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March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.

11-03/161r0a

Indoor MIMO WLAN Channel Models

Vinko Erceg, Laurent Schumacher, Persefoni Kyritsi,


Daniel S. Baum, Andreas Molisch,
and Alexei Y. Gorokhov

Submission Slide 1 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

List of Participants
• Vinko Erceg (Zyray Wireless) • Hemanth Sampath (Marvell)
• Laurent Schumacher (Namur University) • H. Lou (Marvell)
• Persefoni Kyritsi (Aalborg University) • Pieter van Rooyen (Zyray Wireless)
• Daniel Baum (ETH University) • Pieter Roux (Zyray Wireless)
• Andreas Molisch (Mitsubishi Electric) • Majid Malek (HP)
• Alexei Gorokhov (Philips Research) • Timothy Wakeley (HP)
• Srinath Hosur (Texas Instruments) • Dongjun Lee (Samsung)
• Srikanth Gummadi (Texas Instruments) • Tomer Bentzion (Metalink)
• Eilts Henry (Texas Instruments) • Nir Tal (Metalink)
• Eric Jacobsen (Intel) • Amir Leshem (Metalink, Bar IIan University)
• Sumeet Sandhu (Intel) • Guy Shochet (Metalink)
• David Cheung (Intel) • Patric Kelly (Bandspeed)
• Qinghua Li (Intel) • Vafa Ghazi (Cadence)
• Clifford Prettie (Intel) • Mehul Mehta - Mickey (Synad Technologies)
• Heejung Yu (ETRI) • Bobby Jose (Mabuhay Networks)
• Yeong-Chang Maa (InProComm) • Charles Farlow (California Amplifier)
• Richard van Nee (Airgo) • Claude Oestges (Louvain University)
• Jonas Medbo (Erricsson) • Robert W. Heath (University of Texas at
• Eldad Perahia (Cisco Systems) Austin)
• Helmut Boelcskei (ETH Univ.)

Submission Slide 2 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

WLAN MIMO Channel Modeling Goals

• To develop a set of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)


channel models backwards compatible with existing
802.11 channel models developed by Medbo and Schramm
[1].
• Channel models can be used to evaluate new WLAN
proposals based on multiple antenna technologies.

Submission Slide 3 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Existing Models Overview


• Five delay profile models for single-input single-output
(SISO) systems were proposed in [1] for different
environments (A-E):

1. Model A for a typical office environment, non-line-of-sight (NLOS)


conditions, and 50 ns rms delay spread.
2. Model B for a typical large open space and office environments, NLOS
conditions, and 100 ns rms delay spread.
3. Model C for a large open space (indoor and outdoor), NLOS
conditions, and 150 ns rms delay spread.
4. Model D, same as model C, line-of-sight (LOS) conditions, and 140 ns
rms delay spread (10 dB Ricean K-factor at the first delay).
5. Model E for a typical large open space (indoor and outdoor), NLOS
conditions, and 250 ns rms delay spread.
Submission Slide 4 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.
March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

We Follow Cluster Modeling Approach

• In each of the A-E models distinct clusters can be clearly


identified.
• Clustering approach is a common approach used for indoor
channel modeling, verified by numerous experimental
data.
• Pioneer work done by Saleh and Valenzuela [2] and further
elaborated and extended upon by many researchers [3-8].

Submission Slide 5 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Channel Model-A Example


• Three clusters can be clearly identified. Remaining
models B-E have 4,6,6, and 5 clusters, respectively.
30

Cluster 1
25

20 Cluster 2
Relative dB

dB 15

Cluster 3
10

0
-50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Delay in Nanoseconds

Submission Slide 6 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Spatial Representation of 3 Clusters


Cluster 1

R1 Cluster 2

R2

LOS

Tx Antennas

Rx Antennas
R3

Cluster 3

Submission Slide 7 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Modeling Approach
• Only time domain information from A-E SISO models can
be determined (delay of each delay within each cluster and
corresponding power using extrapolation methods).
• In addition, for the MIMO clustering approach the
following parameters have to be determined:

– Power azimuth spectrum (PAS) shape of each cluster and tap


– Cluster angle-of-arrival (AoA), mean
– Cluster angular spread (AS) at the receiver
– Cluster Angle-of-departure (AoD), mean
– Cluster AS at the transmitter
– Tap AS (we assume 5o for all)
– Tap AoA
– Tap AoD

Submission Slide 8 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Cluster and Tap PAS Shape


• Cluster and tap PAS follow Laplacian distribution.

Example of Laplacian AoA (AoD) distribution, cluster, AS = 30o

Submission Slide 9 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Cluster AoA and AoD

• It was found in [3,4] that the relative cluster mean AoAs


have a random uniform distribution over all angles.

Submission Slide 10 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Cluster AS
• We use the following findings to determine cluster AS:

• In [3] the mean cluster AS values were found to be 21o and 25o for two
buildings measured. In [4] the mean AS value was found to be 37o. To be
consistent with these findings, we select the mean cluster AS values for
models A-E in the 20o to 40o range.

• For outdoor environments, it was found that the cluster rms delay spread (DS)
is highly correlated (0.7 correlation coefficient) with the AS [9]. It was also
found that the cluster rms delay spread and AS can be modeled as correlated
log-normal random variables. We apply this finding to our modeling approach.

Submission Slide 11 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Cluster AS: Cont’


• The mean AS per model was determined using the formula (per model mean
AS values in the 20o – 40o range)

AS  0.57 DS  3.65

where DS is cluster delay spread.

• Cluster AS variation within each model was determined using 0.7 correlation
with cluster DS and assuming log-normal distributions.

Submission Slide 12 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Cluster AS: Cont’


• Resulting cluster AS (at the receiver) and DS for all five models (A-E) is
shown in the figure below

Submission Slide 13 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Tap AS, AoA, and AoD


• We assume that each tap PAS shape is Laplacian with AS = 5o.
• Following constraints that satisfy cluster AS and AoA (AoD), tap AoA and
AoD can be determined using numerical methods.

N
a0   bi (a 0  li D)
i 1
N
2 
s tot  i 0 i
b (a  l D ) 2  s 2 a 2
a ,i 0
i 1
where li is a zero-mean, unit-variance Laplacian random variable, bi is a
scaling parameter related to the power roll-off coefficient of the cluster, D is a
parameter that is determined using numerical global search method to satisfy
the required AS and mean AoA of each cluster; ao is the mean cluster AoA;
s2tot is cluster AS, and s2a,i is tap AS.

Submission Slide 14 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Tap AS, AoA, and AoD: Cont’

Example: Distribution of taps within a cluster.





Tap
1
Tap
2
Tap
3 Tap
4
Tap
5

Submission Slide 15 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

MIMO Channel Model A: Table of Parameters


Tap
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
index
Excess
delay 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 140 170 200 240 290 340 390
[ns]
- - - - - -
Power
Cluster 1 0 -0.9 -1.7 -2.6 -3.5 -4.3 -5.2 -6.1 -6.9 -7.8 9.071 11.19 13.79 16.39 19.37 23.20
[dB]
2 91 54 18 10 17
Mean AoA = AoA 166.6 172.6 156.1 150.0 148.4 109.7 121.8 152.7 171.0 155.2 156.0 159.6 154.2 149.2 154.3 153.8
154.4757° [°] 46 334 558 347 607 505 078 446 199 886 954 128 316 625 86 697
Composite
AS
AS = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
[°]
18.4380°
Mean AoD = AoD 346.8 320.9 345.5 292.1 342.3 350.6 311.2 349.5 336.1 326.1 350.5 353.7 349.6 19.25 359.4 325.5
333.7349° [°] 507 888 986 785 962 262 92 338 867 379 996 7 664 42 043 16

Composite AS
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
AS = 19.7471 [°]
- - - - - - -
Power
Cluster 2 6.675 9.572 12.17 14.77 17.43 21.99 25.58
[dB]
6 9 54 79 58 28 07
Mean AoA = AoA 315.8 2.676 273.5 347.9 323.2 328.8
315.8
320.5062° [°] 042 4 867 928 924 476
Composite
AS
AS = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
[°]
21.8956°
Mean AoD = AoD 68.67 27.43 47.14 15.64 50.40 39.56 52.11
50.3512° [°] 51 82 56 74 85 65 88

Composite AS
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
AS = 20.4451 [°]
- - -
Power
Cluster 3 18.84 23.23 25.24 -26.7
[dB]
33 81 63
Mean AoA = AoA 239.5 238.1 251.7 322.5
248.58° [°] 305 292 416 986
Composite
AS
AS = 5 5 5 5
[°]
24.6891°
Mean AoD = AoD 249.4 264.9 318.4 303.1
266.6654° [°] 722 037 249 991

Composite AS
5 5 5 5
AS = 25.8612 [°]

Submission Slide 16 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Next Steps
• So far we have completely defined PAS of each tap (AS and
Laplacian AoA distribution) and AoA of each tap. These
parameters were determined so that the cluster AS and mean
cluster AoA requirements are met (experimentally
determined published results).
• Next, we show how we use tap AoA and AS information to
calculate per tap transmit and receive antenna correlation
matrices and from that finally the MIMO channel matrices
H.

Submission Slide 17 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

MIMO Channel Matrix Formulation


• Example 4 x 4 MIMO matrix H for each tap is as follows
 K 1 
H  P  HF  H v 
 K 1 K 1 


 e jf11 e jf12 e jf13 e jf14   X11 X12 X13 X14  
   


 jf
K e 21 e jf22 e jf23 j f
e 24  1  X 21 X 22 X 23 X 24  
 P   
 K  1 e jf31 e jf32 e jf33 e j f 34  K  1  X 31 X 32 X 33 X 34  
   
  jf41 

 e e jf42 e jf43 j f
e 44   X 41 X 42 X 43 X 44  

where Xij (i-th receiving and j-th transmitting antenna) are correlated zero-
mean, unit variance, complex Gaussian random variables as coefficients of the
Rayleigh matrix HV, exp(jfij) are the elements of the fixed matrix HF, K is the
Ricean K-factor, and P is the power of each tap.

Submission Slide 18 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

MIMO Channel Matrix Formulation: Cont’

To correlate the Xij elements of the matrix X, the following method can be used

X   Rrx 1 / 2 Hiid Rtx 1 / 2

4x4 MIMO channel transmit and receive correlation matrices are

 1 tx12 * tx13 * tx14 *  1  rx12 *  rx13 *  rx14 *


   
 tx21 1 tx23 * tx24 *   rx 21 1  rx 23 *  rx 24 *
Rtx    Rrx   
 tx31 tx32 1 tx34 *   rx31  rx32 1  rx34 *
   
 tx41 tx42 tx43 1    rx 41  rx 42  rx 43 1 

Submission Slide 19 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

MIMO Channel Matrix Formulation: Cont’


• Correlation coefficients for each tap can be determined using tap PAS (represented by
Laplacian distribution and corresponding AS) and tap AoA (AoD)

  RXX ( D)  jRXY ( D)
p
R XX ( D)   cos( D sin f ) PAS (f )df
p
p
R XY ( D)   sin( D sin f ) PAS (f )df
p

• where D = 2pd/l (for linear antenna array) and RXX and RXY are the cross-correlation
functions between the real parts (equal to the cross-correlation function between the
imaginary parts) and between the real part and imaginary part, respectively.

Submission Slide 20 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

MIMO Channel Matrix H Generation

• Use power, AS, AoA and AoD tap parameters from tables
A-D.
• Per tap, calculate transmit and receive correlation matrices.
• Using correlation matrices and Hiid generate instantiations
of channel matrices H, as many as required by simulation.

Matlab program that can be used to generate per tap H


matrices will be provided by Laurent Schumacher [10]
(most likely by May 2003).

Submission Slide 21 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

Conclusion

• WLAN MIMO channel models were developed based on


extensive published experimental data and models.
• The models are based on per tap correlation matrices
determined from tap AS and AoA.
• Matlab program will be provided that generates
instantiations of channel matrices H for each tap and
antenna combination.

Submission Slide 22 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.


March 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/161r0a

References
[1] J. Medbo and P. Schramm, “Channel models for HIPERLAN/2,” ETSI/BRAN document no. 3ERI085B.
[2] A.A.M. Saleh and R.A. Valenzuela, “A statistical model for indoor multipath propagation,” IEEE J. Select. Areas
Commun., vol. 5, 1987, pp. 128-137.
[3] Q.H. Spencer, et. al., “Modeling the statistical time and angle of arrival characteristics of an indoor environment,”
IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, March 2000, pp. 347-360.
[4] R.J-M. Cramer, R.A. Scholtz, and M.Z. Win, “Evaluation of an ultra-wide-band propagation channel,” IEEE Trans.
Antennas Propagat., vol. 50, no.5, May 2002, pp. 561-570.
[5] A.S.Y. Poon and M. Ho, “Indoor multiple-antenna channel characterization from 2 to 8 GHz,” submitted to ICC 2003
Conference.
[6] G. German, Q. Spencer, L. Swindlehurst, and R. Valenzuela, “Wireless indoor channel modeling: Statistical agreement
of ray tracing simulations and channel sounding measurements,” in proc. IEEE Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Proc.
Conf., vol. 4, 2001, pp. 2501-2504.
[7] J-G. Wang, A.S. Mohan, and T.A. Aubrey,” Angles-of-arrival of multipath signals in indoor environments,” in proc.
IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf., 1996, pp. 155-159.
[8] Chia-Chin Chong, David I. Laurenson and Stephen McLaughlin, “Statistical Characterization of the 5.2 GHz
Wideband Directional Indoor Propagation Channels with Clustering and Correlation Properties,” in proc. IEEE Veh.
Technol. Conf., vol. 1, Sept. 2002, pp. 629-633.
[9] K.I. Pedersen, P.E. Mogensen, and B.H. Fleury, “A stochastic model of the temporal and azimuthal dispersion seen at
the base station in outdoor propagation environments,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 49, no. 2, March 2000, pp.
437-447.
[10] L. Schumacher, Namur University, Belgium, (laurent.schumacher@ieee.org).

Submission Slide 23 Vinko Erceg, Zyray Wireless; et al.