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BIOMOLECULES

UNIT 4
MODULE 3
CARBOHYDRATES
What are
CARBOHYDRATES?
CARBOHYDRATES:
-Are sugars and starches

-They are used to provide energy and


structure to organisms.
CARBOHYDRATES:
-As the name implies, consist of CARBON,
HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN

-Basic formula: CH2O

-They are also known as “Saccharides” which


is a derivation of the Greek word “Sakcharon”
meaning sugar.
Carbohydrates can be classified as:

MONOSACCHARIDES

-means “one sugar molecule”

DISACCHARIDES

-means “two sugar molecule”

POLYSACCHARIDES

-means “many sugar molecules”


MONOSACCHARIDES
• also called simple sugars
• are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units
of carbohydrates
• Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such
as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such
as cellulose and starch)
• Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose),&
fructose

• Glucose and Fructose share the same molecular


formulas C6H12O6, and compounds with the same molecular
formulas are called isomers.
• During digestion, carbohydrates are
broken down into monosaccharide which
is absorbed into the blood and
transported to the cells providing “instant”
energy to perform our activities.
Sometimes we eat too much, especially
when we are tired, the excess glucose is
stored in the liver as glycogen for later
use.
• It is very important to have a steady
supply of glucose in the blood to maintain
body functions. As what they say, too
much or too little of anything may lead to
some diseases.
• When too much glucose is in the blood,
the pancreas secrete a hormone called
insulin which stimulates cells in the liver,
muscles and fat to absorb glucose and
transform it into glycogen or fats, which
can be stored for a period of time.
• When blood glucose drops, the pancreas
secretes glucagon, which causes the liver,
muscles and fat to convert glycogen
back to glucose.
DISACCHARIDES
• A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1])
• is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars)
are joined by glycosidic linkage.
• Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water.
• Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose
(sucrose, lactose, and maltose—have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11 )
• Condensation reaction is a reaction in
which two molecules or parts of the same
molecule combine. During the
condensation of monosaccharides to
form disaccharides, one molecule of
water is lost. When two glucose molecules
are combined, maltose is formed and
water is lost during the process.
• A Hydrolysis reaction occurs when the
bond between monosaccharides is
Add a Slide Title - 4 broken with the addition of a water
molecule.
• Lactose or milk sugar. Lactose is made up
LACTOSE of a sugar called galactose and glucose.
In our body, a specific enzyme, lactase is
necessary to help break the bond
between the two monosaccharides when
lactose is digested.
• People who cannot digest milk products
are called “lactose intolerant” because
they do not produce the enzyme
(lactase) necessary to break the bond
between glucose and galactose
.
POLYSACCHARIDES
• (the prefix poly means many) or complex carbohydrates.
• They are large molecules that are made up of many smaller units
that are joined together.
• Three common polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose
• Starch is the chief storage form of
STARCH carbohydrates in plants and the most
important source of carbohydrate in
human nutrition. A starch molecule is a
polysaccharide assembled from the
simple sugar glucose; it can contain
anywhere from five hundred to several
hundred thousand glucose molecules
joined by covalent bonds into a single
structure.
• Starch is made up of two types of
polysaccharides: amylose, which is a
coiled or helical structure, and
amylopectin, which is branched. Plants
make starch.
• All individuals whose intake of glucose is
GLYCOGEN excessive will store the excess glucose as
fat for long term storage and some are
converted to another polysaccharide
glycogen.
• Glycogen is a polysaccharide that is
similar to starch because it is also
composed of alpha glucose units. It differs
from starch since glycogen shows a
higher degree of branching and is a
• the structure of glycogen which
polysaccharide that is made by animal.
consists of long polymer chains of
glucose units connected by an
alpha glycosidic linkage.It is a
multibranched polysaccharide of
glucose that serves as a form of
energy storage in animals. The
polysaccharide structure
represents the main storage form
of glucose in the body
• People cannot digest cellulose, but when
CELLULOSE we eat foods rich in fiber, which is
cellulose, it speeds the movement of food
through the digestive tracts.
• It is a food for herbivorous animals like
cows, carabaos, goats, and horses. These
animals have microorganisms in their
digestive tracts that can digest cellulose.
They have a special stomach chamber
that holds the plants they eat for a long
period of time, during which these
microorganisms can break down the
cellulose into glucose. The protozoans in
the gut of insects such as termites also
digest cellulose.
END OF PRESENTATION