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# Mechanical Properties

• Stress and strain: What are they and why are
• Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
• Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent
deformation occur? What materials are most
resistant to permanent deformation?
• Toughness and ductility: What are they and how
do we measure them?

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Elastic Deformation

bonds
stretch

initial
δ
F
F Linear-
elastic
Elastic means reversible! Non-Linear-
elastic
δ
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Plastic Deformation (Metals)
bonds
stretch planes
& planes still
shear sheared

δ plastic
δ elastic + plastic

F
F
Plastic means permanent! linear linear
elastic elastic
δ
δ plastic
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Engineering Stress
• Tensile stress, σ : • Shear stress, τ :
Ft Ft F

Area, Ao Fs
Area, Ao

Fs
Ft
F Ft
Ft lb N τ = s F
σ = = 2f or 2
Ao
Ao in m
original area
∴ Stress has units:
N/m2 or lbf /in2
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Common States of Stress
• Simple tension: cable
F F
Ao = cross sectional
F
σ= σ σ
Ao
Ski lift(photo courtesy
• Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft P.M. Anderson)

M Fs Ao τ
Ac
Fs
τ =
Ao
M
2R Note: τ = M/AcR here.
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OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (i)
• Simple compression:

Ao

## Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F Note: compressive
Balanced Rock, Arches
σ= structure member
National
(photo ParkP.M. Anderson)
courtesy
Ao (σ < 0 here).

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OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (ii)

## Pressurized tank (photo courtesy

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Fish under water
P.M. Anderson)
σθ > 0

σz > 0 σ h <0

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Engineering Strain
• Tensile strain: • Lateral strain:
δ /2
−δ L
ε = δ ε L=
Lo Lo wo
wo

δ L /2
• Shear strain:
θ
∆ γ = ∆ x/y = tan
θ
x
y 90º - θ
Strain is always
90º dimensionless.
Adapted from Fig. 6.1(a) and (c), Callister & Rethwisch 8e. 8
Stress-Strain Testing
• Typical tensile test • Typical tensile
machine specimen

extensometer specimen Fig. 6.2,
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials,
Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.)
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Linear Elastic Properties
• Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)

• Hooke's Law:
σ =Eε σ F
E

ε
Linear-
elastic F
simple
tension
test

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Poisson's ratio, ν
• Poisson's ratio, ν :
ε L

εL
ν= −
ε ε

metals: ν ~ 0.33 -ν
ceramics: ν ~ 0.25
polymers: ν ~ 0.40

## Units: ν > 0.50 density increases

E: [GPa] or [psi] ν < 0.50 density decreases
ν : dimensionless (voids form)

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Mechanical Properties
• Slope of stress strain plot (which is
proportional to the elastic modulus)
depends on bond strength of metal

Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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Other Elastic Properties
τ M
• Elastic Shear
modulus, G: G simple
γ torsion
τ =Gγ test

M
• Elastic Bulk P P
modulus, K:
∆V ∆V P P
P = -K Vo
Vo K pressure
test: Init.
vol =Vo.
• Special relations for isotropic materials: Vol chg.
=∆ V
E E
G= K=
2(1 + ν ) 3(1 −2ν )
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Young’s Moduli: Comparison
Graphite
Metals Composites
Ceramics Polymers
Alloys /fibers
Semicond
1200
1000 Diamond
800
600
Si carbide
400 Tungsten Al oxide Carbon fibers only
Molybdenum Si nitride
E(GPa) 200
Steel, Ni
Tantalum <111>
Si crystal
CFRE(|| fibers)*
Platinum
Cu alloys <100> Aramid fibers only
100 Zinc, Ti
80 Silver, Gold
Glass -soda A FRE(|| fibers)* Based on data in Table B.2,
Aluminum Glass fibers only
60
40
Magnesium,
Tin GFRE(|| fibers)* Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
Concrete Composite data based on
109 Pa 20 GFRE*
CFRE*
reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned
Graphite GFRE( fibers)*
10 carbon (CFRE),
8 CFRE( fibers) *
6 AFRE( fibers) *
aramid (AFRE), or
Polyester glass (GFRE)
4 PET
PS fibers.
PC Epoxy only
2
PP
1 HDPE
0.8
0.6 Wood( grain)
PTFE
0.4

0.2 LDPE 14
Useful Linear Elastic Relationships
• Simple tension: • Simple torsion:
2ML o
δ = FL o δ = −ν Fw o α=
L
EA o EA o π r o4 G
F M = moment
δ /2 α = angle of twist
Ao
Lo Lo
wo

2ro
δ L /2
contribute to deflection.
• Larger elastic moduli minimize elastic deflection.
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Plastic (Permanent) Deformation
(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < Tmelt /3)
• Simple tension test:
Elastic+Plastic
engineering stress, σ at larger stress

Elastic
initially
permanent (plastic)

ε p
engineering strain, ε

## plastic strain Adapted from Fig. 6.10(a),

Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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Yield Strength, σ y
• Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when ε p = 0.002
tensile stress,σ
σ y = yield strength
σ y

## Note: for 2 inch sample

ε = 0.002 =
∆ z/z
∴ ∆ z = 0.004 in
engineering strain,ε
ε p = 0.002 Adapted from Fig. 6.10(a),
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
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Yield Strength : Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
2000
Steel (4140) qt

1000
Yield strength, σ y (MPa)

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a

700 W (pure)

600

## in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

Cu (71500) cw
500 Mo (pure)
Steel (4140) a
400
Steel (1020) cd Room temperature
300
values
Hard to measure ,

Al (6061) ag

Hard to measure,
200 Steel (1020) hr ¨
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500) hr Based on data in Table B.4,
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
100
a = annealed
dry
70 PC hr = hot rolled
60 Nylon 6,6 ag = aged
50 Al (6061) a PET
cd = cold drawn
40 PVC humid
cw = cold worked
PP
30 HDPE qt = quenched & tempered
20

LDPE
Tin (pure) 18
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VMSE: Virtual Tensile Testing

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Tensile Strength, TS
• Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

F = fracture or
σ y
ultimate
engineering

strength
stress

## Typical response of a metal Neck – acts

as stress
concentrator
strain
engineering strain
• Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
• Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
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Tensile Strength: Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
5000 C fibers
Aramid fib
3000 E-glass fib
Tensile strength, TS (MPa)

## 2000 Steel (4140) qt

AFRE(|| fiber)
1000 W (pure) Diamond GFRE(|| fiber)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)aa CFRE(|| fiber)
Steel (4140)cw
Cu (71500) Si nitride
Cu (71500) hr Al oxide
300
Steel (1020)
Al (6061) ag
Ti (pure) a
Room temperature
200 Ta (pure)
values
Al (6061) a
100 Si crystal wood(|| fiber) Based on data in Table B.4,
<100> Nylon 6,6
Glass-soda PC PET Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
40 PVC GFRE( fiber) a = annealed
Concrete PP
30 CFRE( fiber)
AFRE( fiber) hr = hot rolled
HDPE ag = aged
20 Graphite
LDPE cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
10 qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
wood ( fiber)
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.
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Ductility
L f −L o
• Plastic tensile strain at failure: %EL = x 100
Lo
smaller %EL
Engineering
tensile
stress, σ larger %EL Ao
Lo Af Lf
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

## • Another ductility measure: Ao - Af

%RA = x 100
Ao

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Toughness
• Energy to break a unit volume of material
• Approximate by the area under the stress-strain curve.

## Engineering small toughness (ceramics)

tensile large toughness (metals)
stress, σ
Adapted from Fig. 6.13, very small toughness
Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (unreinforced polymers)

## Brittle fracture: elastic energy

Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
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Resilience, Ur

## • Ability of a material to store energy

– Energy stored best in elastic region
εy
Ur = ∫0
If we assume
σdε
a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to

1
Ur ≅ σ yε y
2
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
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Elastic Strain Recovery

σ D
yi

σ yo
Stress

Strain

## Adapted from Fig. 6.17, Elastic strain

Callister & Rethwisch 8e. recovery
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Hardness
• Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
• Large hardness means:
-- resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
-- better wear properties.
apply known force measure size
e.g., of indent after

Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

## most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided

plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness
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Hardness: Measurement

• Rockwell
– No major sample damage
– Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range 20-100.
– Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
• A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

• HB = Brinell Hardness
– TS (psia) = 500 x HB
– TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB

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Hardness: Measurement
Table 6.5

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True Stress & Strain
Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched

## • True stress σT = F Ai σT = σ(1 + ε )

εT = ln(1 + ε )
• True strain eT =ln(l i l o )

Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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Hardening
• An increase in σ y due to plastic deformation.
σ
large hardening
σy
1
σy small hardening
0

ε
• Curve fit to the stress-strain response:
hardening exponent:
σT= Kε T ( ) n n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
“true” stress (F/A) “true” strain: ln(L/Lo)
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Variability in Material Properties
• Elastic modulus is material property
• Critical properties depend largely on
sample flaws (defects, etc.). Large sample
to sample variability.
• Statistics

## – Mean -Standard Deviation 1

n ν 2 2
Σ xn  Σ( ξι − ξ ) 
x= σ= 
n  ν −1 
 
where n is the number of data points
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Design or Safety Factors
• Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.
• Factor of safety, N Often N is
σy between
σworking = 1.2 and 4
N
• Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does
not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a
factor of safety of 5.
d
σy
σworking = 1045 plain
carbon steel:
N σ y = 310 MPa Lo
220 ,000 Ν TS = 565 MPa
5
π (δ / 4 )
2

F = 220,000N
d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm
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Summary
• Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
• Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
• Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches σ y.
• Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
• Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

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