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EMPLOYEE RETENTION,

ENGAGEMENT AND
CAREERS
MANAGING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER

 Turnover-the rate at which Turnover


employee leave the firm-varies
greatly across industries.

 Voluntary turnover as Voluntary Involuntary


individual initiated permanent
end to the employment
contract making it something
beyond the control of the Functional Dysfunctional
organisation.

 Griffeth and Hom (2001)


describe involuntary turnover Unavoidable
as ‘an employer initiated job
separation over which leavers
have little or no personal say’
Avoidable

Figure 1 Types of Turnover. Note: this figure has been adapted from Griffeth and Hom’s Retaining Valued
COST OF TURNOVER

 Cascio (1991) classified turnover costs into three distinct


sections; Replacement, separation and training costs.

 Replacement costs are associated with the restoration of the


vacant position as a result of an employee’s departure from the
organisation.

 Separation costs are those associated directly with the leaving


employee. These include costs in terms of loss of productivity,
cost of exit interviews etc.

 Training costs are associated with making the new employee


familiar to the organisation and encompasses the entire
socialisation process.
MODELS FOR TURNOVER

 March and Simon’s (1958) Model of turnover

 Lee and Mitchell’s (1994) Unfolding model of


turnover

 Lee and Mitchell’s (2001) Job embeddedness model


MARCH AND SIMON’S (1958) MODEL OF
TURNOVER

 Turnover is a function of
A) perceived desirability/undesirability of movement
B) perceived ease of movement.

 Job Satisfaction is has a significant impact on the


desirability/undesirability of movement

 age and length of service are considered to significantly


af fect an individual’s ease of movement.
UNFOLDING MODEL OF TURNOVER

 Comprises of several psychological pathways taken up by an


individual before he/she reaches a decision to leave .
JOB EMBEDDEDNESS MODEL

 Job embeddedness explains a network of forces that people


use as their justification to not leave the job. These network
of forces are termed as links, fit and sacrifice.

 Fit explains the degree to which people believe there is a


balance between professional social and personal lives .

 Links explains the level of formal and casual associations of


people within and outside the organisation .

 Sacrifice refers to the benefits forgone if the person leaves


the job. Leaving may mean he has to give up on the fringe
benefits
RETENTION STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING
VOLUNTARY TURNOVER
 Turnover often starts with poor selection decisions
compounded by inadequate training, insensitive appraisals
and inequitable pay

 Conduct exit interviews, routinely conduct attitude surveys etc

 Realistic Job Previews (RJPs)


COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO
RETAINING EMPLOYEES

1. Selection

2. Professional Growth

3. Career Direction

4. Meaningful work and ownership of goals

5. Culture and environment

6. Work-life balance

7. Acknowledge achievements
JOB WITHDRAWAL

 Actions intended to place physical or psychological distance


between employees and their work environments

 Poor attendance
 Taking undeserved breaks
 Spending time in idle conversations
 Neglecting aspects of the job one is obligated to perform
 Psychological withdrawal ‘day dreaming’

 Temporary withdrawal Vs. Permanent withdrawal

 Dealing with Job Withdrawal?


EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT

 Engagement refers to being psychologically involved in,


connected to, and committed to getting one’s jobs done.

 Engaged employees (A) increase organisation’s performance


(B) increase revenue per employee (C) reduces turnover
intention

 Employees should (1) understand how their department


contributes to the company’s success (2) see how their ef forts
contribute to achieving company goals (3) get a sense of
accomplishment from working at the firm
CAREER MANAGEMENT

 Career management of fers employees a range of professional


experiences, broad functional and geographic exposure within
the organisation and more targeted leadership opportunities
that become a part of employees reward packages

 Both employer and the employee benefits by career


development support.
CAREER TERMINOLOGY

 Career can be defined as the occupational position a person


holds over the years.

 Career management is a process for enabling employees to


better understand and develop their career skills and
interests

 Career development is the lifelong series of activities that


contribute to a person’s career exploration, establishment
and success

 Career planning is the deliberate ef fort through which


someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests and
knowledge
CAREERS TODAY

Have careers become boundaryless? By Ricardo A Rodrigues


and David Guest (2010)
 Ricardo A Rodrigues and David Guest
DIMENSIONS OF BOUNDARYLESS
CAREER
1) NASA engineer,
banker with social life
that relies on his
fellow workers
2) Person offering his
skills as a waiter or a
bartender to earn
money
3) Individuals taking
evening classes or
doing volunteer work
4) Chef
THE EMPLOYER’S ROLE IN
CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Realistic Job Previews

Networking and
Interactions Challenging First Jobs

Employer’s Role
Career-Oriented
Mentoring
Appraisals

Job
Rotation