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INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES

• After this lesson, you should be able to:


• 1. increase the number of English words you know;
• 2. express worldviews freely using newly learned words;
• 3. enumerate the purposes of review of related literature;
• 4. familiarize with the review or related literature in quntitative research;
• 5. make a graphical presentation of the systematic review related literature;
• 6. differentiate meta-analysis from other literature-review methods;
• 7. compare and contrast these two referencing styles: APA and MLA;
• 8. documemt your research paper by using your chosen referencing style
properly; and
• 9. practice the ethical standards in writing your literature-review results.
DEFINITION OF RRL
• RRL is an important components of research
regardless of the type of research. Be it qualitative or
quantitative research, you spend time and effort in
reviewing related literature. Reviewing related literature
is one major activity in research that makes you
examine or study again concepts or ideas related to
your research that people manages to publish in
books, journals, or other reading materials in the past.
PURPOSES OF RRL
Your reasons for reviewing literature are true for both qualitative
and quantitative research. You re-examine written works related
to your research for the following purposes:

1. To find out the connection of your research to the current


conditions or situitions of the world.
2. To know mre about theories or concepts underlying your research
and to learn more them with respect to your own research paper.
3. To discover the relation of your research with previous research
studies.
4. To obtain information on the accuracy or relevance of your research
questions.
5. To familiarize yourself with technical terms related to your research.
RRL IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

You have learned that there are two basic methods of


reviewing telated literature: tradional and systematic
review. Tradional is for qualitative research; systematic,
for quantitative research. Systematic review ,’ a
question-driven methodology’ is used by quantitative
researchers who begin their research work by asking
question---one big question that states the main
problen of the research and a set of sub-questions that
deal with specific aspects of the research.
STEPS IN CONDUCTING A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Systematic review of related literature happens
through the following sequential steps:

1. Clarfying the research questions.


2. Planning the research based on your understanding
of your research questions.
3. Searching for literature.
4. Listing criteria for considering the values of written
works.
5. Evaluating the quality of previous research studies.
6. Summarizing the various forms knowledge collected.
META-ANALYSIS IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
What is meta-analysis in relation to RRL? Meta-analysis is a kind of
review of related literature in which you re-examine and combine the
results of two or mpre statistical studies for coming out with a grand
total to indicate stronger effects of the research outcome.
You resort to meta-analysis only if the statistics that you intend to
combine come from studies having several similarities like they are
comparable in terms of research questions, research design,
treatment, measuring technique, and measurable outcome. Similar in
many ways, these studies that are apt for combination purpose are
called homogenpus studies. Conversely, with a number of differences
from other studies, they are called heterogeneous studies and are
exampted from this type of systematic review of related literature called
meta-analysis.
IN-TEXT CITATION AND REFERENCING STYLES

All reading materials related to your research that


ypu intend to review or re-examine offer you
concepts, ideas, or information belonging to other
people. Having honesty, respect, or courtesy to the
owners of these varied forms of knowledge as well
as gratefulness for their valuable contribution to the
field, you see to it that the names of these ideas
owner or authors appear in the appropriate sections
of your research paper.

Others people’s incorporated in the central
section or main body of your paper are to be cited
or reffered to the true owners of borrowed ideas.


Referring to authors within the main body of the
paper is called Citation or In-text Citation; at the
end of the paper, it is called Bibliography or
References. The two most commonly used
referencing styles are the MLA(ModernLanguage
Association) and the APA(American Psychologist
Association).
The following table shows you how these two referencing styles
differ in some aspects.

Aspect APA System MLA System

Writing the Author’s name Full surname first, then Full surname first, followed by
followed by initial of first and full first name, and optional
middle name initial of the middle name
Writing the title of the reading Italicized title with only the Underlined or italicized title
material beginning word capitalized with all content words
(exception: capital for every capitalized
proper noun)
Writing the copyright date Written after the author’s Written after the publisher’s
name name
ETHICAL STANDARDS IN LITERATURE-
REVIEW WRITING

The ethical way of literature writing tells you to acknowledge the


owners of borrowed ideas and put quotation marks around copied
words from books or articles. Intentionally or negligently
disregarding an indication of gross plagiarism as well. You must be
aware of the fact that with the surfacing of online sources of
information, software to detect plagiarism from online sources has
likewise become so available in academic institutions. Proper
citation and referencing is your way of freeing yourself from
plagiarism and of avoiding people from casting doubts on your
honesty and integrity as a researcher. (Fraenbel 2012; Ransome
2011)