
• Is the same thing as dynamic
equilibrium
• Is what all your body systems are
working for
• Is necessary for life!!
• Much of homeostasis is getting
energy & ATP!!!
All organisms…
• Need to maintain homeostasis
• Some living things have an
easier time keeping
homeostasis
• Each organisms has its own
homeostatic “levels” that it
works optimally at
Ameobas…
• Need to maintain homeostasis
• Do not need any body systems
to maintain homeostasis
• Simply uses D/O/AT to get
what it needs across the cell
membrane
Plants…
• Need to maintain homeostasis
• Use various organs to
maintain homeostasis
• Roots bring minerals needed
• Guard cells open & closed to
maintain proper water levels
Humans…
• Need to maintain homeostasis
• Use all of our organ systems
• Endocrine and immune system
are very important here
Digestive System…
• Breaks down nutrients into
molecules small enough to
diffuse into the cells
• (HIRTH*) Nutrients in the cells
help maintain energy levels
*”How it relates to homeostasis”
Circulatory System…
• Carries gases and nutrients to
cells
• Removes gases and other
metabolic wastes from the cell
• Maintains proper blood
pressure and heart rate for
homeostasis
Circulatory System
(HIRTH)
• Maintain nutrients levels in
blood, as well as waste
product levels
• Maintain CO2 and O2 levels
(via BP and heart rate)
Respiratory System…
• Physical – supplies the oxygen
• **Breathe faster when you
have too much CO2 (not when
you need oxygen)
• Gas exchange occurs at the
alveoli (with RBC)
Respiratory System
(HIRTH)
• Maintain CO2 and O2 levels
(via increased breathing rate)
• Maintains proper oxygen
levels for cellular respiration to
occur
Excretory System…
• Removes metabolic wastes
Excretory System
(HIRTH)
• Maintain CO2 levels (via the
lungs)
• Maintains proper water levels
(via kidneys)
• Maintains glucose levels (via
kidneys)
Nervous System…
• Regulates your body via
various changes
• Works in close conjunction
with the endocrine system
• Creates “fast” changes
Nervous System
(HIRTH)
• Maintains proper body
temperature (via sweating)
Endocrine System…
• Regulates your body via
various changes
• Works in close conjunction
with the nervous system
• Creates “slow” changes
• Controlled by feedback
Endocrine System
(HIRTH)
• Maintains most the entire body
via hormones
• Maintains glucose levels via
insulin from the pancreas
• Maintains growth levels via the
pituitary gland
Reproductive System…
• Creates reproductive cells
(gametes) via meiosis
• In females, creates
environment for embryo to
develop
Reproductive System
(HIRTH)
• Tells the body when to produce
mature sex cells (via hormones)
• Maintains a viable environment
for the embryo (via hormones)
• Allows mother to “attend” to all
the embryos’ needs (via placenta
and diffusion)
Immune System…
• Primary defense against
pathogens (foreign
substances)
• Works in close conjunction
with the endocrine system and
nervous systems
Immune System
(HIRTH)
• White blood cells attack
pathogens
• WBC produce antibodies that
attack or mark the pathogen
(antibodies are antigen specific)
• Vaccinations “train” and help the
immune system remember
specific pathogens
WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS?

• the maintenance of a
constant internal
environment in
response to changes
in:
– the changing conditions
of the external
environment.
– the changing conditions
of the internal
environment.
HOW IS HOMEOSTASIS
ACHIEVED?

To maintain cells, tissues and entire


organisms within their biological
tolerance limits, various mechanisms
have evolved.
HOW IS HOMEOSTASIS
ACHIEVED?

structural:
the animal or plant has particular
physical features which help its
survival in an otherwise hostile
environment.
HOW IS HOMEOSTASIS
ACHIEVED?

functional:
the metabolism of the animal or plant is
able to adjust to changes in
conditions as they are detected.
HOW IS HOMEOSTASIS
ACHIEVED?

behavioral:
the actions and interactions of the
individual, either alone or with others,
help it to survive in its particular
environment.
Maintaining Homeostasis
through
Behavior Changes?
Examples of Homeostasis in Animals
HOMEOSTASIS
• Homeostasis involves dynamic
mechanisms that detect and respond to
deviations in physiological variables from
their “set point” values by initiating effector
responses that restore the variables to the
optimal physiological range.

• Two systems that maintain homeostasis


are: Nervous system & Endocrine system
Maintenance of Homeostasis
• Nervous system
– Controls and coordinates bodily activities that require
rapid responses
– Detects and initiates reactions to changes in external
environment
• Endocrine system
– Secreting glands of endocrine regulate activities that
require duration rather than speed
– Controls concentration of nutrients and, by adjusting
kidney function, controls internal environment’s
volume and electrolyte composition
HOMEOSTASIS
Factors homeostatically regulated include
• Concentration of nutrient molecules
• Concentration of water, salt, and other
electrolytes
• Concentration of waste products
• Concentration of O2 = 100mmHg and CO2 = 40
mmHg
• pH = 7.35
• Blood volume 4-6 L and pressure 120/80
• Temperature = 37o C
Control of Homeostasis
Homeostatic Control Systems
• Feedforward - term used for responses
made in anticipation of a change
• Feedback - refers to responses made after
change has been detected
– Types of feedback systems
• Negative
• Positive
FEEDBACK MECHANISMS

Feedback mechanisms are the general


mechanism of nervous or hormonal
regulation in animals.

• Negative feedback is when the response


diminishes the original stimulus.

• Positive feedback is when the response


enhances the original stimulus.
FEEDBACK LOOPS

• Feedback mechanisms have certain


essential components.

• Stimulus: The change from ideal or


resting conditions.
• Receptor: The cells or tissue which
detects the change due to the stimulus.
• Relay: The transmission of the message,
via nerves or hormones or both, to the
effector.
FEEDBACK LOOPS
• Effector: The cells or tissue, usually a
gland or muscles, which cause the
response to happen.
• Response: An action, at cell, tissue or
whole organism level which would not
have occurred in the absence of the
stimulus.
• Feedback: The consequence of the
response on the stimulus. May be
positive or negative.
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Negative feedback is most
common in biological
systems.
Negative Feedback Loop
Examples of Negative Feedback
• Blood glucose
concentrations rise after a
sugary meal (the stimulus),
• the hormone insulin is
released and it speeds up
the transport of glucose out
of the blood and into
selected tissues (the
response),
• so blood glucose
concentrations decrease
(thus decreasing the original
stimulus).
Examples of Negative Feedback
Examples of Negative Feedback
• Exercise creates metabolic
heat which raises the body
temperature (the stimulus),
• cooling mechanisms such as
vasodilatation (flushed skin)
and sweating begin (the
response),
• body temperature falls (thus
decreasing the original
stimulus).
Examples of Negative Feedback
Examples of Negative Feedback
 Tiny masses on the posterior of the
thyroid
 Secrete parathyroid hormone
 Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium
from bone
 Stimulate the kidneys and intestine to
absorb more calcium
 Raise calcium levels in the blood
Examples of Negative Feedback

 Decreases blood calcium levels by


causing its deposition on bone
 Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
 Produced by C (parafollicular) cells
Positive feedback is less
common, which is
understandable, as most
changes to steady state pose
a threat, and to enhance them
would be most unhelpful.
Examples of Positive Feedback
• A baby begins to suckle her
mother's nipple and a few
drops of milk are released
(the stimulus).
• This encourages the baby and
releases a hormone in the
mother which further
stimulates the release of milk
(the response).
• The hungry baby continues to
suckle, stimulating more milk
release until she stops.
Examples of Positive Feedback
• A ripening apple releases the
volatile plant hormone
ethylene (the stimulus).
• Ethylene accelerates the
ripening of unripe fruit in its
vicinity so nearby fruit also
ripens, releasing more
ethylene (the response).
• All the fruit quickly becomes
ripe together.
Evaluation:
Make outline a homeostatic control
pathway. Choose only one from the
options.
• Regulation on temperature
• Regulation on osmotic balance
Assignment for the next meeting:
(Per Row)

Each row will describe one specific disorder


that result from the disruption of
homeostasis using a PPT presentation of 3-
5 slide only. Each group will be given 3-5
minutes presentation time,
Immune System
Problems
• Allergies – when the immune system
reacts & releases histamines to
“harmless” substances
• Leukemia – when the immune
system fails to recognize its own cells
and attacks its own organs & such
• Organ rejection – when the immune
systen does not recognize the cells in
a new organ and attacks
DISEASE AS A FAILURE OF
HOMEOSTASIS
• Pathogens – viruses (flu & HIV), bacteria
(strep & food poisoning), fungus (athlete’s
foot & ringworm), parasites (malaria &
tapeworms)
• Cancer – uncontrolled cell growth
• Toxins – lead poisoning, mercury
• Organ failure – diabetes, dialysis
• Poor nutrition – scurvy, goiter