Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

CHAPTER 2: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN DAILY LIFE


KINDS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH,
CHARACTERISTICS, USES, STRENGTHS AND LESSON 1

WEAKNESSES
WHAT IS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?
Cresswell (1994) defines qualitative research as “an inquiry
process of understanding a social or human problem based on
building a complex holistic picture formed with words, reporting
detailed views of informants and conducted in a natural
setting.”
Spirduso and Silverman (1987) emphasize that the intent of
qualitative research is to understand a particular social
situation, event, role, group or interaction.
Franenkel and Wallen (1990) stress that researchers are
interested in understanding how things occur.
KINDS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
MARSHALL AND ROSSMAN (1995)
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

Demands immersion in the natural setting


of the research participant/s. This way, the
researcher participant is able to hear, see,
and experience reality as the research
participants perform activities and deal
with one another during a period of time.
OBSERVATION

Entails the systematic noting or recording


of events, behaviors and artifacts (objects)
in the social setting chosen for study.
Through this method, the researcher learns
about behaviors and the meanings
attached to those behaviors.
IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING

Resembles conversations, but with pre-


determined response categories. A degree
of systematization in questioning may be
necessary, especially in a multisite case
study or when many participants are
interviewed.
IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWING
This way, large amounts of data are
gathered quickly and immediate follow-up
and clarifications are possible.
Interviewers should have excellent listening
skills, and be equally skilful at personal
interaction, question framing and gentle
probing for elaboration.
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWING
Involves 7-10, at times 6-8 people, who are
unfamiliar with one another and have been
selected because they share certain characteristics
that are relevant to the research inquiry or
problem. The interviewer creates a permissive
environment, asks focused questions, in order to
encourage discussion and the expression of
differing opinions and points of view.
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWING

These interviews are conducted several


times with different individuals so that the
researcher can identify trends in the
perceptions and opinions expressed, which
are revealed through careful, systematic
analysis.
FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWING
This method also provides quick results;
the discussion is free-wheeling, not “stiff”,
which can happen in a one-on-one
interview. The moderator or researcher
must be an expert in keeping the
discussion focused on the research problem
or inquiry.
CONTENT ANALYSIS

Calls for systematic examination of forms


of communication to document patterns
objectively-as shown in letters, emails,
minutes of meetings, policy statements and
a lot more.
NARRATOLOGY

Needless to say, the researcher must be


an active listener and an adept reader
(for written stories), attentive to recurring
patterns, as well as the narrator’s feelings,
views and values as reflected in both oral
and written stories.
NARRATOLOGY
Can be applied to any spoken or written
story. Narrative inquiry requires a great deal
of sensitivity between participant and
researcher. Ideally, a friendly atmosphere
pervades during the story telling, retelling
and reliving of personal experiences.
Needless to say, the researcher must be an
FILMS, VIDEOS AND PHOTOGRAPHS

These provide records of events,


especially the films and videos which
capture the perspective of the filmmaker
or videographer. Pictures, on the other
hand, manifest the intent, interests and
values of the photographer.
CHARACTERISTICS AND USES OF
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
The research takes place in a natural setting-
a home, an office, an institution, or a
community where human behaviour and events
occur. This enables the researcher to be
immersed in the actual experiences of the
research participants and to get as much
detailed data as s/he needs.
The focus of qualitative research is on the
participants’ perceptions and experiences and
the way they make sense of their lives.
The methods are interactive and humanistic,
call for active participation of research
participants, and on the part of the researcher,
sensitivity to the needs of the participants.
It uses various ways of collecting data:
observations, structured or semi structured
interviews, documents, and now, e-mails, blogs,
videos, stills, and a host of others.
The theory or general pattern of
understanding will emerge as it begins with
initial codes, develops into broad themes, and
coalesces into a ground theory or broad
interpretation.
It is fundamentally interpretative. This includes
a description of n individual or setting,
analysing data for themes or categories, and
finally, making an interpretation or drawing
conclusions about its meaning, personally and
theoretically, stating the lessons learned and
offering further questions to be asked.
The researcher may filter the date through a
personal lens that is situated in specific socio-
political and historical moments. One cannot
escape the personal interpretation brought to
qualitative data analysis.
The researcher is the primary instrument in
data collection. S/he views social phenomena
holistically. The more complex, interactive and
encompassing the narrative, the better is the
qualitative study.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
STRENGTHS
Qualitative research can offer the best light on or the best
answers to certain phenomena-social, economic, political or
even psychological.
Research results are exhaustive; even underlying meanings
surface.
It offers several avenues to understand phenomena, behaviour,
human conditions and the like.
It can build on, or even develop theories through consistent
themes, categories, relationships, interrelationships that are
crystalized during the data gathering and data analysis
processes.
WEAKNESSES
Total immersion in the natural setting of the research
can be time-consuming and tedious, and resource-
draining, as well.
There comes a point when the personal-self and the
researcher-self are inseparable, so, subjectivity, on
the part of the researcher, can happen.
IMPORTANCE OF
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH LESSON 2

ACROSS DIFFERENT FIELDS


ASSIGNMENT
THE IMPORTANCE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN:
Education
Technical communication
Psychology
Advertising
Social work
Marketing
International Business