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Electrical energy is an essential ingredient for the
industrial and all round development of any country. It is
generated centrally in bulk and transmitted economically
over long distances.
Primary Transmission(132/220/400/765KV)


Power Plant Bus-bar Steel Tower

Sending end SS (11/220kV) CB 220 kV Primary Grid
(220/66 kV)

Commercial/ 66 kV
Industrial Transmission

Secondary Transmission(66/132KV)
Distribution Transformer
Urban (11/0.415 kV) Primary Distribution

Secondary Grid
Secondary Distribution (66/11 kV)

Underground Cable
To Other
Residential Residential
Customer Substations
Structure of Power Systems

Generating Stations, transmission lines and the distribution

systems are the main components of an electric power system.

Generating stations and distribution systems are connected

through transmission lines, which also connect one power
system (grid, area) to another.

A distribution system connects all the loads in a particular

area to the transmission lines.
Structure of a Power System
Electrical energy is conserved at every step in the
process of Generation, Transmission, Distribution and
utilization of electrical energy.

The electrical utility industry is probably the largest and

most complex industry in the world and hence very complex
and challenging problems to be handled by power engineering
particularly, in designing future power system to deliver
increasing amounts of electrical energy.
Power system operation
This calls for perfect
analysis and
decision making of the system.

This power system operation and its control play a very

important task in the world of Electrical Power Engineering.
Major Concerns of Power System Design and Operation

• Quality : Continuous at desired frequency and voltage level

• Reliability : Minimum failure rate of components and systems
• Security : Robustness - normal state even after disturbances
• Stability : Maintain synchronism under disturbances
• Economy : Minimize Capital, running and maintenance Costs
Power Quality
Power quality is characterized by –
 Stable AC voltages at near nominal values and at near
rated frequency subject to acceptable minor variations,
free from annoying voltage flicker, voltage sags and
frequency fluctuations.
 Near sinusoidal current and voltage wave forms free from
higher order harmonics

All electrical equipments are rated to operate at near rated

voltage and rated frequency.
Effects of Poor Power Quality

• Mal-operation of control devices, relays etc.

• Extra losses in capacitors, transformers and rotating


• Fast ageing of equipments

• Loss of production due to service interruptions

• Electro-magnetic interference due to transients

• Power fluctuation not tolerated by power electronic parts

Major causes of Poor Power Quality

- Nonlinear Loads
- Adjustable speed drives
- Traction Drives
- Start of large motor loads
- Arc furnaces
- Intermittent load transients
- Lightning
- Switching Operations
- Fault Occurrences
Steps to address Power Quality issues

• Detailed field measurements

• Monitor electrical parameters at various places to assess the
operating conditions in terms of power quality.
• Detailed studies using a computer model. The accuracy of
computer model is first built to the degree where the observed
simulation values matches with those of the field
measurement values. This provides us with a reliable computer
model using which we workout remedial measures.
…Steps to address Power Quality issues

• For the purpose of the analysis we may use load flow studies,
dynamic simulations, EMTP simulations, harmonic analysis
depending on the objectives of the studies.

• We also evaluate the effectiveness of harmonic filters through

the computer model built, paying due attention to any reactive
power compensation that these filters may provide at
fundamental frequency for normal system operating conditions.

• The equipment ratings will also be addressed to account for

harmonic current flows and consequent overheating.
Power Quality Solutions :

Poor power quality in the form of harmonic distortion or

low power factor increases stress on a facility’s electrical
Over time this increased electrical stress will shorten
the life expectancy of electrical equipment.
In addition to system degradation, poor power quality
can cause nuisance tripping and unplanned shutdowns
within electrical system.
In an increasingly automated electrical world, it is
important for a facility to evaluate power quality.

Harmonic distortion, low power factor, and the presence

of other transients can cause severe damage to electrical system

Power System Engineers provides system analysis and

evaluation of power quality issues and makes recommendations
for system design solutions
For economical technical reasons, individual power systems
are organized in the form of electrically connected areas or
regional grids.

As power systems increased in size, so did the number of

lines, substations, transformers, switchgear etc. Their operation
and interactions became more complex and hence it is necessary
to monitor this information simultaneously for the total system at
a focal point called as Energy Control Centre. The fundamental
design feature is increase in system reliability and economic

Reliability is the probability that a device or a

system will operate without failure for a given period and
under given operating conditions.

So, if I say that the reliability of my walkman is 0.98

(or 98%), I mean that my walkman is working 98% of the
time and failing 2% of the time.
Reliability has two components


Adequacy Security
• Adequacy:
A measure of the ability of the power system to supply
the aggregate electric power and energy requirements of the
customers within components ratings and voltage limits,
taking into account planned and unplanned outages of
system components.

Adequacy measures the capability of the power system

to supply the load in all the steady states in which the power
system may exist considering standards conditions.
• Security:
A measure of power system ability to withstand sudden
disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated
losses of system components or load conditions together with
operating constraints.
Another aspect of security is system integrity, which is
the ability to maintain interconnected operation. Integrity
relates to the preservation of interconnected system operation,
or avoidance of uncontrolled separation, in the presence of
specified severe disturbances.
An operator’s view of “security”
“Any consequence of a
credible disturbance
that requires a limit”

Overload Angle/
Security Frequency

Trans- Line Low Unstable Frequency Rotor angle

former Overload Voltage Voltage instability instability

Static security Dynamic security


Stability of a power system is its ability to return

to normal or stable operating conditions after having
been subjected to some form of disturbance.

Conversely, instability means a condition

denoting loss of synchronism or falling out of step.
Importance of Power System Stability

Generators must be kept in synchronism; if their

relative motion begins to change too much, uncontrollable
oscillations may appear in the grid causing damage to
generators and to equipment.
Therefore, relays are used to detect this condition and
trip generators before the damage occurs. Although tripping
prevents the damage, it results in under-frequency, and
possibly load interruption, and in the worst case, cascading
outages and blackout.
Differences between reliability, security, and stability

Reliability is the overall objective in power system design

and operation. To be reliable, the power system must be secure
most of the time. To be secure, the system must be stable but
must also be secure against other contingencies that would not
be classified as stability problems e.g., damage to equipment
such as an explosive failure of a cable, fall of transmission towers
due to ice loading or sabotage.
As well, a system may be stable following a contingency,
yet insecure due to post-fault system conditions resulting in
equipment overloads or voltage violations
System security may be further distinguished from
stability in terms of the resulting consequences.

For example, two systems may both be stable with

equal stability margins, but one may be relatively more secure
because the consequences of instability are less severe.
Security and stability are time-varying attributes which can be
judged by studying the performance of the power system
under a particular set of conditions.

Reliability, on the other hand, is a function of the time-

average performance of the power system; it can only be
judged by consideration of the system’s behavior over an
appreciable period of time
Power System Action Time frame
Existing architecture of energy control centres and also the future projection of
new technologies in power transmission
New challenges in power systems
No Function Description

1 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) The function of the AGC is to allocate the generation among the system generator units in real-time to meet the
system load.

2 Economic Dispatch Calculation (EDC) This program allocates generation among the available units so as to minimize the cost of supplying the system

3 Unit Commitment. The Unit Commitment function is to establish the minimal cost operating policy over a specified time period,
(usually a day to one week) within a set of specified constraints.

4 System Load Forecast To forecast then system load, usually for the next one day to one week, taking account of historical as well as
weather load models.

5 State Estimator The State Estimator is a mathematical procedure for producing the best estimate of the status of a network, from a
set of measurements. The result of the State estimation provides the base from which the Contingency Analysis
program is run.

6 Power Flow The Power Flow Program provides the capability for operators and operation planners to study the effects on the
power network under postulated conditions.

7 Short Circuit Analysis This application program performs the calculation of three phase and/or single phase to ground short circuit
currents and the associated voltage profile.

8 Bus Load forecast Provides short term forecasting of the loads on feeders and stations.

9 Transient Stability Simulates and analyses the dynamic response of an interconnected system for several seconds following a

10 Contingency Analysis This application program automatically assesses the impact of selected outages on the real-time power system and
alerts the user to rating violations on affected pieces of equipment.

11 Dispatcher Training Simulator This equipment provides the engineers with familiarization with the operations in a power control system.
Components of power system operation and control

• Information gathering and processing

• Decision and control

• System integration
Typical power utility control hierarchy.
Layer 1. Utility: The upper level of the hierarchy covers all the enterprise-
wide IT, asset management, and the energy trading systems.
Layer 2. Network: Historically, this layer has controlled the bulk power
transmission networks, including the economic dispatch of the
Layer 3. Substation: The integrated control of all circuit breakers inside the
substation with the communication of all protection relay status.
Layer 4. Distribution: This layer of the control hierarchy covers the medium-
voltage feeder systems and reflects the expansion of the real-time
control capability, through remote control and local automation, of
the feeder devices located below the primary substations.
Decision tree showing the
logical steps to the
implementation of local or
central automation of a
primary switch
Need for Power System Management

• Demand for Power Increasing every day

Electricity consumption doubled after 1980;
consumer electronics increase
No of transmission line, Sub-stations, Transformers,
switchgear etc.,
• Operation and Interaction is more and more complex
• Essential to monitor simultaneously for the total system at
a focal point – ENERGY LOAD CENTRE
Energy Load Centre

The function of energy load centre is to control the

function of coordinating the response in both normal and
emergency conditions.

Digital Computers are very effectively used for the

purpose. Their function is to process the data, detect
abnormalities, alarm the human operator by lights, buzzers,
screens etc., depending on the severity of the problem.
Control Centre of a Power System

Human Machine Interface – equipped with

• CRT presentations

• Keyboards – change parameters

• Special function keyboards- alter transformer taps, switch

line capacitors etc.,

• Light-Pen cursor – open or close circuit breakers

• Alarm lights, alarms, dedicated telephone communications

with generating stations and transmission substations,
neighbouring power utilities