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Industry 4.0  - the fourth revolution that has occurred in manufacturing.

the fourth industrial revolution will take what was started in the third with the adoption
of computers and automation and enhance it with smart and autonomous systems
fueled by data and machine learning

Industry 4.0 optimizes the computerization of Industry 3.0

computers are connected and communicate with one another to ultimately make
decisions without human involvement.

A combination of cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of

Systems make Industry 4.0 possible and the smart factory a reality.

As a result of the support of smart machines that keep getting smarter as they get
access to more data, our factories will become more efficient and productive and less

Ultimately, it's the network of these machines that are digitally connected with one
another and create and share information that results in the true power of Industry 4.0.
Industry 4.0 applications today
Here are just a few of the possible applications:

Identify opportunities: Since connected machines collect a tremendous

volume of data that can inform maintenance, performance and other
issues, as well as analyze that data to identify patterns and insights that
would be impossible for a human to do in a reasonable timeframe,
Industry 4.0 offers the opportunity for manufacturers to optimize their
operations quickly and efficiently by knowing what needs attention.

By using the data from sensors in its equipment, an African gold mine
identified a problem with the oxygen levels during leaching. Once fixed,
they were able to increase their yield by
 3.7%, which saved them $20 million annually.
Optimize logistics and supply chains: A connected supply chain can
adjust and accommodate when new information is presented. If a
weather delay ties up a shipment, a connected system can proactively
Autonomous equipment and vehicles: There are shipping yards that are
leveraging autonomous cranes and trucks to streamline operations as
they accept shipping containers from the ships.

Robots: Once only possible for large enterprises with equally large
budgets, robotics are now more affordable and available to
organizations of every size. From picking products at a warehouse to
getting them ready to ship, autonomous robots can quickly and safely
support manufacturers. Robots move goods around Amazon warehouses
 and also reduce costs and allow better use of floor space for the online

Additive manufacturing (3D printing): This technology has improved

tremendously in the last decade and has progressed from primarily
being used for prototyping to actual production. Advances in the use of
metal additive manufacturing have opened up a lot of possibilities for
Internet of Things and the cloud: A key component of Industry 4.0 is the
Internet of Things that is characterized by connected devices. Not only
does this help internal operations, but through the use of the cloud
environment where data is stored, equipment and operations can be
optimized by leveraging the insights of others using the same equipment
or to allow smaller enterprises access to technology they wouldn’t be
able to on their own.

While Industry 4.0 is still evolving and we might not have the complete
picture until we look back 30 years from now, companies who are
adopting the technologies realize Industry 4.0's potential.

These same companies are also grappling with how to upskill their
current workforce to take on new work responsibilities made possible by
Internet 4.0 and to recruit new employees with the right skills.
AI applied to HRM

1) AI basics,
2) Five critical HR areas that AI is transforming.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science that aims to solve
cognitive problems commonly associated with human intelligence. In other
words, AI enables machines to “think like humans,” and perform tasks
such as learning, problem-solving, reasoning, and language processing.
Today, AI is being driven by two fundamental technologies – machine
learning and deep learning.

What is Machine Learning?

Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that enables
machines to learn from and make predictions based on data. The roots of
machine learning are embedded in pattern recognition and the concept
that algorithms can learn from recorded data without being programmed
to do so.
Key use cases of Machine Learning in the HR context:
•Anomaly detection: Identify items, events or observations which do
not conform to an expected pattern or other items in a dataset.
•Background verification: Machine learning-powered predictive
models can extract meaning and raise red flags based on structured
and unstructured data points from applicants’ resumes.
•Employee Attrition: Find employees who are at high risk of attrition,
enabling HR to proactively engage with them and retain them.
•Content personalization: Provide a more personalized employee
experience by using predictive analytics to recommend career paths,
professional development programs or optimize a career site based on
prior applicant actions.
What is Deep Learning?
Deep learning is a branch of machine learning that trains a computer to
learn from large amounts of data through neural network architecture. It is
a more advanced form of machine learning that breaks down data into
layers of abstraction. Instead of organizing data to run through predefined
equations, deep learning sets up basic parameters about the data and
trains the computer to learn on its own by recognizing patterns using
multiple neural network layers for processing (like neurons in the brain).
 Key use cases of Deep Learning in the HR Context:
•Image and video recognition: Deep learning algorithms outperform
humans in object classification. Given videos and photos of thousands of
applicants, deep learning systems can identify and classify candidates
based on objective data.
•Speech recognition: While understanding human voice and myriad
accents is difficult for most machines, deep learning algorithms can be
designed to recognize and respond to human voice inputs. Virtual
assistants use speech recognition algorithms to process human voice
and respond accordingly.
•Chatbots: Natural language processing (NLP) trains chatbots and
similar systems to understand human language, tone, and context. NLP
will emerge as a crucial capability for AI systems as organizations
continue to automate HR service delivery with chatbots.
•Recommendation engines: Digital learning experiences often involve
PART 2: AI Is Transforming 5 Crucial Areas of HR 

Increased investment in smarter HR technologies has led to

some interesting innovations in the AI ‒ HR space. Here’s a
quick overview of the most significant ways AI is transforming
HR for the better:
1.AI in Recruitment: AI has made candidate sourcing,
screening, and matching easier for organizations. In addition to
improving efficiency, AI is also helping HR leaders overcome
human-bias in decision making.

• Candidate sourcing – gender coded language

• Lead nurturing
• Candidate screening
2.AI in HCM: AI is enabling organizations to meet increasing
employee expectations by helping HR teams reimagine
people and talent processes to build stronger teams, reduce
employee turnover, and enhance the employee experience.

A few major impact areas for AI in HCM include:

•Performance management
•Workforce planning
•People analytics
•Virtual assistants for self-service/HR service delivery
•Career pathing
•Leadership and coaching
3. AI in Employee Engagement: AI has been
a catalyst for how businesses interact with their

Key uses include:

•Intelligent surveys
•Real-time feedback platforms
•Rewards and recognition
•Personalized messaging and communication
4.AI in Employee Benefits: AI and automation can
ease the administration, implementation as well as
management of employee benefits. (BOT)  

Key use cases of AI in benefits administration include:

•Benefits personalization
•Benefits automation
•Benefits communication
•Benefits compliance
5.AI in Learning and Development (L&D): 

In the current talent landscape, where skills have a shorter shelf life
than ever before, AI could prove to be the game changer.

AI is enabling learning platforms to replicate the qualities of successful

consumer content platforms like YouTube and Netflix to improve
learning outcomes.

Some of the key impact areas of AI in L&D include:

•Personalized learning pathways
•eLearning analytics
•Conversational interfaces
•Traditionalists, those born 1928-45, are expected to drop from 3
percent of the workforce in 2015 to 1 percent in 2020. 
•Baby Boomers, those born 1946-64, are expected to drop from 31
percent of the workforce in 2015 to 22 percent in 2020 (nearly 70
million are expected to retire by that time).
•Generation X, those born 1965-79, is expected to drop from 21
percent of the workforce in 2015 to 20 percent in 2020.
• Generation Y (also known as the Millennial generation), those born
1980-95, is expected to increase from 45 percent of the workforce in
2015 to 50 percent in 2020.
•Generation Z (also known as the Globals or the Gamer generation),
those born 1996 and later, is expected to increase from 1 percent of
the workforce in 2015 to 7 percent in 2020.
(Baby boomer is a term referring to a person who was born between 1946 and 
Economists predicted that this period would be partly defined by baby 
boomers retiring en masse. However, as a result of the recession, many have 
either elected or been forced to extend their careers. 

Although they are loyal, if you want to keep hold of them make them feel 
valued. Their experience is invaluable, especially when you have a workforce 
full of enthusiastic, but often erratic millennials.

Take advantage of their strong management skills and work ethic to help train 
your younger employees. Facilitate the passing of knowledge between 
generations. Remember that baby boomers tend to be independent, so let 
them do so as they feel comfortable. 
Generation X

Gen X employees are technologically and internet-savvy, having seen 
modern technology introduced during their youth.

Many of this generation grew up without heavy parent supervision so as a 
result, also tend to be unafraid of working independently and taking risks. 
They’re also entrepreneurial so trust them to find inventive solutions to 
business problems and this will help your business’s agility in this ever-
changing world.

However, GenX is the generation of instant gratification and they believe in 
a good work-life balance, so make sure they have the freedom to strike 
that balance or they will seek it elsewhere.
Generation Y

They are pragmatic and hard-working, but they are jaded by the recent 
economic downturn and its effect on their job-search. They aren’t as loyal as 
previous generations and are open to new challenges. Provide ample 
opportunities in-house to progress or to further their education to avoid losing 
staff to your competitors.

In addition to personality differences, managers may have issues with the 
generational spread because they feel that this generation simply does not 
have the same set of skills as previous generations. 

66% of businesses are still owned by Baby boomers, but most of their staff 
are statistically millennials and this clash of ideas and skills may cause 

Remember, a business’s expectations should be managed based on the 
makeup of its workforce as much as the whim of its owners.
How Are Tech-Savvy Millennials Shaping The Workplace? 

Millennials are largely considered to be the most tech-savvy generation in today's workplace. This group of 
people born between 1981 to 1997 grew up with technology. Technology continues to play a huge role in their 
daily lives, and they do not expect the workplace to be any different. 

Millennials are currently the most sought-after talent pool in any industry. Attracting and retaining a millennial
workforce has become a major priority for many forward-thinking companies. Similarly, millennials are slowly coming of
age and taking up leadership positions in society.

Finally, the tech savviness of the millennials means that they expect companies and products that they interact with to
be tech savvy as well. These factors have pushed business decision makers to recognize and understand the growing
influence of millennials in the workplace and find strategies to attract millennials for the future good of their business.

Considering their savviness with technology, they are the ones who will bring new and innovative ways to 
enhance the security of the entire building. Their innovative solutions help make work systems run more 
smoothly and efficiently, earning the company even more revenue in the process. 

In order to keep up with this rapidly changing landscape, employers must implement a benefits administration platform
that integrates new employee on-boarding, employee management, time off, employee services, among other
functions that millennial employees now consider to be their rights. It is always important to motivate your employees
Millennials are also the most adaptable generation. They quickly learn new things, and especially new 
technologies. Millennials know how to take advantage of the resources made available to them to sharpen old 
skills and to learn new ones. Ebooks, tutorial videos, and even the entire Youtube platform is a testament to 
how many different ways and how many new skills a person can learn within a relatively short time given the 
right motivation. The ability to pick up and master new technology at a rapid pace also means that millennials 
expect updates and software changes just as fast. Relevance is key, so they would rather have the latest 
product in the market or none at all. 

One of the biggest issues and complaints most businesses and workplaces have when it comes to millennials 
concerns their problem-solving skills and practical application of technological advantages. Studies have shown 
that millennials can often be narrow viewed, learning to utilize technology in ways that benefit them. For 
example, they can use almost any device to access and carry out a wide range of activities on social media 
platforms. However, these skills may be limited. Research has shown that many millennials cannot perform 
most productivity related tasks such as sending an email containing data collected from a spreadsheet. 

Similarly, social media can be a hindrance in the office. Most employers believe that employees who use social 
media during work hours are less productive than those who do not. Ironically, employees who use social 
media during work hours agree. 

Their adaptability can make employing millennials a huge asset to the work environment of any business. 
Although their constant exposure to technology and their high expectations can often have many drawbacks, 
they are a generation that is willing to learn new things and can take on new challenges as they present 
themselves. It's all part of being a millennial.