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STRUCTURAL METAL

• Pengetahuan dan pemahaman terhadap


penggunaan, kekuatan, pembatasan, dan
karakteristik lain dari pada Structural Metals
adalah sangat vital untuk suatu konstruksi yang
tepat dan perawatan berbagai peralatan
khususnya AIRFRAME.
• Pemilihan material yang tepat untuk pekerjaan
perbaikan tertentu sangat membutuhkan
pengenalan terhadap sifat-sifat yang paling
umum daripada berbagai macam metal.

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Stress
4 basic stress
• Tensional stress
• Compression stress
• Shear stress
• Torsion stress
Two or more stress applied
together
• Bending :

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HARDNESS
• Ability of a metal to resist abrasion,
penetration, cutting action or permanent
distortion.
• Metal hardness may be increased by cold
working
• Aluminum Alloys increased the hardness by
heat-treatment

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BRITTLENESS
• Property of the metal which allows little
bending or deformation without shattering
• This is not a very desirable property because
structural metal are often subjected to shocks
loads
• cast iron, cast aluminum, very hard steel are
brittle metals

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MALLEABLE
• Metal which can be hammered, rolled or
pressed into various shapes without cracking,
breaking, or having some other detrimental
effect.
• Copper is an example of malleable metal

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DUCTILITY
• Is the property of metal which permits to be permanently
drawn, bent, or twisted into various shapes without
breaking.
• Ductility is similar to malleability.
• Ductile metal are greatly preferred for aircraft use because
of their ease of forming and resistant to failure under shock
loads.
• Aluminum alloys used for cowling, fuselage, and wing skin.
• Aluminum extruded or formed such as ribs, spars, and
bulkheads.
• Chrome molybdenum steel is also easily formed into
desired shape.

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ELASTICITY
• Property of metal which enables a metal to
return to its original shape when the force
which causes the change of shape is removed.
• Spring steel is part which has elasticity.

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TOUGHNESS
• Property material which withstand tearing or
shearing and may be stretched or otherwise
deformed without breaking.
• Toughness is desirable property in aircraft
metals

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DENSITY
• Weight of unit volume of a material
• Density is an important consideration when
choosing a material to be used in the design of
a part in order to maintain the proper weight
and balance of the aircraft.

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FUSIBILITY
• The ability of a metal to become liquid by the
application of heat.
• Steel fuse around 2600°F and aluminum alloys
at approximately 1100°F

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CONDUCTIVITY
• Property which enables a metal to carry heat
or electricity.
• In Aircraft, electrical conductivity must also be
considered in conjunction with bonding, to
eliminate radio interference.

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CONTRACTION AND EXPANSION
• Reactions produced in metal as the result of
heating or cooling.
• Heat applied to a metal will causes it to
expand or become larger

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Selection Factor
• Strength
• Weight
• Reliability
Airframes must be strong and yet as light in
weight as possible.
There are very definite limits to which increases
in strength can be accompanied by increases
in weight
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Tension Strength
• Resistance to a force which tend to
pull it apart
• Measured in P.S.I.
• Tension strength = load in pounds
cross sectional

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The compression strength
• Metal resistance to a crushing
force which is the opposite of
tension strength
• Also measured in P.S.I

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Shear strength
• Shear = tendency on the part of
parallel members to slide in opposite
direction.
• Shear strength = shear force in P.S.I.

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Torsion Strength
• Torsion = twisting force
• Torsion strength of the material is
resistance to twisting.

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Strength-weight ratio
• The relationship between the
strength of material and weight
per cubic inch.

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Corrosion resistance
• Corrosion = is the eating away or
pitting of the surface or the internal
structure of metals.
• The selection metal’s properties
which ignored the corrosion
resistance characteristics is very
dangerous.
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Heat Treatment
Any process which involves controlled
heating and cooling of metals to
develop certain desirable
characteristics such as hardness,
softness, ductility, tensile strength or
refine grain structure.

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Heat treatment
STEELS ALLUMINUM ALLOYS
• Annealing • HEAT TREATING
• Normalizing The hardening and
toughening process
• Hardening
• ANNEALING
• Tempering The softening process

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Metal Working Process
• Hot working
• Cold working
• Extruding

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Hot working
• Steel is hot worked from the ingot
• The Finishing shape by hot- or cold-working
• Bloom = finished metal which have section
dimension > 6x6 inches and app. square
• Billet = finished metal which have section
dimension < 6x6 inches and app. Square
• Slabs = rectangular section which have a
width greater than twice their thickness
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Cold working
• Cold working applies to mechanical
working performed at temperatures
below the critical range.
• It results in a strain hardening of the
metal.
• In fact, the metal often becomes so hard
that it is difficult to continue the forming
process without softening the metal by
annealing.

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FORGING
PRESSING HAMMERING
• Used when the parts to be • Used only on relatively
forged are large and heavy small pieces
• Replaces the hammering • To obtain high grade steel is
where high grade steel is used very heavy hammer or
required. subjected the part to
repeated blows
• It is used extensively where
only a small number of
parts are needed.

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Advantage of both forging process
PRESSING HAMMERING
• The force is uniformly • Operator can control over
transmitted to the center of both the amount of
the section, since a press is pressure applied and the
slow acting. finishing temperature.
• Force affecting the interior • It is able to produce small
grain structure as well as parts of the highest grade
the exterior to give the best steel.
possible structure
throughout.

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Tempering
• To relieve such strain and reduce brittleness.
• Metal is always tempered after being
hardened.
Tempered consist of heating the steel in a furnace to a specified
temperature under critical point and then cooling it in air, water or
a special solution

• Tempering differs from annealing, normalizing


or hardening which require temperature
above critical point
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Annealing
PURPOSE PROCESSES
• To relieve internal stresses • Heating the metal to
• Soften the metal prescribed temperature.
• Make it more ductile • Holding it there for a
• Refine grain structure specified length of time.
• Cooling the metal back to
room temperature

To produced maximum softness metal must be cooled very


slowly. Some metal must be furnace cooled, others may be
cooled in air

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NORMALIZING
• To relieve stresses in metals.
• Applies to iron base metals only.

Consists of :
a. Heating the part to the proper temperature
b. Holding it at that temperature until it is uniformly heated
c. Then cooling it in still air

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