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FORENSIC BALLISTICS

Rogelio C. Palanog.,Jr.,MSCJ
The introduction of the bullet comparison microscope by Dr. Calvin H.
Goddard in resolving crimes involving the use of firearms led to the
improvement of the science of firearms identification. The science is
recently called Forensic Ballistics. This science deals with the study on
how to identify firearms through the fired bullets and fired cartridge
cases with the use of scientific laboratory equipment.
Father of Forensic Ballistics

– Col. Calvin Hooker Goddard


(1891 – 1955) was a forensic
scientist, army officer, academic,
researcher and a pioneer in forensic
ballistics. He was born in Baltimore,
Maryland. After graduating from
the Boys' Latin School of Maryland in
1907, Goddard graduated with a
Bachelor of Arts degree in 1911 from
the Johns Hopkins University and
then earned a medical degree and
graduated in 1915.
Definition:

BALLISTICS – is the science that deals with the study of the


motion of the projectile.

Science – refers to the systematized body of knowledge.

Motion – refers to the movement

Projectile – refers to the bullet that passes through the barrel of


the firearm.
Definition:

• Chronograph – an electric device used to


measure and record the velocities of
projectiles.
• Ballistic Pendulum – a device that measure the
velocity of a projectile used in the 1740s.

• Air Space – the volume in a loaded cartridge not


occupied by the propellant, bullet, wads
or shot.
Definition:

Comparison Microscope – essentially two


microscope connected to an optical
bridge which allows the viewer to
observe two objects simultaneously
with the same degree of
magnification.
Definition:

Comparison Projector – an instrument which will


project a magnified image onto a screen.

Firearms Identification – a discipline of forensic


science which has as its primary concern to
determine if a bullet, cartridge case
or other ammunition component was
fire by a particular firearms.
Definition:

Firing Pin Impression – the indentation of the


primer of a centerfire cartridge case or
in the rim of a rimfire cartridge case
caused when it is struck by the firing
pin.
Fixed Ammunition – a cartridge comprised of a
cartridge case, primer, propellant
powder and projectile.
Definition:

Forensic Science – the study and practice of


the application of science to the
purpose of the law.
Function Testing – the examination of a
firearm concerning its
mechanical condition and operation.
Definition:

Gage – an instrument for measuring or testing.


Can also spelled Gauge
Gas – in firearms, a product of the combustion of
burning gunpowder.
Helixometer – an instrument for inspecting the
interior of a gun barrel and measuring
the rate of twist of the rifled bore of a
firearms.
Definition:

Line of Departure – the direction in which the


projectile is moving when its leaves the
muzzle of the firearms
Loading Density – the relationship of the volume
of the propellant to the available
case volume.
Definition:

Manometer – An instrument for measuring gas


and vapour pressure.
Micrometer – an instrument used to measure
accurately small distance, usually
thickness or diameter.
Definition:

Mushrooming – the act of expansion of a bullet


upon impact with the target
Shocking Power – the ability of a projectile to
dissipate its kinetic energy effectively in
a target.
Shotshell – a cartridge containing projectile
designed to fired in a shotgun.
•Ballistics is derived from the Greek Word “
BALO or “ Ballein “ which means THROW
and from the Roman war machine “
BALLISTA “.
FORENSIC
An argumentative exercise that permits the document
examiner to explain the findings to the court in a formal
manner consecutively and logically.

The word “forensic” as applied to ballistics, or to any


other, subject, suggest a relationship to courts of justice and
legal proceedings and the term was derived from the Latin
word “forum”, meaning a marketplace, where people gather
for “public disputation” or “public discussion”.
FORENSIC BALLISTICS
Is the study of firearm identification by means of
the ammunition of fired through them.

The term “ballistics”, “Forensic Ballistics” and


“Firearms Identification” have come to mean one and
the same thing in the minds of the public, and they can
to used interchangeably.
THE BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS

Interior Ballistics

 Exterior Ballistics

 Terminal Ballistics

 Forensic Ballistics
THE BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS

• Interior (Internal) Ballistics – refers to the


properties and attributes of the projectile
(bullet) while still inside the gun. This
extends from the breech to the muzzle of
the gun.
INTERIOR BALLISTICS:
Treats of the motion of projectile while still inside the firearms.

a. Firing pin hitting the primer


b. Ignition of the priming mixture
c. Combustion of gunpowder
d. Expansion of heated gas
e. Pressure developed
f. Energy generated
g. Recoil of the firearm
h. Velocity of the bullet
i. Rotation of the bullet inside the barrel
j. Engraving on the cylindrical surface of the bullet
THE BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS

• Exterior (external) Ballistics – refers to the


attributes and movements of the bullet
after it has left the gun muzzle. This
branch involve the following:
EXTERIOR BALLISTICS
Treats of the projectile after leaving the muzzle of the gun barrel

a. Muzzle Blast
b. Muzzle Energy
c. Trajectory
d. Range
e. Velocity
f. Air Resistance
g. Pull of Gravity
h. Penetration
Muzzle blast – the noise created at the muzzle
point of the gun due to the sudden escape of the
expanding gas coming in contact with the air in
the surrounding atmosphere at the muzzle point.
Muzzle energy – energy generated at the muzzle
point.
Trajectory – the actual curved path of the
bullet during its fight from the gun muzzle to
the target.
Range – the straight distance between muzzle
and target.
Accurate (effective) range – the distance within
which the shooter has control of his
shots, meaning he can place his shots
at the desired spots.
Maximum range – the farthest distance that a
projectile can be propelled from a
firearm.
Velocity – rate of speed of the bullet par unit time.

Air resistance – resistance encountered by the


bullet while in flight.
Pull of gravity – downward reaction of the
bullet toward the earth center due to its
weight.

Penetration – depth of entry on target.


THE BRANCHES OF BALLISTICS
Terminal Ballistics – refers to the effects of the
impact of the projectile on the target.
TERMINAL BALLISTICS
treats the effects of the impact of the bullet towards the target
Namely:
a. Terminal Accuracy
b. Terminal Energy
c. Terminal Velocity
d. Terminal Penetration
Terminal accuracy – the size of the bullet
grouping on the target.
Terminal energy – energy of the bullet
Terminal Velocity – the speed of the bullet
Terminal Penetration – the depth of the
bullet on target
Means of Producting Damage

•Fragmentation or action of relatively small


particles, usually from the case of a
bomb,rocket,warhead or shell.
• Impact, which pertains to the penetration or
perforation of an object by relatively large
metallic body, such as an armor-piercing shot.
•Blast, release of energy in shock waves
•Fire, from the effects of an explosive or
induce by special incendiary weapon
•Chemical action, as by smokes or poison
gas
•Debris set in motion at high velocities
•Heat, in the flame front of the blast, or
radiant heat
FORENSIC BALLESTICS
Is the science of Firearms Identification by means of the ammunition
fired through them.

Include:
a. Field Investigation

b. Technical Examination

c. Legal Proceedings
• Field Investigation – refers to the work of an
investigator in the field. It concerns mostly with
the collection, markings, preservation, packing
and transmission of firearms evidence.
• Technical Examination – refers to the
examiners who examine bullets and/or shells
whether fired from the suspected firearms
submitted or to determine also whether or not
cartridge case where loaded or ejected from the
suspected firearm submitted.
•Legal Proceedings – presentation of
ballistics reports, firearms, bullets, cartridges
cases and allied exhibits in court
Shot Ballistic
• Shot Ballistics – refers to the study of the
muzzle velocity and shots of the
shotgun.
The muzzle velocity of a shotgun is about half that of a
centerfire rifle, and shot losses speed more readily that a conical bullet,
shot with high velocity powder charge has a muzzle velocity of around
1,300 feet per second
FIREARMS
Origin of Firearms

The development of firearms followed the invention of


gunpowder in Western Europe early in the 13th Century. Many
stories have been told about the discovery of gunpowder, but
most are legendary and have little support facts.
Berthold Schwartz and Roger Bacon, a German monk
and English monk, respectively, are both given credited for
their invention.
It is also often said that gunpowder was first invented by
the Chinese and that the Arabs, with their advanced knowledge
of Chemistry at the time, may have also developed it
independently.
• Man is never satisfied with himself. He constantly struggles
to improve himself and his surroundings. The early man, in
doing so divised ways and means to conquer his environment
and deal with his enemies. He invented “crude” or “primitive
weapons” which were subsequently developed into
“sophisticated” firearms of modern times.
DEFINATION:
Legal Definition – its legal definition may be found in Section 877 of our
Revised Administrative Code as well as in Section 200 of our National
Internal Revenue Code,

Legal
- includes rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, pistol,
revolvers and all other weapons from which a bullet, a
ball, a shot, a shell or missiles may discharge by means of
gunpowder or other explosives.
DEFINATION:
Technical
- is an instrument that used for the propulsion
of projectile with the aid of the expansive force of
gases from the burning gunpowder.
General Classification of Firearms

a. Smooth Bore Firearms


- firearms that does not contain rifling or perfectly
smooth from end to end.
e.g. Shotguns and muskets.
General Classification of Firearms

b. Rifled Arms
- firearms that contains rifling or the bore is cut
longitudinally with a number of groves.
e.g. Pistols, Revolvers and Rifles.
Main Types of Firearms
a. Artillery
- firearms that propel projectile more than one in
diameter.
e.g. Cannons, Mortars, Bazooka
Main Types of Firearms
b.Small Arms
- firearms that propel projectile less than one
inch in diameter.
e.g. Pistols, Revolvers, Rifles, Submachine
guns, shotguns.
According to Use
1. Military firearm
2. Pocket and Home Defense Firearm
3. Target and Outdoor Firearms
4. Unusual/Miscellaneous Firearms
According to Mechanical Design and Action
• Single Shot Firearms
• Repeating Arms
• Bolt Action Type
• Automatic Loading Type
• Pump Action Type
• Lever Type
• Actions
• Single Shot Firearms - type of firearm designed to fire only one shot
every loading.

• Repeating Arms – type of firearms designed to fire several shot in


one loading

• Bolt Action Type – reloading is done by manipulating of the bolt. This


rifle works very similar to the pump shotgun but it uses
side mounted device to extract the use cartridge and
chamber a fresh one.
• Automatic Loading Type – After the first shot is fired, automatic
loading or feeding of the chamber takes place.

• Pump Action Type – loading takes place by back and fort


manipulation of under forearm

• Lever Type – Loading takes place by lever action of the firearm.

• Action – there are many types of action. The action is the moving
parts of the gun that allow loading, firing and unloading of
the gun.
Three (3) Major Parts of Firearms

1. Frame or Stock
- is the basic structure of the gun to which the other major parts are attached.

2. Barrel
- is the long hollow tube through which the bullet travels on its way to the
target.

3. Action
- action of the gun consists of all the moving parts that facilitate the
loading, firing and unloading of the gun.
CARTRIDGE
Definition
 A term used to described is a charge of firearm, a complete unfired unit
consisting of Bullet, Primer cartridge case and gunpowder.

 the assembly of a bullet, gunpowder, and primer in a casing that is placed in


the chamber of a firearm.

Legal
- is referred to as a “ Loaded Shell “ for riffles etc, maybe fired by means of
gun powder or other explosives
Cartridge is derived from the word “charta”, the
Latin word for paper and from the French word
“cartouche” meaning a roll of paper, which
indicates that the original cartridges were not the
brass gilding – metal of todays modern
ammunition.
Classification of Cartridge According to RIM

Rimmed Type – The diameter of the rim is greater


than the diameter of the body of the cartridge case.
Semi-Rimmed Type – The diameter of the rim is
slightly greater than the diameter of the body of
the cartridge case.
Rimless Type – The diameter of the rim is equal
with the diameter of the body of the cartridge case
Rebated Type – The diameter of the rim is
smaller than the body of the cartridge case
Belted Type – There is a protruding metal round
the body of the cartridge case near the rim.
Type of Cartridges According to location of Primer
1. PIN-FIRE CARTRIDGE
the pin extends radially through the bead of the cartridge
case into the primer
RIM-FIRE CARTRIDGE
the priming mixture is placed in the cavity formed in the
rim of the head of the cartridge case.
CENTER-FIRE CARTRIDGE
the primer cup is forced into the middle portion of the head of
the cartridge cases.
4. PERCUSSION
a means of ignition of a propellant charge by a mechanical
blow against the primer or percussion cap.
Functions of Cartridge Cases

It holds the bullet, gunpowder and primer

 It serves as a waterproof container for the gun powder

 It prevents the scape of gases to the rear.


BULLET
Definition

- A projectile propelled from a firearm. A metallic or non-metallic cylindrical


projectile. Originate from the French word “ boulette “ a small ball. In common
police parlane, a bullet may be called “ slug “

- An ammunition that is fired from a weapon. Bullets are often made of


metal such as lead.

- An elongated metal projectile crimped into the mouth of a metal cartridge case
and designed to be fired from a rifle, pistol, or other weapon.
Two Basic Types of Commercial Bullets in Common Used.

1.Lead Bullets are used in almost all revolver ammunition


and some low and medium powder rifle cartridges.
2. Jacketed Bullets are used for automatic pistol
ammunition and medium and high power rifle
ammunition
TYPES OF BULLETS

Ball bullet – have some soft lead cores inside a jacket,


and are used against personnel only.
• Armor piercing bullet – have hardened steel core and
are fired at vehicles and other armored targets
in general.
Tracer bullets – contain a compound at the base
usually similar to barium nitrates, which
is set on fire when the bullet is projected.
The flash of smoke from this burning
permits the flight of the bullet to be seen,
especially at night time.
Explosive (fragmentary) – bullets contain a high
charge of explosive. Because of their small
size, It is difficult to make a fuse that will
work reliably in small arms ammunition. For
this reason the use of high explosive bullets is
usually limited to 20mm and above.
Incendiary bullets – are military bullets used for
starting fires in inflammable tarets.
Frangible Bullets – are designed to disintegrate upon
impact with a hard surface in order to
minimize ricochet.
Anatomy of a Bullet
Ammunition
Components
1. Cartridge case
2. Primer
3. Propellant
4. Bullet
5. Extracting Groove
Gunpowder
• Gunpowder – is a granular, explosive mixture of
potassium nitrate, sulphur, and charcoal, formerly used
as a gun propellant ande for blasting in mines quarries,
and construction project.
Classification of Gunpowder
• Black Powder
• Smokeless Powder
Primer

• An assembly which ignite the propellant. The primer


assembly of centerfire cartridge consists of a brass or gliding
metal cup that contains a primer composition pellet of
sensitive explosive, apaper disc and brass anvil.
Origin
• 1807 ALEXANDER JOHN FORSYTH conceived the percussion ignition
system was a Scotch Presbyterian Miniter, chemist.
Type of primer
• Boxer primer- a priming system develop in the late
1860s by Col. E.M Boxer of England. The
primer contained both the priming mixture
and the anvil.
• Berdan Primer – a primer consisting of a metal cup
filled with priming mixture and seled with foil
or shellac was inserted into the primer pocket
of the cartridge case.
PRIMER
• Function of Primer

• Provide an initial spark or flame

• Establish the pre-ignition pressure for the main


charge

• Provide a gas seal for the cartridge


Parts of Primer and Function

Primer Cap – it is the soft guiding metal which


serves as the container of priming
mixture, paper disc and anvil.
Priming mixture – contains a small amount of
explosive mixture which is sufficiently
sensitive to result of chemical reaction
being set up by the caused by a sudden
blow.
Paper Disc – this is made of thin shellacked paper
disc that protects the priming mixture
that will cause its disintegration.
Anvil – it is made of spring tempered brass place
inside the primer and it is on this side or
point which the priming mixture is
crushed.
Battery Cap – battery cap as applied to shotgun
primer serves as the main support for the
whole primer components
Marks Found on Fired Bullets:
1. Landmarks – depress portion caused by the lands.
2. Groove Marks – raised on elevated portions cause by the grooves
Marks Found on Fired Bullets:
3. Skid Marks – when the bullet enters the rifled bore from a stationary
position and is forced abruptly in to the rifling, its natural tendency is to go
straight toward before encountering the regular rifling twist.
Marks Found on Fired Bullets:
4. Slippage Marks – bullets fired from a worn-out barrel, oily barrels and
slightly over-sized barrels

5. Shaving Marks – most commonly these marks are found on bullets fired
from a revolver due to a poor alignment of the cylinder with bore.
Marks found on fired cartridge cases
1. Firing pin impression – the indentation in the primer of a centative cartridge case or in the
rim of a rimfire cartridge caseFiring Pinit Marks
cause when is struck by the firing pin.

In order to fire the


cartridge, the primer
must first be ignited. To
accomplish this a firing
pin strikes the center
ring of the cartridge.
This will in turn leave a
distinct impression that
is unique to the firing pin
of that particular gun.
Marks found on fired cartridge cases
2. Breechface Markings – negative impression of the breechface of the firearm found on the
head of the cartridge case after firing.
Marks found on fired cartridge cases

3. Chamber Marks – individual


microscope placed upon a cartridge
case by the chamber wall as a
result of chambering, Expanding
during firing, Extraction.

4. Extractor Marks – tool marks produced


upon a cartridge or cartridge case from
contact with the extractor.
Marks found on fired cartridge cases Extracting Pin and Ejector M

Th
an
5. Ejector Marks – tool marks produced upon a th
cartridge or cartridge case on the head, ca
generally at or near the rim, from contact with ch
gu
the ejector.

Th
on
th
th
pa
Rifling
1. The grooved spirals inside the barrel of a gun that
produce lands and grooves on a bullet

2. Lands & grooves are class characteristics


Principles of identification of bullets
1. No two barrels are microscopically identical as the
surfaces of their bores all possess individually and
characteristics markings of their town.
2. When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes
engraved by the riflings and this engraving will vary in
its minute details with every individual bore. So it
happens that the engravings on the bullet fired from that
on a similar bullet fired from another barrel. The
engravings on a bullets fired from the same barrel will
be the same.
3. Every barrel leaves it thumbmark on every
bullet which is fired through it, just as every
breechface leaves its thumbmark on the base of
every fired cartridge case.
Principles of identification of shells
1. The breechface and striker of every single firearm leave
microscopically individualities of their own.
2. The firearm leaves its “fingerprints” or “thumbmark”
on every cartridge case which it fires.
3. The whole principle of identification is based on the
fact that since the breechface of every weapon must be
individually distinct, the cartridge cases which it fires
are imprinted with this individuality. The imprint on all
cartridge cases fired from the same weapon are always
the same, those on cartridge cases fired from different
weapons must always be different.
TYPE OF RIFLINGS
1. Steyr Type – Four lands four grooves, right hand twist and lands or equal
width (4 –R-G=L)
2. Smith and Wesson Type – Five lands and Grooves, weight hand twist and
lands or equal width (5-R-G=L)
3. Browning Type – Six lands, six grooves, right hand twist, narrow lands and
broad grooves. (6-R-G2x)
4. Colt Type – Six lands and six grooves, left hand twist, narrow hand and broad
grooves. (6-L-G2x)
5. Webly Type – Seven lands and seven grooves, right hand twist, narrow lands
and broad grooves. (7-R-G3x)
6. Army Type – Four lands and four grooves right-hand twist, narrow land and
broad grooves. (4-R-G3x)
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
1. Comparison Microscope
- The valuable
instrument is specially designed to
permit the firearms examiner to
determine the similarity and
dissimilarity between two fired
bullets or two fired cartridge cases
by simultaneously observing their
magnified image.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
2. Stereoscope Microscope
- this is generally used in the
preliminary examinations of fired
bullets and fired shells. To determine
the location of the extractor marks
and ejector marks for orientation
purposes. It can be used also in the
closed-up examination of tampered
serial numbers of firearms.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
3. Comparison Projector
- this is similar to the
comparison microscope two fired
bullets or two fired shells can be
compared in one setting of the fire
examiners. A magnified image
appears on a large screen and can be
observed in a comfortable viewing
distance.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
4. Bullet Recovery Box
- for obtaining best fired
bullets or test fired cartridge cases
from the suspected firearms
submitted to the Ballistics
Laboratory.
Water is one of the means to
obtain test bullets and test shells
because the microscope marks on the
cylindrical or peripheral surface of
the bullets are preserved for good
use.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
5. Measuring Projector
- This projector determines the
with of lands, with of grooves,
diameter and twist of a fired bullet.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory

6. Vernier Calipers
- this instrument
determined the bullet
diameter and barrel length.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
7. Analytical Balance
- this more or less
determines the weights of
the bullets, shots and
pellets for possible type,
caliber and make for
firearms from which they
where fired.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
8. Taper Gage
- used for determining the bore
diameter of the firearm.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
9. Onoscope
- for examining the interior
surface of the gun barrel.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
10. Helixometer
- for measuring the pitch of rifling's. Pitch of rifling is the distance
advanced by the rifling in one complete turn or the distance travelled by the
bullet in one complete turn.
Equipment's used in a Ballistics Laboratory
11. Chronograph
- for determining the speed of the bullet of the
muzzle velocity of the bullet.
• 1. The part of a firearm that loads, fires, and ejects a cartridge.
A. Bolt
B. Breech
C. Action
D. Barrel
2. One or more loaded cartridges consisting of a primed case,
propellant, and projectile.
A. Bullet
B. Shot-shell
C. Ammunition
D. Primer
3. The metal tube through which a projectile or shot charge is fired.
A. Barrel
B. Breech
C. Bore
D. Breech face
• 4. That portion of a cartridge case which contains the primer
usually called the head.
A. Base
B. Tip
C. Nose
D. Cannelure

5. The study of a projectile in motion.


A. Interior Ballistics
B. Exterior Ballistics
C. Ballistics
D. Firearms Identification

6. The old form of gunpowder invented over a thousandyears ago.


A. White Powder
B. Black Powder
C. Sodium Nitrate
D. Charcoal
7. The locking and cartridge head supporting mechanism of some
firearm designs that contains the firing pin, extractor, and
sometimes ejector.
A. Bore
B. Buckshot
C. Cylinder

8. The inside of the barrel.
A. Rifling
B. Land
C. Cylinder
D. Bore
9. A slang term sometimes used for fired cartridge cases.
A. Brass
B. Case
C. Cannelure
D. Cylinder
10. The end of the barrel attached to the action.
A. Breech Face
B. Breech
C. Bolt
D. Buttstock
• Answer:
1. C
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. C
6. B
7. D
8. D
9. A
10. B
• 1. The handle used to hold a gun.
A. Stock
B. Butt
C. Handle
D. Grip
2. The pivoting mechanical part of a firearm that causes the firing
pin to ignite the cartridge's primer.
A. Action
B. Backstrap
C. Hammer
D. Breech
3. The device that aids the eye in aiming the barrel of a firearm in
the proper direction to hit a target
A. Sight
B. Telescope
C. Binocular
D. Range
• 4. A removable or fixed device designed to hold cartridges for
feeding into the firing mechanism of a firearm during its operation.
A. Cylinder
B. Magazine
C. Double feed
D. Drams

5. The open end of the barrel from which the projectile exits.
A. Barrel
B. Slide
C. Muzzle
D. Chamber

6. The upper portion of a semi-automatic pistol that houses the


barrel and contains the breechblock and portions of the firing
mechanism.
A. Slide
B. Action
C. Breechblock
D. Breech

7. The part of a gun that a bullet is fired through.


A. Breechblock
B. Chamber
C. Barrel
D. Breech
• 8. A finger-operated lever used to fire a gun.
A. Trigger lock
B. Trigger
C. Trigger guard
D. Trigger control
9. A loop surrounding the trigger of a firearm and protecting it
from accidental discharge.
A. Trigger
B. Trigger lock
C. Trigger guard
D. Trgger bar
• 10. Condition of a gun, in semi-automatic firearms, when fired until
its magazine is empty, the slide will remain in its rearmost
position and lock open.
A. Slide action
B. Slide lever
C. Slide release
D. Slidelock
11. A button or lever on a gun which is used to release the magazine
from the gun.
A. Magazine well
B. Magazine pouch
C. Magazine loader
D. Magazine release
• Answer: Forensic Ballistics
1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. C
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. C
10. D
11. D
• 1. A gigantic bow or catapult which was used to hurl large objects
such as stones at a particular distance to deter animals or enemy
forces.
A. Catapult
B. Balle
C. Ballein
D. Ballista
2. The scientific study of the propulsion and motion of projectiles
such as bullets, artillery shells, rockets and guided missiles.
A. Propulsion
B. Expulsion
C. Repulsion
D. Extraction
3. The British engineer Benjamin Robins conducted many experiments
in interior ballistics. His findings justly entitle him to be called the
A. father of modern gunnery
B. father of modern ballistics
C. father of interior ballistics
D. father of forensic ballistics
• 4. Late in the 18th century the Anglo-American physicist Benjamin
Thompson made the first attempt to measure the pressure
generated by gunpowder. The account of his experiments was the
most important contribution to
A. Exterior ballistics
B. Forensic Ballistics
C. Interior ballistics
D. None of these
5. An arbitrary index of the quickness that burning propellant
changes into gas. It is the rate controlled by the chemical
composition, the size and shape of the propellant grains, and the
pressure at which the burning takes place.
A. Gas Power
B. Burning Rate
C. Propulsion Rate
D. Bulk Density
6. It is the equal and opposite reaction of the gun against the
forward movement of the bullet during the explosions.
A. Residual Pressure
B. Recoil
C. Backfire
D. Misfire
• 7. The speed per unit of time of the M16 is 3,300 ft/sec. This refers
to:
A. Fire power
B. Velocity
C. Energy
D. All of these
8. The noise created at the muzzle point of the gun due to the
sudden escape of the expanding gas coming in contact with the
air in the surrounding atmosphere at the muzzle point.
A. Muzzle Blast
B. Muzzle Energy
C. Range noise
D. Fire power
9. What is the actual curved path of the bullet during its flight from
the gun muzzle to the target?
A. Yaw
B. Accuracy
C. Trajectory
D. Velocity
10. The means that the bullet may lose its speed very rapidly during
its flight the air. This is a number that relates to the effect of air
drag on the bullet's flight and which can be used to later predict
a bullet's trajectory under different circumstances through what
are called "drag tables."
A. Bullet trajectory
B. Critical zone
C. Ballistics Coefficient
D. Down Range

Answers: Forensic Ballistics

1. D
2. A
3. A
4. C
5. B
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. A
10. C
• 1.A collection and cataloging of test-fired bullets and cartridge cases
from known firearms.
A.Classifying
B. Bullet comparison
C. Known standards
D. Collected standards
2.The number, width, and direction of twist of the rifling grooves
in a barrel of a given caliber firearm.
A. General Rifling Characteristics
B. Gross forming
C. Groove diameter
D.Intercomparison
3.A discipline of forensic science which has as its primary concern to
determine if a bullet, cartridge case, or other ammunition component
was fired by a particular firearm.
A. Ballistic examination
B. Firearms identification
C. Ballistics
D. Toolmark identification
• 4.A discipline of forensic science which has as its primary concern
to determine if a toolmark was produced by a particular tool.
A. Ballistic examination
B. Firearms identification
C. Forensic Ballistics
D. Toolmark identification
5. Contour variations, generally microscopic, on the surface of an
object caused by a combination of force and motion where the
motion is approximately parallel to the plane being marked.
A. Striations
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D.toolmarks
6. Discernible surface features of an object which are more restrictive
than class characteristics.
A.Striations
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D. Toolmarks
7. Measurable features of a specimen which indicate a restricted group
source. They result from design factors, and are therefore
determined prior to manufacture.
A. Striations
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class charateristics
D. Toolmarks
8. Marks produced by the random imperfections or irregularities of tool
surfaces. These random imperfections or irregularities are produced
incidental to manufacture and/or caused by use, corrosion, or
damage.
A. Individual characteristics
B. Class characteristics
C. Sub-class characteristics
D. Toolmarks
• 9.Striae or patterns of minute lines or grooves in an object. In firearm
and toolmark identification these marks are characteristic of the
object which produced them and are the basis for identification.
A. Individual characteristics
B.Toolmarks
C. Microscopic marks
D. Class characteristics
10.The process of determining whether or not the details of striated
marks or impressions on two objects correspond, such as fired and
unfired cartridge cases and shot-shell cases.
A. Pattern matching
B. Land and Groove identification
C. Pattern Identification
D. Toolmark identification
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. A
9. C
10. A
Remember the following

1. Known standards - A collection and cataloging


of test-fired bullets
and cartridge cases from known firearms. Also
known as Fired
standards.
• General Rifling Characteristics - the number,width,
and direction of twist of the rifling grooves in a barrel
of a given caliber firearm.
• Firearms identification - A discipline of forensic
science which has as its primary concern to determine
if a bullet, cartridge case,or other ammunition
component was fired by a particular firearm.
• Toolmark identification - A discipline of forensic
science which has as its primary concern to determine
if a toolmark was produced by a particular tool.
• Striations - Contour variations, generally microscopic,
on the surface of an object caused by a combination of
force and motion where the motion is approximately
parallel to the plane being marked.
• Subclass characteristics - Discernible surface
features of an object which are more restrictive
than class characteristics.
• Class characteristics - Measurable features of
a specimen which indicate a restricted group source.
They result from design factors, and are therefore
determined prior to manufacture.
• Individual characteristics - Marks produced by the
random imperfections or irregularities of tool
surfaces.These random imperfections
or irregularities are produced incidental
to manufacture and/or caused by use, corrosion, or
damage.
• Microscopic marks - Striae or patterns of minute lines or
grooves in an object. In firearm and toolmark identification
these marks are characteristic of the object which produced
them and are the basis for identification.
• Pattern matching - The process of determining whether or
not the details of striated marks or impressions on two
objects correspond,such as fired and unfired cartridge
cases and shot-shell cases.
Thank You
for Listening