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Digital Modulation

Three basic forms of digital modulation

Analog Digital

AM Amplitude ASK

FM Frequency FSK

PM Phase PSK

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Amplitude Shift Key
11111010001101010010111 f t  f t   ASK t 

t

 ASK t  Ac sin  ct
t

 t  nT  1
f t    an rect   where an  
n  T 0
 ASK t   f t   Ac sin ct

 Ac sin  ct (logic 1)
  ASK t   
 0 (logic 0)

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Amplitude Shift Key[1]
The ASK waveform for one pulse (logic 1)

 Ac sin  ct 0t T
  ASK t   
 0 elsewhere

In order to find an Energy Spectrum of  ASK t 


Energy Spectrum
The Autocorrelation technique is used
f t  f t  Rt   R f 
 
Delay
f t  T 
sinc2 function

Therefore Energy Spectrum of ASK


 2 2

0
T T

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Power Spectral Density
 Ac   Ac 
2 2

    0   c      0   c 
 2   2 
 Ac   Ac 
2 2

  Gb  0   c    Gb  0   c 
 2   2 

2  c 2 0 2 c 2

 c   c  c  c 
T T T T

 A 
 
2

G ASK     c  Gb  0   c   Gb  0   c    0   c     0   c 


 2 

Detection of ASK : detect


 present (logic 1) or
absent (logic 0)
of the carrier

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Frequency Shift Key
11111010001101010010111
f t 
t
 FSK t 
t
 ASK t 1

t
 ASK t 2
t

 ASK t 

Output for 1 1

f t  Ac cos c   t  FSK t 

Output for 0  ASK t 
 2

Ac cos c   t

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Power Spectral Density
K     c    K     c    K    c    K    c   

G ASK1   G ASK2  

  c  c   c 
  c   0  c    c  

2

Frequency separation

Note: To prevent significant overlapping of the bandpass of two


filters in detection process

frequency separation  Data rate

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Power Spectral Density[1]
The Actual shape of Power Spectral Density of FSK
Detection of FSK Bandpass Filter
is used to detect f1 (1) and f2 (0)

 c  
 c  c  

2
In general for frequency separation; 2  DataRate
2
2 
T
1 m
  2f ; 2 f  or where m is an integer
T T
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Phase Shift Key
11111010001101010010111 f t  f t   PSK t 

t

 PSK t  Ac cos  ct
t

cos 2f 0t
~
cos2f 0t   
~

 t  nT  1
f t    an rect  where an  
n  T  0
 PSK t   f t   Ac cos ct

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Power Spectral Density
 Ac   Ac 
2 2

  Gb  0   c    Gb  0   c 
 2   2 


 c 
2  c  c 
2 0 c 
2 c  2
T T c 
T T

 Ac 
 
2

GPSK      Gb  0   c   Gb  0   c 
 2 

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Detection of PSK Phase Reversal Key (PRK)

Since information is in the phase, only synchronous detection is possible

Receiver:
To data detection Matched filter detection

cos 2f 0t

 PSK t 
carrier  
 
Synchronize cos2f 0t   
(coherent)
carrier
Local oscillator e.g. Crystal oscillator
known as Voltage Control Oscillator VCO

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