Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

Global City

Saskia Sassen

By Dr. Emma E. Porio


Professor of Sociology, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Ateneo de Manila,
Climate Science Research Fellow, Manila Observatory. Lecture given at CHED-
GE Training (2-11-17) Please send comments to eporio@ateneo.edu
GLOBALIZED CITY:

Dominant images: Where is this? Name your favorite


global cities—why so?
Instantaneous money transactions and transmissions across
the globe (In what way(s) are you linked to these
processes?)
Global City: Digital World and Media
Telecommunications making distance seem to disappear
(In what ways do you participate in this process?).
Theorizing the Global City
• Sasskia Sassen: The Global City (Chicago)
• John Friedmann: World Cities (UBC)
• Thomas Friedman: Lexus & the Olive Tree:
Understanding Globaliz’on;The World is Flat
• Castells: The Networked City (France, Spain)
• Jonathan Friedmann:Consumption and Identity
(1994);Globalization and Violence (2006);The
anthropology of global systems: Modernities, class and
the contradictions of globalization,2007
• Colic-Pesker, V. Mobility, Diversity and Community in
the Global City (2012)
• Walden Bello, Brave New World (2004)
• Porio, Emma (2010), Global Householding in the PH
• Deirdre (2009): OFWs from Kalinga, Remittances
and Globalization
Globalization and Urbanization
Globalization: economic development involves the
transformation of an agricultural-based economy to an industrial-
service-based economy
Urbanization: % of people living in cities and increased
urbanism
In 1800, 2% of world’s population lived in urban areas. In 1950, it
rose to 30%.
In 2000, 47% of world population began to live in cities (Facts
by www.unhabitat.org).

UN: 2008 marked the first year when over 50% of the world's
population live in cities than in rural areas.
By 2020:___? 2030 ___ ? 2050?____
Philippines: 1908__ ? 1935__? 1950? 2000?__ 2020__?
(cf. later section on Philippine urbanization & globalization)
Global City:
• City: an important node in the global economic system.

• Globalization: largely created and enacted in


strategic locations, which are chosen according to global
system of finance, trade and socio-cult’l-pol relations

• The Global City has a direct and tangible effect on global


affairs through socio-cultural-economic and political means

• Globalization has profound impact on how we in the cities of


the Global South structure/organize (and be organized) our
life in a socially/spatially differentiated (socio-eco groups
becoming more different in character/practices) manner vs.
those in the Global North!
Global City (Colic-Pesker, Zukin, Baumaunt, etc.)
•Global City, Globalization as experience: cultural diversity,
cosmopolitanism, movement of people, capital, ideas & creativity,
imagination &urban consciousness, symbolic productivity
Dream (creativity, fluidity, productivity),
a nightmare (downside: stress, alienation, pollution)

•Perspective of analysis: As opposed to the methodological


nationalism where nation-state as container, bounds (unit of
analysis)too static/bounded
•Primarily eco/financial vs. geo-political, cultural and
environmental experiences vs. branding consumption
Global City: Hypermobility,
Homogenization & Differentiation
•Differentiated insertion and engagements with the global city
(high-rolling capitalists, high-end professionals vs. marginalized
migrants, sweatshops, grey economy)flow of finance, goods,
people, ideas, models, etc.

•Global, financial economy, products Cultural economy,


cultural products Knowledge economy

•High end real estate exclusive developments, gentrification


•Social-economic, cultural POLARIZATION (markets, finance,
labor markets)spatial/ social segregation and differentiation
•New kind of citizenship
Globalization & Movement of Capital
Global City: Intra-Inter-regional trade
flows
THE GLOBAL CITY (cf. Sassen, Friedmann, Val
Colic-Peisker)
1) Geographic dispersal of economic activities,
simultaneous integration that feed the growth and
importance of central corporate functions;
2) Central functions increasingly complex, headquarters of
large global firms outsource them from highly specialized
service firms;
3) Specialized service firms engaged in highly complex and
globalized markets subject to agglomeration economies;
4) Headquarters outsource their most complex,
unstandardized functions, esp. those subject to
uncertain/changing markets, thus, can opt for any location;
Cont’d. THE GLOBAL CITY (cf. Sassen, Friedmann, Val Colic-
Peisker)
5) Specialized service firms need to provide a global service
which has meant a global network of affiliates;
strengthening of cross border city-to-city transactions and
networks
6) Economic fortunes of these cities become increasingly
disconnected from their broader hinterlands or even their
national economies.
7)Growing informalization of economic activities which find
their effective demand in these cities, yet have profit rates
that do not allow them to compete for various resources
with the high-profit making firms at the top of the system.
Tendencies and structural facts re: global cities (Sassen 2006)
• Concentration of wealth in the hands of owners, partners, and professionals
associated with the high-end firms in this system;
• Growing disconnection between the city and its region/b/w urban/rural;
• Growth of a large marginalized population struggling to survive in the
marketplace defined by these high-end activities
• Constituting an economic engine that gradually elevates the income and
welfare of the whole population, the modern global city funnels global
surpluses into the hands of a global elite dispersed over a few dozen global
cities creating new social geographies of power and hierarchy/ranks.
• Widening separation/disparity of the quality of life (QOL, cf.
Porio 2015) between different socio-economic groups in global
cities & cities of the global south; b/w urban elites/poor & rural
elites/poor (e.g., gated communities & informal settlements;
cities & upland IP communities, minority populations, etc.)
PARIS RIOTS 2016

PARIS RIOTS, 2016


OCCUPY MOVEMENT, NEW YORK & LONDON
Residential segmentation in New York City and Environs

@Red Hook, New York City, my fieldsite, Fulbright Fellow, Research Site
THE GLOBAL CITY
• Central functions: top level financial, legal, accounting, managerial,
executive, planning functions necessary to run a corporate organization
operating in more than one country are centralized but deterritorialized (e.g.
in Global South cities-backroom services like BPOs
• This mode of global business creates a tight network of supporting
specialist firms positioned to capture a significant level of wealth and income
• Impacts: 1) spatial correlates of centrality/power, 2) ICTs create inequalities
between cities (global North/South), within cities; b/w rural-urban areas
• New organizational structure of the economy (Sassen):
• New conceptual architecture  a place for location and space: global cities
are not disembodied; functioning of their global firms depends on a network of
activities and lesser firms within the spatial scope of the city and its environs
• Space for political contest between parties over the division of the global,
regional and national-local surplus of capital, goods, labor, services (Sassen,
Friedman, Wallerstein, Gunder Frank, Castells, etc.)
• New organizational structure of the economy: tilted not in favor of
disadvantaged/disenfranchised groups (poor men/women of color, IPs, etc.)
• Cf. Beneria-Sen’s home-based workers (Mexico’s slums) or Aiwa Wong’s
Global City: Key Indicators
Economic Political Cultural Industrial

Corporate headq Active influence First-name Advanced


uarters and participation familiarity transportation
multinational on international oNEW YORK
corporations, events and oTOKYO
system
world affairs oPARIS
International finan oLONDON Major
cial institutions, Hosting Highly renowned international
headquarters for cultural institutions,
Significant international galleries, sports
airports and
financial organizations (ex. complex, film ports
capacity/output: UN) centers, opera
city/regional GDP Advanced
Large Influential media communication
Financial service metropolitan area. produced (ex.
provision e.g., ban NYT) s
ks, accountancy Quality of life
standards Educational Skyscrapers
Costs of living Expat institutions
communities
personal wealth; Tourism
e.g., number of
billionaires
• .
• Foundational concepts: Center-periphery relations and world
system, world economy (Wallerstein, Gunder Frank, etc.)

• Illustrative Examples:

Concentration of wealth and disparity


• Wealthy Individuals/Corporations:
1) The Top Richest billionaires in Fortune Magazine
(World/Phil)Global North/South;

2) Wealthy regions/cities (East Asia vs. Pacific Asia; Luzon vs.


Visayas and Mindanao; Metro Manila, Metro Cebu, Metro Davao
vs. its surrounding regions
No. Name Net worth (USD) Age Nationality Source(s) of wealth

1 Bill Gates $75.0 billion 60 United States Microsoft

2 Amancio Ortega $67.0 billion 79 Spain Inditex

3 Warren Buffett $60.8 billion 85 United States Berkshire Hathaway

4 Carlos Slim $50.0 billion 76 Mexico América Móvil, Grupo Car

5 Jeff Bezos $45.2 billion 52 United States Amazon.com

6 Mark Zuckerberg $44.6 billion 32 United States Facebook

7 Larry Ellison $43.6 billion 71 United States Oracle Corporation

Michael
8 $40.0 billion 74 United States Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg

9 Charles Koch $39.6 billion 80 United States Koch Industries

9 David Koch $39.6 billion 75 United States Koch Industries


Globalization and World Cities Research Network
(Friedmann, etc)
sf tudies world cities in the context of globalization and classifies them
into Alpha, Beta, and Gamma world cities which measure the amount
of integration into the world city network

alpha++ cities clearly more integrated than all other cities

alpha+ cities Other highly integrated cities that complement alpha++

alpha & alpha- cities link major economic regions and states into the
world economy

All beta level cities instrumental in linking their region or state into the
world economy

All gamma level cities linking smaller regions or states into the world
economy, or those whose major global capacity is not as advanced
The World According to GAWC 2008
The World’s Megacities (in red, 10 M or more)
Saskia Sassen..
DOES PLACE MATTER? IT DOES, AS SHOWN PREVIOUSLY
telecommunications
globalized markets
information industries
global and digital age
digitalized consumption

PLACE MATTERS
Centralized territorial nodes are still existent

These are run with the help and contribution many specific and
important material and place-bounded activities.
• Sassen encourages us to look beyond the skyscrapers and into
the layered and complicated organizational pattern of global
cities.
• Global cities are place-bounded.
Global cities are key sites for not only the specialized servicing,
financing, and management of the global economic process but
also the incorporation of large numbers of immigrants in activities
that service the strategic sectors.

DIRECTLY: through need for blue collar, workers of color, female


labor for domestic services (e.g., hotel/tourism, for global north
HHs)cf. Dierdre on global care-chain

INDIRECTLY: through consumption practices of high-income


professionals.

This leads to the growth of low wage workers being an important


aspect of the globalized city.

A rising "service class" sector of mainly migrant women (OFWs,


migrant, circular labor).
Some Issues:

Whether globalization has enabled older processes that used to


be national to become global

Whether it has produced new conditions and dynamics.

One way to analyze, is take empirical example: WOMEN

Globalization:
Demand for high-level professionals
Increase of employment of women in corporate professional
jobs
re urbanization of family life
growing shares of household tasks relocated to a market
Immigrant community
different impacts on women and men, male and female centered
forms of power and empowerment
Gender and Globalization (public-private spaces)
These service workers (migrants, mostly women) do two very
important things:
1. Send remittances back home to highly indebted countries
2. Provide cheap labor which though these "valueless jobs", the
key components of expanding economies are built upon.

GLOBALIZATION:
1. Establish links between countries, cities, towns, communities.
2. Enable local-regional practices becoming global (food, faith)

Global cities require us to study:


• politics of culture
• gendering
• Immigration, ETC.

THE MATERIALIZED REALITIES AND DYNAMICS NEEDED


TO KEEP THESE GLOBALIZED INDUSTRIES and lifestyles
RUNNING.
The above IMAGES of the Global City are only partial to what
information economies, and globalization actually entail for
the concrete, place-bounded realities of cities.

WE OVER LOOK: The spatial


dimensions, actual material
processes, activities, and
infrastructures crucial to
globalization & local economy.
• multiple social groups
• inequalities
• neighborhood dynamics
Refer to:
1) Porio 2015, MDGs and Quality of Life: Insights from Metro Manila
in Current Sociology
2) Porio 2015, Prosperity and Inequality in Democracy and
Globalization (Palgrave: Berlin)
Globalizing Cities: Summary/Challenges
Challenges:
• the lack of a integrated planning framework in many urban
areas taking into account the inter-permeability of cities;
• a multiplicity of local bodies obstructing efficient planning
and land use;
• rigid master plans and restrictive zoning regulations that
limit the land available for building, which constrict the cities’
opportunity to grow in accordance with changing needs;
• Increasing vulnerability to climate change (SLR, urban heat,
floods, etc.) and disasters and infrastructure deficit
• Increasing prosperity amidst poverty, inequality, inter-
city strife/political conflicts, displacement, migration
need for social protection mechanisms

•LET US DIGRESS A BIT TO OUR OWN REALITIES!


Source: UNCHS
Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the
United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision and
World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unup.
Asia’s Urbanization & Dimensions
of Globalization
From 10% to 50% Population of Urban Areas in Asia in a duration of 61 years

43% Urban Share of Asia’s Population in 2010

63% Projected Urban Share of Asia’s Population in 2016

21 out of 27 Projected Number of Asia’s Megacities by 2025

34% Total World Merchandise Exports from Asia Pacific Region in 2011 (from 25% in 2001)

42.2% Average Share of Remittances of Tajikistan

23.3% Average Share of Remittances of Tonga

23.2% Average Share of Remittances of Kyrgyz Republic

410 million Projected Urban Asians at Risk of Coastal Flooding by 2025

67% Asian Cities Failing to Meet European Union’s Air Quality Standard

97% Growth of Average per Capita Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia

506 million Slum Dwellers in Asia in 2010

408 million Asians Without Access to Improved Sanitation Facilities


Figure 1 Urban and Rural Population Growth
PHILIPPINES: 1950-2050
140 90

130
80
120

110 70
100
Population (in millions)

60
90

80 50

Percent
70

60 40

50
30
40
30 20

20
10
10

0 0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Year

Urban population Rural Population % Urban

Source: UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision


Philippines: The Great Urban-Rural Divide
Figure 4 Percentage of Rural and Urban Population, 1950-2020

Source: UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision


Major Urban Centers in the Philippines
..
.

Source: Corpus, 2007.


Hierarchy of Philippine Cities
.
.
1,800,000

1M+ : Large metropolitan centers


1,600,000
Metro Cebu
Metro Davao
1,400,000
Metro Angeles
Other metro areas around Metro Manila
1,200,000
Population 2000

1,000,000
400k-1M : Regional (metropolitan) centers
e.g. Metro areas of Bacolod, Zamboanga, General Santos,
800,000
Dagupan, Cagayan de Oro, Iloilo, Cabanatuan, Batangas

600,000

400,000
100k-400k : Large towns/cities, urban centers
e.g. Tarlac (400k), Dumagauete (100k)
200,000 <100k : Small-medium towns,
Rest of the settlements
0

1411
377
424
471

894
941
988

1129
1176

1270
1317
1364

1458
1

1223
48
95
142
189
236
283
330

518
565
612
659
706
753
800
847

1035
1082
Rank .
Source: Corpuz, A. (2010) Continuous increase in
population and density
Mega Manila Region: Urbanization,Globalization,
and Climate Change

Pampanga Pampanga

Bulacan Bulacan

Rizal Rizal

Metro Metro
Manila Manila

Cavite Cavite
Laguna Laguna

Batangas Batangas

1980 2007
Metro Manila: Governance, DRRM and Climate
Change Adaptation
Sources of Risk/Exposure:
•Population: 12 M; daytime: 16-18M
people; 4 M (no security of tenure)
•Poverty Incidence: 20-30 percent
•Percentage of population living in
informal settlements/no security of
tenure: 40-50 percent
•National capital—below sea level
•Located in 3 flood basins
•Density: 18,000 per sq.km (M40k).
•Urban-Economic Primacy—
pop.12x the next largest city;
accounts 37 % of national GDP
•Earthquake fault runs through the
metropolis (cf. Loyzaga’s slides)
•Governance (decentralized and
democratized): MMDA (16 cities)
and local government units (17
political wills—cf. Alcazaren 2013)
Famous
Architect’s
Metro
Manila:
1912-2012 .
Paulo
Alcazaren
(2012)
Threats to City Resilience:
Poverty, Inequality and Social Exclusion

Business
establishments

Informal settlements
Makati City: ‘High Rise’ Buildings vs. slum and/or
informal settlements
Phil: Urban Growth and the Economy
% Share to GDP by Industrial Origin, 1997-2007
60
.
.
.
.
50

40

Agri., Fishery, Forestry


30
Industry Sector
Service Sector
20

10

0
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
• .
World # Billionaire Source of Wealth Affiliated Brands 2016 Real time Net
Worth
71 Henry Sy and family diversified SM Investments Corp. $13.3 billion
City of Dreams
Manila
270 John Gokongwei Jr. diversified JG Summit Holdings, $5.1 billion
Cebu Pacific,
Universal Robina
380 Lucio Tan and family diversified Asia Brewery, Philip Morris- $4 billion
Fortune Tobacco, Philippine
Airlines, Philippine National
Bank

421 George Ty and family banking GT Capital, Metrobank $3.8 billion


569 David Consunji construction DMCI Holdings $3.2 billion
569 Andrew Tan diversified Megaworld, McDonald's, $ 3.1 billion
Emperador Distillers, Resorts
World Manila

569 Tony Tan Caktiong and fast food Jollibee Foods, $3.2 billion
family Greenwich Pizza,
Chowking
722 Enrique Razon Jr. ports International Container Terminal $2.5 billion
Services, Solaire Resort
1121 Lucio and Susan Tan retailing Puregold Price Club $1.63 billion
1121 Robert Coyiuto Jr. power Prudential Guarantee & $1.59 billion
Assurance, PGA Cars, National
Grid Corp.
1367 Manuel Villar real estate Starmalls, Vista Land $1.33 billion

& Landscapes
Global cities have become more important in recent times for
these reasons- HOW THEY IMPACT OUR OWN LIVES:

1) the greater size, “instaniety” and velocity of world capital flows;

2) the increased need for centralized command-and-control posts in


a seemingly decentralized world economy and multiple
networks of capital, institutions and people;

3) the extensive technical infrastructure needed by the FBS


(financial and business services) industries (e.g., BPOs);

4) Renewed expansion of these cities (both in the Global


North/South) was dependent also on the surprising rapid growth
of media-related, informational, and cultural enterprises (e.g.,
social media).
To summarize, Global City:
• Features and characteristics of the global city
population, complex network of ICT, advanced mass transit systems,
headquarters of global governance structures (e.g., UN systems,
corporate subsidiaries)
 renowned for “cosmopolitan” culture (e.g., Paris, New York) and
academic institutions that draw patrons/consumers from all over
the world (neutralization of geography made possible by ICTs);
cross-border dynamics across cities)Golden Globe, etc.
• Trans-national and hyper-mobile nature of capital , capital flows,
goods/commodities, people, etc.
• City: the powerhouse of a globally networked economy and the
heterogeneity of its economic, social, cultural and institutional
assets
• New global grid :strategic sites, terrain for politics engagements
To summarize, Global City:
• Features and characteristics (cont’d)
• Global City, globalization as experience, b/w agency and structure
• Question of power, inequality and hierarchy of
social, political and cultural relations of centrality-
marginality in the quest for justice:
• 1) territory/places (cities, regions, hinterlands,
territories), institutions (state systems, global
organizations)
• 2) social: socio-economic groups (income,
occupation/professions; race, ethnicity/color,
gender, generations, PWDs)
To summarize, Global City (cont’d):
The Global-Local-Global in our societal structures, in our
practices:
• Implications to local-global relations and engagements:
hierarchy and power; continuum of centrality and marginality
within/without
• Implications for our knowledge production/research, sharing,
mobilization and application: place boundedness of knowledge
systems and its understanding and analysis
• Reconfiguration of global processes and its intersections with
other systems processes (social-ecological transitions): climate
disasters and risk governance involving global humanitarian
organizations, UN systems, multi-/bi-lateral donor agencies and
private sector, markets involving supply chains of goods and
services, including science-policy services etc.
Globalizing Cities: Some Concluding
Comments
•All progress: POINT TO precarious
dimensions as the solution brings face-
to-face with another problem!
I have a dream…..
A more socially inclusive city
Green economy in a sustainable city
A resilient city
• DO OUR CONCEPTS/MODELS
REFLECT OUR DREAMS? OR OUR
PRACTICES?
Maraming salamat po! Salamat kaayo sa
inyong tanan!

Thank you!