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Moment tensor inversion of

explosive long period events

recorded on Arenal volcano, Costa
Rica, constrained by synthetic

Maria R.P. Sudibyo
• Volcanoes are complex and have a range of earthquake types
including high frequency (volcano tectonic) events, explosions, long
period events, and tremor.
• Long period event is normally characterized by strongly peaked
spectra, having energy concentrated between 0.2 and 5 Hz, and can
caused by fluid movements inside the volcanic conduits (Chouet,
2003), or dry failure of the volcano edifice (Bean, 2014).
• This paper investigates how the presence of single force can affect the
moment tensor solution. The synthetic tests to obtain the correct
source time function and source mechanism are performed.
• The nth component of the displacement which is recorded at position x and time t, can
be written as
Mpq = the force couple in the pq direction acting at the source
Fp = the single force acting in the p direction
Gnp and Gnp,q = The Green’s function and their derivatives.
• Green function is calculated using 3D-full wavefield numerical simulations including
topography and the best estimate of the velocity structure obtained using spatial
autocorrelation (SPAC) method. Spatial derevatives are given by the central finite-

Where Gnp,q(r,s) is spatial derivative of the Green’s function Gnp, and Δq is the spatial grid
• In frequency domain, equation (1) can be written as
Where un(ω) is the spectra of the displacements, Mpq(ω) contains the moment
tensor components, Fp(ω) contains the single forces, Gnp(ω) and Gnp,q(ω)

• Equation (3) can be written in matrix form as u=Gm,

where u is the data matrix, G is matrix containing the Green’s function and the
derivatives, and m is the moment tensor and single forces components.


Due to the symmetry of the moment tensor, we have

• The equation d=Gm is overdetermined, with the misfit (R) between calculated
and observed data is expressed by
where W = diagonal weighting matrix of the quality of the waveforms. W can be
expressed in explicit matrix format as

• The solution given by weighted least square can be written as
Result of
• Synthetic tests are
generated using a Ricker
wavelet, with source is
simulated as an
explosion without single
• The inversion was
performed for both of
moment tensor and
single forces (MT+SF),
and moment tensor
Result of
• Synthetic test is performed
using synthetic signals
contaminate by random noise,
with noise level is 50% of the
average rms amplitude.
No single forces included.
Result of
• Synthetic test is performed,
including a strong single force
in the west-east direction (Fx),
with a signal-to-noise ratio of
Result of
• Synthetic test is
performed using
incorrect source
position, and signal-
to-noise ratio of 10.
• No single forces
• The moment tensor inversion will easily generate spurious (fake)
single forces, when in its process includes noisy data and or
mislocated source.
• The synthetic tests show that in the inversion using noisy data with
amplitude within 10% of the average rms, will generate solution
insensitive to the inaccurate location of the source.