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Functions

Session Objectives

1. Function definition
2. Domain, codomain and range
3. Standard real functions
4. Applications
Functions vs. Relations
• A "relation" is just a relationship between sets of information.

• A “function” is a well-behaved relation, that is, given a starting


point we know exactly where to go.
Example
• People and their heights, i.e. the
pairing of names and heights.
• We can think of this relation as
ordered pair:
• (height, name)
• Or
• (name, height)
Example (continued)
Name Height

Joe=1 6’=6

Mike=2 5’9”=5.75

Rose=3 5’=5

Kiki=4 5’=5

Jim=5 6’6”=6.5
Jim

Kiki

Rose

Mike

Joe

Joe Mike Rose Kiki Jim

• Both graphs are relations


• (height, name) is not well-behaved .
• Given a height there might be several names corresponding to that height.
• How do you know then where to go?
• For a relation to be a function, there must be exactly one y value that
corresponds to a given x value.
Conclusion and Definition
• Not every relation is a function.
• Every function is a relation.
• Definition:

Let X and Y be two nonempty sets.


A function from X into Y is a relation that
associates with each element of X exactly one
element of Y.
• Recall, the graph of (height, name):

What happens at the height = 5?


Function
Let A and B be two non-empty sets
having m and n elements respectively,
then the number of relations possible
from A to B is 2mn. Out of these 2mn
relations some are called function
(or mappings) from A
to B provided following two conditions
hold in the relation:

(i) All the elements of A are associated to


elements of B.
(ii) Each element of A is associated to one and only
one element of B, i.e. no element of A is
associated to two (or more) elements of B.
Definition

Function ‘f’ from set A to set B associates


each element of A to unique (i.e. one and
only one) element of B denoted by
f : A  B (read as ‘f from A to B’)

Observations:
(i) A relation from A to B is not a
function if it either violates
condition 1 or 2 or both, i.e.
either some element of A is not
associated to element of B or
some element of A is associated
to more than one elements of B
or both.
(ii) In a function from A to B, two
elements of A can be associated
to one element of B (examples
R7, R10)
Observations
(i) A relation from A to B is not a function
if it either violates condition 1 or 2 or
both, i.e. either some element of A is
not associated to element of B or some
element of A is associated to more than
one elements of B or both.
(ii) In a function from A to B, two elements
of A can be associated to one element
of B (examples R7, R10) A B A B

V a lid f o r N o t v a lid fo r
fu n c tio n f u n c tio n s b u t v a lid f o r
(iii) If f :A � B be the function, then r e la t io n s
o(f) = o(A) and Dom(f) = A.
Domain, Codomain and Range of a Function
Let f :A � B be the function, then set ‘A’
is called the domain of f and set ‘B’ is
called the codomain of f. The set of
those elements of B which are related
by elements of A is called range of f
or image of set A under f and is
denoted by f(A), i.e.
f  A    f  a  | a  A   Range of f.

Clearly, f  A   B.
Domain, Codomain and Range of a Function
For example:
A B A B
R R 8
7
a 1 a 1
b 2 b 2

Dom (R7) = {a, b}, Domain (R8) = {a, b}


Codomain = {1, 2} Codomain (R8) = {1, 2}
Range (R7) = {1} Range (R8) = {1, 2}
= Codomain (R8)
Domain, Codomain and Range of a Function
For example:

A B A B
R R 8
7
a 1 a 1
b 2 b 2

Dom (R7) = {a, b}, Domain (R8) = {a, b}


Codomain = {1, 2} Codomain (R8) = {1, 2}
Range (R7) = {1} Range (R8) = {1, 2}
= Codomain (R8)
Equal Functions

Two functions f and g are said to be


equal iff
(i) Dom (f) = Dom (g)
(ii) Codom (f) = Codom (g)
(iii) f  x   g  x  " x �Dom  f  or Dom (g)

If all these three conditions holds, then


we can write f = g.
Mathematical Way to Prove a Relation
to be a Function
If A and B be two non-empty sets,
f be the relation from A to B (i.e. f ʹ A B ),
then f is function from A to B if

(i) " a �A $ b �B st.  a, b  �f and

(ii) x  y � f  x   f  y  for any x, y �A


Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Real functions
Functions in which both domain and
codomain are the subsets of R, i.e. set
of real numbers.

y  f  x  :[ a, c ] � R, then
w
Domain of f is [a, c]
v
Codomain is R
u Range is [u, w]

a b c
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Constant function: f(x) = c
Let f : R � R be the real function defined as
f  x   c " x �R for some c �R

Dom (f) = R, Codomain (f) = R,


Range (f) = {c}
y

(0 , c ) y = f(x ) = c

x Note: f : A  B is constant
O
function if " a  A , f(a) = c
for some c  B.
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Identity function: f(x) = x
Let f : R � R be the real function defined as
f  x   x " x �R
Dom (f) = R
Codomain (f) = R
Range (f) = R
y
Note: f : A  A given by f(a) = a
" a  A is identity function denoted
x

by I (same as identity relation)


)=

A
f( x
=
y

x
O
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Modulus function: f(x) = |x|
Let f : R � R be the real function defined as
�x, x �0
f  x  x  �
�- x, x < 0

Domain (f) = R, Codomain (f) = R,


Range (f) =  x|x γR,
�x 0 [ 0,  (as x �0 )
= set of non-negative real numbers.
y

y = f(x ) = x x
– =
x y

x
x < 0 O x  0
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Greatest integer function: f(x) = [x]
Let f : R � R be the real function defined as
f  x   [ x ] " x �R
= greatest integer less than or equal to x.

For example:
[2.1] = 2, i.e. greatest integer less than or equal
to 2.1 is 2, similarly
[–2.1] = –3
[2] = 2
[3 . 9] = 3
[–3 . 9] = –4
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Hence [x] = 0 " 0 �x < 1
= 1 " 1 �x < 2
= 2 " 2 �x < 3
and so on. y

Also [x] = –1 " - 1 �x < 0 3 y = [x ]

2
= –2 " - 2 �x < -1 and so on.
1
Combining we get [x] = n for x
–4 –3 – 2 –1 O 1 2 3 4
n  x < n  1 "n  z – 1
– 2
– 3
Some Standard Real Functions and
Their Graphs
Filled circle means, point is on the graph.

4
3 y = [x ]
2
1

x
–4 –3 – 2 –1 O 1 2 3 4
– 1 unfilled circle means, point is not on
the graph.
– 2
Dom(f) = R, Codomain (f) = R
– 3
Range (f) = z
– 4
Thank you