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Law Enforcement Organization

and Administration 1
Historical Development
of Policing

Derived from the Roman
word “ Politia” which
means a condition of a
state, government and
Politia originated from
the Greek word “
Politeia” which means
government, citizenship,
or entire activity of a
“polis” a city.
The French changed
the word “Police” and
used it to those
authorized people who
actually enforce the
The Americans
borrowed the word
from the French and
used to describe a law
enforcement officer.
Means the internal organization or
regulations of a state, the control and
regulation of a community or state
through the exercise of the constitutional
power of the government.
Background on
1. Primitive Policing
1. Primitive Policing:
 Law enforcement can be traced back
to the cave dwellers, who were
expected to follow certain rules or
face banishment or death.
 The customs depicted in early cave
dwelling may represent the beginning
of law and law enforcement.
1. Primitive Policing:
 The prehistoric social order consisted of small
family groups living together as tribes or
 Group living gave rise to customs everyone
was expected to observe. The tribe’s chief
had executive, legislative and judicial powers
and often appointed tribe members to perform
special task to include guarding the
community against depredationof lawless
2. Ancient Law Enforcement:
The Summerians:
 The early record of ancient peoples need
to standardize rules and methods of
enforcement to control human behaviour
dates to approximately 2300 BC., when
the Sumerian rulers LIPITHSTAR and
ESHUMMA set standards on what
constituted an offense against society.
The Babylonians:
 The Code of King Hammurabi (2100
 During the time of Babylonian King
Hammurabi, he established rules for
his kingdom that designated not only
offenses but punishment as well.
The Babylonians:
 The principle of the code was that
strong shall not injure the weak.
 Hammurabi originated the legal
principle of LEX TALIONES – “the
eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth”
Ancient Egypt:
 The early Egyptians established laws
and court and a rudimentary rule of
 The first account of developing court
system was originated in
approximately 1500 BC.
Ancient Egypt:
 The court system was presided by
judges who were appointed by the
 They later organized marine patrols
and customhouses to protect
Ancient Greece:
 The Greeks had an empressive law
enforcement called EPHORI.
 Each year at Sparta, a body of
Ephors was elected and given almost
unlimited powers as investigator, jury.
Judge, and executor.
Ancient Greece:
These five men also
presided over the senate
and assembly, assuring
that their rules and decrees
were followed.
Ancient Greece:
 From the Greek philosopher PLATO,
who lived from 427 to 347 BC, was
the idea of punishment should serve
the purpose rather than simple
noun: retaliation; plural noun: retaliations
the action of returning a military attack; counterattack.
Ancient Rome:
 The Romans had a high development
system administering justice.
 The 12 Tabulae (12 Tables) were the
first written laws of the Roman
Ancient Rome:
 The 12 Tabulae (12 Tables):
 It deals with legal procedures,
property ownership, building codes,
marriage customs and punishment
for crimes.
Emperor Augustus:
 He created the so-called VIGILES,
who were assigned as the fire
fighters and eventually given law
enforcement responsibilities.
 As the first civilian police force the
VIGILES sometimes kept the
peace very ruthlessly, hence the
Ancient Rome:
 At the reign of Emperor Augustus,
he created the PRAETORIAN
GUARD, which consisted of about
7000 men / soldiers to protect the
palace and the city of Rome,
together with the URBAN
COHORTS to patrol the city.
Ancient Rome:
 Another important event
was the time of Justinian I,
ruler of Eastern Roman
Empire (527 to 265 AD)
Justinian I:
 He collected all Roman laws and
put it into his Justinian Code –
they became known as the
Corpus Juris Civilis – which
means the Body of Law.
Development of
Policing in the
International Setting:
The Early
Policing System:
( Ancient England)
Period – 600 – 1066 A.D.
1. Thanes Policing System:
It was introduced by King Alfred the Great
A type of internal Police force where
landowners throughout the kingdom were
responsible to police their own territory.
Landowners were empowered to arrest
offenders and deliver them to the King.
The landowners were also empowered to
settle civil litigations.
2. Frankpledge Policing System:

This policing system was carried out under a

system of mutual pledge.
Every male over twelve (12) years old joined
nine (9) of his neighbors to form Tythingmen.
Said tythingmen performed police works and
anyone who failed to join and perform his duty
was severly fined.
Policing responsibility lies on the hands of the
3.Tun Policing System:

This policing system required all male

residents to guard the town to preserve
peace and order, protect the life and
property of the people and suppress
other factors affecting peace and order.
Tun was the forerunner of the word
4. Hue and Cry Policing System:

Complainant or victim will go to the

middle of the community and shout to
call all male residents to assemble.
Once heard, male residents will
automatically assemble to go after the
criminal and apprehend him.
5. Royal Judge System:

The Royal Judge conducts criminal

investigation and gives appropriate
punishment for the crime committed.
It started the identification of
6. Trial by Ordeal

It requires a suspect to put his hands over

boiling water or is required to perform any other
act which may hurt him.
If he was hurt, the society considered him guilty,
otherwise, he was not considered guilty.
This was accordance with the belief by the
people before that God will protect the innocent
from one being hurt.
Development of
Policing in the
B. Normal Period
1. Shire-Reeve System:
It was observed during the time when King William
Norman became the ruler of England.
King Norman divided the kingdom into 55 military
districts known as Shire-reeves.
Shire – used to refer to a district.
Reeve – used to refer to the ruler of the district who
made laws, rendered judgment, and imposed
2. Court of the Tourn:
It settles a range of cases, more
often dealing with petty offenses
and civil matters.
From the Court, 12 tythingmen
were selected to hear serious
3. Court Leet:
To handle local legal matters in some,
but all, communities, the Normans
established the Court Leet looked after
matters of purely local interest and
petty village nuisances.
The head of the court was appointed
by the King to be “Master of the House”
The Comes Stable was also appointed by the
King to be responsible in keeping peace and
order in a specific area. This appointee was,
however, under the responsibility of the local
officials who could petition to remove him if he
did not perform his job properly.
Comes Stable became Constable which is
used today to refer to members of the police
4. Legis Henrie:
This law was passed during the time of King Henry I
which imposed the following features:
Law violations were classified as offenses against
the King and individual.
Policemen were considered as public officials.
The police and the citizens were given the power
to conduct arrest.
Grand Jury was created to inquire on the facts of
the law.
5. Keepers of the Peace:
It was issued by King Richard of
England in 1195.
It requires the appointment of knights
to keep the King’s peace.
The knights were posted on bridges
and gates to check the people
entering and leaving the town or
6. Magna Carta ( Great Charter):
It was sealed by King John of
England on June 15, 1215 which
became a law upon the demand of
the Knights of the Round Table.
It declares the following:
1.No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned,
disposed, outlawed, or boowed except by legal
judgment of his peers.
2.No person shall be tried for murder unless there
is proof of the body of the victim.
3.There should be national and local government
as well as the national and local legislation
C. Westminster Period
(1285- 1500)


1.Statute of Winchester (1285)
It was enacted for law and
This law introduced the Watch
and Ward System
2. Statute of 1295
It began the closing of the
gates of London during sunset.
This started the observation
of the curfew hours.
3. Justice of the Peace:
This was a position given to a
respected citizen, who has the
power to arrest, pursue and
imprison offenders.
4. Star Chamber Court:
This was established as a special court
that tried offenders against the state.
Later on, it became both a court of law to
determine civil rights and a court of
revenue to enrich treasury.
Modern Period
of Policing
This period came to the
limelight when a bill creating
passed by the parliament of
It was sponsored and
expanded by Sir Robert Peel
Sir Robert Peel:
who was recorded to be the first
head of police organization.
He was referred as the Father of
Modern Policing System due to his
contributions in the “ modernization
of the police force.
Peel’s Principles:
1. Stable and effective police force should be under
government control.
2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.
3. Fast distribution of new laws to the people is
4. Proper distribution of personnel according shift and
by hour.
5. The best qualification of peace officers is control of
Peel’s Principles:
6. Proper selection and training is the basis
of efficiency.
7. Police cannot function properly without
wholehearted support of the people.
8. Every police must sell himself to the
9. Police officers must go out of their way to
help and assist people.
1.Night Watchmen or
It was created by virtue
of a law passed by King
Charles II in 1663.
2. Bow Street Runners
Thief Catchers
It was organized by Henry Fielding,
Chief Magistrate of Bow Street in
London in 1748.
Later on, he formed the Bow Street
Horse Patrol whose duty was to patrol
the main roads thus secure the
travelers from highway bandits.
3. London Metropolitan Police:
 It was established by sir Robert
Peel in 1829 which became the
world’s first modern organized
police force.
 It was later called Scotland Yard
E. French Police
1. During the17 thcentury, King Louis
XIV maintained a small central
police organization consisting of
some 40 inspectors who, with the
help of numerous paid informants,
supplied the government with details
about the conduct of private
2. Officers de Paix
It was the origin of the
term peace officers.
3. Sergent de Ville
Servant of the City
These were called the
first uniformed police
4. Other contributions:
 Conceiving street lights
 Assigning house numbers
 Installing street lightning
 Creating emergency and rescue
 Use of police ambulances
 Use of warrant card and ID signifying
authority to arrest.
F. American Police
1.Rattle watch:
 It was organized in New York,
Philadelphia and Boston which was
similar to the night watchmen in London
created during the reign of King Charles
 They carried rattles while on duty to
inform the public of their watchful
2. Municipal Police Force:
a. Night watch (1638) – Boston,
b. Rattle watch (1658) – New
c. Night Watch (1700) -
d. Introduction of police
regulation that “ No
watchmen has the liberty
to sleep” (1722) – New
Haven, Connecticut
e. It became a government
policy that able-bodied
males over 16 years old
were required to serve
without Pay (1800)
f. Daytime police with
pay (1833)
g. Full police uniform
(1856) – New York City
3. State Police Force:
a. Texas Rangers ( 1835)
b. State Constables (1865)
– Massachusetts
c. Pennsylvania State
Police (1905)
4. Federal Police Force:
a. Post Office Inspection
System (1829)
b. Investigation on crimes
against the government
c. Detective Forces (1868)
 Were formed to
investigate problems on
revenue services,
immigration and
d. In 1934, Federal
government attention
focused on lotteries, drug
regulations, and
transportation guidelines.
e. Enactment of Anti-
White Slavery Act and
Motor Vehicle Act (1910)
white slav¦ery
noun: white
the practice of
tricking or forcing
white women to
work as
f. In 1934, National
Kidnapping Act, Banking
Act, and Racketeering Act
were passed by the United
States Congress.
National Kidnapping Act