Sie sind auf Seite 1von 56

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

CAUSE
• THE MAIN VECTOR THAT TRANSMITS THE VIRUSES THAT CAUSES DENGUE.
THE VIRUSES ARE PASSED ON TO HUMANS THROUGH THE BITES OF AN
INFECTIVE FEMALE AEDES MOSQUITO, WHICH MAINLY ACQUIRES THE VIRUS
WHILE FEEDING ON THE BLOOD OF AN INFECTED PERSON.

MALE AEDES AEGYPTI FEMALE AEDES AEGYPTI


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE
• HIGH FEVER
• SEVERE HEADACHE
• PAIN BEHIND THE EYES
• MUSCLE AND JOINT PAINS
• NAUSEA
• VOMITING
• FATIGUE
• SKIN RASH, WHICH APPEARS TWO TO FIVE DAYS AFTER THE ONSET OF FEVER
• MILD BLEEDING (SUCH AS NOSE BLEEDING, BLEEDING GUMS, OR EASY BRUISING)
PREVENTION
• USE MOSQUITO NETS AND INSECT REPELLENT.
• PUT SCREENS ON DOORS AND WINDOWS.
• REFRAIN FORM GOING OUTDOORS DURING THE TIME OF THE DAY
WHEN MOSQUITOES ARE MOST ACTIVE.
• REMOVE STAGNANT WATER. COVER WATER CONTAINERS AND
CHANGE WATER IN FLOWER VASES FREQUENTLY.
CAUSE
• BY THE PLASMODIUM PARASITE. THE PARASITE CAN BE
SPREAD TO HUMANS THROUGH THE BITES OF INFECTED
MOSQUITOES. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF
PLASMODIUM PARASITE, BUT ONLY 5 TYPES CAUSE
MALARIA IN HUMANS.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA
• SHAKING CHILLS THAT CAN RANGE FROM MODERATE TO SEVERE
• HIGH FEVER, CONVULSIONS
• PROFUSE SWEATING
• HEADACHE
• NAUSEA
• VOMITING
• ABDOMINAL PAIN
• DIARRHEA, COMA
• ANEMIA, BLOODY STOOLS
PREVENTION
• AVOIDING MOSQUITO BITES THROUGH THE USE OF MOSQUITO
NETS AND INSECT REPELLENT, SPRAYING INSECTICIDES, AND
DRAINING STANDING WATER WHERE MOSQUITOES LAY THEIR
EGGS.
• NO VACCINE IS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE FOR MALARIA.
PREVENTIVE DRUGS MUST BE TAKEN CONTINUOUSLY TO
REDUCE THE RISK OF INFECTION.
CAUSE
• IT IS CAUSED BY EATING FOOD OR DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATED
WITH A BACTERIUM CALLED VIBRIO CHOLERAE.

VIBRIO CHOLERAE
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA
• WATERY DIARRHEA (SOMETIMES IN LARGE
VOLUMES) • LOW BLOOD PRESSURE

• RICE-WATER STOOLS (SEE FIGURE 1) • THIRST

• FISHY ODOR TO STOOLS • MUSCLE CRAMPS (LEG CRAMPS, FOR EXAMPLE)

• VOMITING • RESTLESSNESS OR IRRITABILITY


• RAPID HEART RATE (ESPECIALLY IN CHILDREN)
• LOSS OF SKIN ELASTICITY (WASHER • UNUSUAL SLEEPINESS OR TIREDNESS
• ABDOMINAL PAIN (CRAMPS)
WOMAN HANDS SIGN; SEE FIGURE 2)

• DRY MUCOUS MEMBRANES (DRY MOUTH)

• DEHYDRATION • RECTAL PAIN


• LOW OR NO URINE OUTPUT • FEVER
• SEIZURES • SEVERE VOMITING
PREVENTION
• WASH HANDS WITH SOAP AND WATER FREQUENTLY AND
THOROUGHLY.
• DRINK SAFE WATER ONLY
• EAT FOOD THAT IS COMPLETELY COOKED.
• AVOID RAW FOOD, STREET FOOD, AND ANY FOOD FROM SUSPICIOUS
SOURCES.
• OBSERVE PROPER HYGIENE AND SANITATION AT ALL TIMES.
CAUSE
• BY A TYPE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS THAT RARELY INFECTS HUMANS. MORE THAN A DOZEN
TYPES OF BIRD FLU HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED, INCLUDING THE TWO STRAINS THAT HAVE
MOST RECENTLY INFECTED HUMANS — H5N1 AND H7N9. WHEN BIRD FLU DOES STRIKE
HUMANS, IT CAN BE DEADLY.

H5N1 and H7N9 Virus INFLUENZA A Virus


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF BIRD FLU
• COUGH
• MUSCLE ACHES
• DIARRHEA
• MALAISE
• RESPIRATORY
DIFFICULTIES
• RUNNY NOSE
• FEVER (OVER 100.4°F OR • SORE THROAT
38°C)
• HEADACHE
PREVENTION
• WASH HANDS OR USE ALCOHOL-BASED HAND SANITIZER TO AVOID
INFECTION OF ALL KINDS.
• STAY AWAY FROM FARMS AND LIVE ANIMAL MARKETS.
• COVER MOUTH AND NOSE WHEN COUGHING OR SNEEZING.
• COOK CHICKEN THOROUGHLY. DO NOT EAT RAW EGGS.
• AVOID CROSS-CONTAMINATION. DO NOT USE THE SAME UTENSILS
FOR BOTH RAW MEAT AND OTHER KINDS OF FOOD.
CAUSE
• BY INFLUENZA VIRUSES THAT INFECT THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF PIGS AND RESULT
IN A BARKING COUGH, DECREASED APPETITE, NASAL SECRETIONS, AND LISTLESS
BEHAVIOR; THE VIRUS CAN BE TRANSMITTED TO HUMANS.

H1N1 SWINE FLU VIRUS


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF H1N1
• FEVER (BUT NOT ALWAYS) • BODY ACHES
• CHILLS • HEADACHE
• COUGH • FATIGUE
• SORE THROAT • DIARRHEA
• RUNNY OR STUFFY NOSE • NAUSEA AND
• WATERY, RED EYES • VOMITING
PREVENTION
•VACCINATION
•STAY HOME IF YOU'RE SICK.
•WASH YOUR HANDS THOROUGHLY AND
FREQUENTLY.
•CONTAIN YOUR COUGHS AND SNEEZES.
•AVOID CONTACT.
CAUSE
• BY SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE TYPHI BACTERIA. TYPHOID FEVER IS
CONTRACTED BY THE INGESTION OF CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER. DIAGNOSIS OF
TYPHOID FEVER IS MADE WHEN SALMONELLA BACTERIA ARE DETECTED WITH STOOL,
URINE, OR BLOOD CULTURES.

SALMONELLA ENTERICA
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF TYPHOID FEVER
• POOR APPETITE • WEAKNESS AND
• HEADACHES FATIGUE
• SWEATING
• DIARRHEA
• DRY COUGH
• GENERALIZED • EXTREMELY
ACHES AND PAINS,
SWOLLEN ABDOMEN
• FEVER • RASH
• LETHARGY.
PREVENTION
• VACCINATION
• ONE IS INJECTED IN A SINGLE DOSE AT LEAST ONE WEEK BEFORE TRAVEL.
• ONE IS GIVEN ORALLY IN FOUR CAPSULES, WITH ONE CAPSULE TO BE TAKEN EVERY
OTHER DAY.

• WASH YOUR HANDS THOROUGHLY AND FREQUENTLY.


• AVOID DRINKING UNTREATED WATER.
• AVOID RAW FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
• CHOOSE HOT FOODS.
• TAKE YOUR ANTIBIOTICS.
NON-COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF BLOOD PRESSURE
• SEVERE HEADACHE.
• FATIGUE OR CONFUSION VISION PROBLEMS.
• VISION PROBLEMS.
• CHEST PAIN.
• DIFFICULTY BREATHING.
• IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT.
• BLOOD IN THE URINE.
• POUNDING IN YOUR CHEST, NECK, OR EARS.
BLOOD PRESSURE
• NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE (BLOOD PRESSURE READING 120/80 OR
LOWER IS CONSIDERED NORMAL.)

• HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (BLOOD PRESSURE READING 140/90 OR HIGHER IS


CONSIDERED HIGH. IF ONE OR BOTH NUMBERS
ARE USUALLY HIGH, YOU HAVE HIGH BLOOD
PRESSURE OR HYPERTENSION.)

• LOW BLOOD PRESSURE (BLOOD PRESSURE THAT IS TOO LOW IS KNOWN AS


HYPOTENSION.)
PREVENTION
• MAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHT.
• EAT A BALANCED DIET.
• CUT BACK ON SALT.
• EXERCISE REGULARLY.
• LIMIT THE ALCOHOL AND QUIT SMOKING.
• MONITOR YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE.
CAUSES
• SMOKING • LACK OF EXERCISE
• DIABETES • AGE
• OVERWEIGHT • TOO MUCH DRINKING
• DIET HIGH IN SATURATED • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
FAT AND SALT • HAVING HIGH
• FAMILY HISTORY CHOLESTEROL LEVEL
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DESEASE

• CHEST PAIN, CHEST TIGHTNESS, CHEST PRESSURE AND CHEST


DISCOMFORT (ANGINA)
• SHORTNESS OF BREATH.
• PAIN, NUMBNESS, WEAKNESS OR COLDNESS IN YOUR LEGS OR
ARMS IF THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THOSE PARTS OF YOUR BODY ARE
NARROWED.
• PAIN IN THE NECK, JAW, THROAT, UPPER ABDOMEN OR BACK.
PREVENTION
• DON'T SMOKE OR USE • MANAGE STRESS.
TOBACCO.
• EXERCISE FOR ABOUT 30 • GET REGULAR HEALTH
SCREENINGS:
MINUTES ON MOST DAYS OF
THE WEEK. • BLOOD PRESSURE
• EAT A HEART-HEALTHY DIET. • CHOLESTEROL LEVELS
• MAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHT. • DIABETES SCREENING.
• GET ENOUGH QUALITY SLEEP.
CAUSES
A HEART ATTACK OCCURS WHEN ONE OR
MORE OF YOUR CORONARY ARTERIES
BECOME BLOCKED. OVER TIME, A
CORONARY ARTERY CAN NARROW FROM
THE BUILDUP OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES,
INCLUDING CHOLESTEROL
(ATHEROSCLEROSIS). THIS CONDITION,
KNOWN AS CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE,
CAUSES MOST HEART ATTACKS.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEART ATTACK
• PRESSURE, TIGHTNESS, PAIN, OR A SQUEEZING OR ACHING SENSATION
IN YOUR CHEST OR ARMS THAT MAY SPREAD TO YOUR NECK, JAW OR
BACK
• NAUSEA, INDIGESTION, HEARTBURN OR ABDOMINAL PAIN
• SHORTNESS OF BREATH
• COLD SWEAT
• FATIGUE
• LIGHTHEADEDNESS OR SUDDEN DIZZINESS
PREVENTION
• MEDICATIONS. • DON'T SMOKE.
• LIFESTYLE FACTORS. • MANAGE STRESS.
• CONTROL YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE. • LIMIT ALCOHOL.
• KEEP YOUR CHOLESTEROL AND • MANAGE DIABETES.
TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS UNDER • MAKE SURE THAT YOU GET ENOUGH
CONTROL. SLEEP.
• STAY AT A HEALTHY WEIGHT.
CAUSES
THE BLOCKAGE OF AN ARTERY IN THE BRAIN BY
A CLOT (THROMBOSIS) IS THE MOST COMMON
CAUSE OF A STROKE. THE PART OF THE BRAIN
THAT IS SUPPLIED BY THE CLOTTED BLOOD
VESSEL IS THEN DEPRIVED OF BLOOD AND
OXYGEN. AS A RESULT OF THE DEPRIVED BLOOD
AND OXYGEN, THE CELLS OF THAT PART OF THE
BRAIN DIE AND THE PART OF THE BODY THAT IT
CONTROLS STOPS WORKING. TYPICALLY, A
CHOLESTEROL PLAQUE IN ONE OF THE BRAIN'S
SMALL BLOOD VESSELS RUPTURES AND STARTS
THE CLOTTING PROCESS.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF STROKE

• SUDDEN NUMBNESS OR WEAKNESS OF THE FACE, ARM OR LEG,


ESPECIALLY ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY
• SUDDEN CONFUSION, TROUBLE SPEAKING OR UNDERSTANDING
• SUDDEN TROUBLE SEEING OR BLURRED VISION IN ONE OR BOTH EYES
• SUDDEN TROUBLE WALKING, DIZZINESS, LOSS OF BALANCE OR
COORDINATION
• SUDDEN SEVERE HEADACHE WITH NO KNOWN CAUSE
PREVENTION
• LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE
• LOSE WEIGHT
• EXERCISE MORE
• IF YOU DRINK — DO IT IN MODERATION
• TREAT ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
• TREAT DIABETES
• QUIT SMOKING
CAUSES
• TYPE 1 DIABETES OCCURS WHEN YOUR
IMMUNE SYSTEM, THE BODY’S SYSTEM
FOR FIGHTING INFECTION, ATTACKS AND
DESTROYS THE INSULIN-PRODUCING
BETA CELLS OF THE PANCREAS.
• TYPE 2 DIABETES—THE MOST COMMON
FORM OF DIABETES—IS CAUSED BY
SEVERAL FACTORS, INCLUDING
LIFESTYLE FACTORS AND GENES.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

• INCREASED THIRST AND URINATION


• INCREASED HUNGER
• FATIGUE
• BLURRED VISION
• NUMBNESS OR TINGLING IN THE FEET OR HANDS
• SORES THAT DO NOT HEAL
• UNEXPLAINED WEIGHT LOSS
PREVENTION
• CUT SUGAR AND REFINED CARBS FROM • WATCH PORTION SIZES
YOUR DIET • AVOID SEDENTARY BEHAVIORS
• WORK OUT REGULARLY • EAT A HIGH-FIBER DIET
• DRINK WATER AS YOUR PRIMARY • OPTIMIZE VITAMIN D LEVELS
BEVERAGE
• MINIMIZE YOUR INTAKE OF PROCESSED
• LOSE WEIGHT IF YOU'RE OVERWEIGHT FOODS
OR OBESE
• DRINK COFFEE OR TEA
• QUIT SMOKING
• CONSIDER TAKING THESE NATURAL
• FOLLOW A VERY-LOW-CARB DIET HERBS
CLASSIFICATION OF CANCER

• CARCINOMAS • SARCOMAS • LYMPHOMAS


CLASSIFICATION OF CANCER

• LEUKEMIAS • ADENOMAS
CAUSES
• BY ACCUMULATED DAMAGE TO GENES.
SUCH CHANGES MAY BE DUE TO CHANCE
OR TO EXPOSURE TO A CANCER
CAUSING SUBSTANCE. THE SUBSTANCES
THAT CAUSE CANCER ARE CALLED
CARCINOGENS. A CARCINOGEN MAY BE A
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE, SUCH AS CERTAIN
MOLECULES IN TOBACCO SMOKE.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CANCER
• PERSISTENT COUGH OR BLOOD-TINGED • BLOOD IN THE URINE
SALIVA • HOARSENESS
• A CHANGE IN BOWEL HABITS • PERSISTENT LUMPS OR SWOLLEN GLANDS
• BLOOD IN THE STOOL • OBVIOUS CHANGE IN A WART OR A MOLE
• UNEXPLAINED ANEMIA (LOW BLOOD COUNT) • INDIGESTION OR DIFFICULTY SWALLOWING
• BREAST LUMP OR BREAST DISCHARGE • UNUSUAL VAGINAL BLEEDING OR DISCHARGE
• LUMPS IN THE TESTICLES • UNEXPECTED WEIGHT LOSS, NIGHT SWEATS,
• A CHANGE IN URINATION OR FEVER

• HEADACHES • CONTINUED ITCHING IN THE ANAL OR


GENITAL AREA
• BACK PAIN, PELVIC PAIN, BLOATING, OR
INDIGESTION • NONHEALING SORES
PREVENTION
• DON'T USE TOBACCO • GET VACCINATED
• EAT A HEALTHY DIET • AVOID RISKY BEHAVIORS
• MAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHT • GET REGULAR MEDICAL
AND BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE
CARE
• PROTECT YOURSELF FROM THE
SUN