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REVIEW

PHYSICS 2

DATE : XX/XX/20XX
Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
m
• Density : ρ =
V
• m : mass ( kg or g)
With • V : volume ( m3 or cm3 )
kg g
• ρ : density ( or )
m3 cm3

F
• Pressure : p =
A
• F : force ( N)
With • A : area ( m2)
𝑁
• ρ : pressure ( Pa = )
𝑚2

Note : 1 atm = 1.01 x 105 Pa = 760 torr = 760mmHg


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Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
• Pressure at depth h :
p = p0 + ρgh ; with pgauge = ρgh

 Note : pgauge is the addition pressure of the system relative to


atmospheric pressure ( the excess pressure above atm pressure)

• Atmospheric pressure at h above level 1 (y=0)


patm = p0 – ρairgh ; with p0 = 1.01 x 105 Pa
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Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
• Pascal’s principle :
p = pext + ρgh
∆p = ∆ pext

• Application of Pascal’s principle :


Fi F0
=
Ai A0

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Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
• Archimede’s Principle :
Fb = ρfluidgV
Note : V is volume of water displaced by the object .

• Apparent weight in Fuild :


weightapp = weightactual – Fb
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Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
• The Equation of Continuity :
A1v1 = A2v2

Note : + Volume flow rate : Rv= Av = constant


+ Mass flow rate : Rm = ρRv = constant

• Bernoulli’s Equation : conservation of energy


1
p + ρv2 + ρgy = constant
2
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Chapter 1 : Fluids Mechanics
According to figure , we have :
• Equation of continuity :
A1v1 = A2v2 = A3v3 = A4v4
• Bernoulli’s equation :
1 1 1 1
p1+ ρv12 + ρgh = p2 + ρv22 + ρgh = p3 + ρv32 = p4 + ρv42
2 2 2 2

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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Triple point :
p
T = T3( ) (K)
p3
T3 = 273.16 K and p3
Note : the calculation of triple point must be at volume constant .
• The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales :
TC = T – 273o
9
TF = TC +32o
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Liner expansion : (solids)
1 1
∆L = Lα∆T ; with α unit : or
C0 K
• Area expansion : (solids)
∆A = AαA ∆T ; with αA = 2α
• Volume expansion : (solids and liquids)
∆V = V β ∆T ; with β = 3α
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Heat :
For the energy transferred between a system and
its environment or 2 systems , we have :
Q absorb = – Q release

Unit of heat : - SI : joule (J)


- Calorie (cal) – 1cal = 4.1868 J
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Heat capacity :
Q = C ∆T = C ( Tf – Ti )
C : the amount of energy needed to raise the
temperature of an object by 1 degree
J J cal cal
Unit of C : or ; or
K C0 K C0

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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Specific Heat :
Q = cm∆T = cm( Tf – Ti )
c : heat capacity of the material per unit mass
cal J
Unit of c : or
gC0 kgK
Do we need to change oC to K when calculating ∆T ?
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Heats of transformation :
Q = Lm
L : specific latent heat
J
Unit of L :
KgK
Note : During phase change , the temperature does not change!!!
How many phases a ice at -11.3oC want to increase up to 91.1oC ?

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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Work done by gas :
Vf
W = ‫ ׬‬dW = ‫׬‬V pdV
i
+ Expansion ( V↑)
+ Clockwise
→W>0
+ Compress ( V↓)
+ Counterclockwise
→W<0
+ Isochorbic ( V const ) → W = 0
+ Isobaric ( P const )Trương
→W = P∆V
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• First law of thermodynamics :
∆Eint = Eint,f – Eint,i = Q – W
Note :
+ ∆Eint does not depend on the path taken, depend on
the initial and final states.
+ W : work done by gas ; Won : work done on the system.
Won = – W
+ To the gas / receive / absorb : Q > 0
+ Form the gas / release / lose : Q <0
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• First law of thermodynamics :
∆Eint = Eint,f – Eint,i = Q – W
Special case :
 Adiabatic processes : Q = 0 → ∆Eint = – W
Isochoric (V constant) processes : W = 0 → ∆Eint = Q
Cyclical processes ( Ei = Ef ) : ∆Eint = 0 → Q = W
Free expansion : Q = W = 0 → ∆Eint = 0
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Chapter 2 : Heat , Temperature and 1st
law of Thermodynamic
• Conduction rate :
Q A(TH − TC )
Pcon = = k (Units : W = J/s)
t L
• Conduction through a composite slab
A(TH −T1 ) A(T1 −T2 ) A(Ti −TC )
Pcon = k1 = k2 = ki
L1 L2 Li
• Conduction rate of n material :
A(TH − TC )
Pcon =
i=1 (Li /ki )
σn
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QUESTIONS

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1. A man with the passion of Physics gives his son four cases, do by
himself, of the pressure exerted on the ground to determine which is
the largest. Unfortunately, his son is ***** and don’t know the answer
. Let help him by choosing the correct answer .
a) He stands with both feet flat on the ground.
b) He stands with one foot flat on the ground.
c) He kneels with both knees on the ground.
d) He stands with the toes of one foot on the ground then cries
because of broken toes  .
F
p=
A
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2. Which one of the following statements best describes the
pressure in a static, homogeneous liquid ?
a) The pressure is the same at all points in the fluid.
b) The pressure is not dependent on the atmospheric pressure
exerted at the surface of the liquid.
c) At a given depth in the liquid, the pressure is the same at all
points at that depth.
d) The pressure depends on the type of liquid. The denser the
liquid is, the smaller the pressure will be.

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3. Consider the drawing of the liquid within the U-shaped tube that
has both sides open at the top. Is this fluid in equilibrium?
a) Yes, the fluid must be in equilibrium.
b) No, side A should be lower than side B.
c) No, side B should be lower than side A
d) No, both sides should be at the same height.
e) Hah , ez , I don’t know hihi <3 .

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4.Oil is flowing through a tube that has two different cross-sectional
areas as shown in the drawing. At position A where the radius of
the tube is 7.0 cm, the mass flow rate of the oil is 0.025 kg/s.
What is the mass flow rate at position B where the radius of the
tube is 3.5 cm?

a) 0.013 kg/s
b) 0.025 kg/s → Mass flow rate is constant !!!!!
c) 0.038 kg/s
d) 0.050 kg/s
e) 0.10 kg/s

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5. An iceberg floating in seawater, as shown in figure , is extremely
dangerous because much of the ice is below the surface. This
hidden ice can damage a ship that is still a considerable distance
form the visible ice. What fraction of the iceberg lies below the water
level ? The densities of seawater and iceberg are W = 1030 kg/m3
and I = 917 kg/m3 .
SOLUTION
Let Vα be the volume of the part iceberg below the seawater .
An iceberg floating in the seawater , we have :
Fg + Fb = 0 → Fg = Fb – with Fg = mIg = ρIVIg
→ ρIVI = ρWVα Fb = ρWgVα
The fraction of the iceberg below :
Vα ρI 917
f= x100% = x100% = x 100% = 89%
VI ρW 1030 24
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6. A pendulum consist of a brass sphere with a diameter of 35 cm
suspended form a steel cable 10.5 m long ( both measured at 20oC ) . The
swing sphere clears the floor by the distance of only 2 mm when the
temperature is 20oC. At what temperature will the sphere begin to brush
the floor ?
Coefficients of linear expansion of brass and steel are 2x10-5 K-1 ; 1.2x10-5 K-1
SOLUTION
Let T be the temperature we have to find .
The sphere begin the brush the floor when :
∆L = ∆Lsphere + ∆Lcable = Lsphereαsphere∆T + Lcableαcable∆T
↔ 2x10-3 = 35 x 10-2 x 2 x 10-5 x (T-20) + 10.5 x 1.2 x 10-5 x (T-20)
↔ 2x10-3 = 1.33 x 10-4 x (T-20 )
↔ T = 35oC
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7. Suppose that 1 g of water vaporizes isobarically at atmosphere
pressure (1.01x105 Pa). Its volume in the liquid state is 1 cm3, and its
volume in the vapor state is 1671 cm3. Find the work done and the
change in the internal energy of the system .
Heat of vaporization of water : 2.26 x 106 J/Kg .
SOLUTION
The work done by water vaporizes isobarically :
W = ‫ ׬‬pdV = p( Vf – Vi ) = 1.01x105 x (1671 – 1)x10-6 = 168.67 (J)
The change in internal energy of the system :
∆Eint = Q – W = 2260 – 168.67 = 2091.33 (J)
+ Q : heat of vaporization Q = Lv x m = 2.26 x 106 x 1 x 10-3 = 2260 J
+ W : work done by water vaporizes W = 168.67 J

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8. An insulated beaker with neglilible mass content 0.25 kg of water at a
temperature at 75oC. How many kilograms of ice at a temperature of -20oC must
be drop into the water to make the final temperature of the system 30oC ?
Specific heat of water : 4190 J/kg.K ; ice : 2100 J/kg.K ; heat of fusion of ice :
334 x 103 J/Kg .
SOLUTION
The heat energy of water releases form 75oC to 30oC is :
Qrelease = mwcw∆T = 0.25 x 4190 x ( 30 – 75 ) = - 47137.5 (J)
The heat energy of ice absorbs to increase form -20oC to 30oC :
Q1 : ice increase form -20oC to 0oC
Qabsorb = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 Q2 : change phase form ice to water
= mci∆T + Lfm + mcw∆T Q3 : water increase form 0oC to 30oC
= m x 2100 x (0 – (-20) + m x 344 x 103 + m x 4190 x ( 30 -0 )
= m x 511700 ( J )
−47137.5
We have : Qabsorb = - Qrelease → m = 0.09 (kg)
511700 27
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9. Water is flowing in a fire hose with a velocity of 1 m/s and a pressure
of 2 x 105 Pa. At the nozzle the pressure decreases to atmospheric
pressure ( 1.01 x 105 Pa ) , there is no change in height . Calculate the
velocity of the water going out of the nozzle .
SOLUTION
Applying the Bernoulli’s equation with no change in height, we have :
1 1
p1 + ρv1 = p2 + ρv22
2
2 2
1 1
↔ 2x 105 + x 1000 x 12 = 1.01 x 105 + x 1000 x v22
2 2
↔ v22 = 199
↔ v2 = 14.1 (m/s)

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10. In a pokemon battle , Charizard uses “Flamethrower” to melt huge of
ice that frozen by move “ Blizzard “ of Blastoise (“vcl =)))”) .
Assume that 50 kg of ice ( 0oC) is melted and one fourth of them become
vapor . Calculate the heat form move “Flamethrower “ of Charizard that
uses to prevent Blastoise .
Specific heat capacity of water : 4190 Jkg-1K-1 , specific fusion of ice and
vaporization : 333kJkg-1 , 2257kJKg-1 .
SOLUTION
The heat form move “Flamethrower” : +Q1 : heat of fusion
+Q2 : heat of water form 0oC to 100oC
Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 +Q3 : heat of vaporization
= Lfm1 + m2c∆T + Lvm3
1
= 333 x 103 x 50 + 50 x 4190 x (100-0) + x 2257 x 103 x 50
4
= 489x106 (J)
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11. A slab has a thickness of 10.0 cm and a density of 300 kg/m3. When a
75.0-kg swimmer is resting on it, the slab floats in fresh water with its top at
the same level as the water’s surface. Find the area of the slab.
SOLUTION
Let V be the volume a slab floating in water
→ mass of the slab : m = V x ρslab = 300V
Applying Newton 2nd law :
Fg + Fb = 0 → Fg = Fb
→ (300V + 75) x 9.8 = 1000 x 9.8 x V
→ V = 0.107 (m3)
Volume 0.107
The area of a slab : Area = = = 1.07 (m2)
thickness 10 × 10−2

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12. A water hose 2.00 cm in diameter is used to fill a 20.0-L bucket. If it
takes 1.00 min to fill the bucket, what is the speed at which water moves
through the hose?
SOLUTION
Let v be the speed we find .
A be the area of a water hose
∆V be amount of volume that hose fills
∆t be the time it takes
In 60 seconds a water hose fills a 20 L bucket so we have :
∆V = Av∆t
→ 20 x 10-3 = π x (1 x 10-2)2 x v x 60
→ v = 1.06 (m/s)

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13. A large storage tank, open at the top and filled with water, develops a
small hole in its side at a point 16.0 m below the water level. If the rate of
flow from the leak is 2.50  10-3 m3/min, determine the speed at which the
water leaves the hole and the diameter of the hole.
SOLUTION
Let v be the speed we find
At the top of tank , water is stable and has atmospheric pressure acting on so v1 =0
and p1 = p0 = 1.01 x 105
At the depth 16m, water leaves at speed v and has atmospheric pressure acting on
p2 = p0 = 1.01 x 105
Applying Bernoulli’s equation for the top and depth 16 m :
1 1 The diameter of the hole :
p1 + ρv12 + ρgh = p2 + ρv2 d = 2r = 2 x 8.65 x 10-4 =1.73 x 10-3 (m)
2 2 We have the rate of flow :
1 R=Axv
p0 + 0 + 1000 x 9.8 x 16.0 = p0 + x 1000 x v2 2.50 ×10−3
2 = π x r2 x 17.7
60
v = 17.7 ( m/s ) r = 8.65 x 10-4 (m)
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14. The temperature difference between the inside and the outside of an
automobile engine is 450°C. Express this temperature difference on the :
(a) Kelvin scale.
(b) Fahrenheit scale.
SOLUTION
We have ∆TC = Tf,C – Ti,C = 450oC
a) The temperature difference on the Kelvin scale :
Hihi, Did you get a trick ??
∆TK = ∆TC = 450 (K)
(b) The temperature difference on the Fahrenheit scale :
9 9 9 9
∆TF =Tf,F – Ti,F = ( Tf,C + 32) – ( Ti,C + 32) = x ∆TC = x 450 = 810 (oF)
5 5 5 5

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15. A steel ball bearing is 4.000 cm in diameter at 20.0°C. A bronze plate
has a hole in it that is 3.994 cm in diameter at 20.0°C. What common
temperature must they have so that the ball just squeezes through the hole?
Linear expansion coefficient of bronze and steel :19x10-6 K-1 and 11x10-6 K-1
SOLUTION
Let T be the temperature we find.
The steel ball squeezes through the hole when they have the same
diameter after expansion at T.
Therefore, we have : Dball = Dhole
↔ 4.000 + 4.000 x 11 x 10-6 x (T – 20) = 3.994 + 3.994 x 19 x 10-6 x (T – 20)
↔ T = 208oC

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16.The change in the internal energy of the gas as it moves from a to c
along the path abc is -200J. As it moves from c to d, 180J must be
transferred to it as heat. An additional transfer of 80 J to it as heat is needed
as it moves from d to a. How much work is done on the gas as it moves
from c to d?
SOLUTION
According to the figure we have :
∆Eint,abcd = ∆Eint,abc + ∆Eint,cda = 0 (close cycle)
–200 + ∆Eint,cda = 0 → ∆Eint,cda = 200 (J)
For path cda :
Qcda = Qcd + Qda = 180 + 80 = 260 (J)
Wcda = Wcd + Wda = Wcd + 0 =Wcd ( d→a volume constant)
∆Eint,cda = Qcda – Wcda = Qcda – Wcd = 260 – Wcd = 200 (J)
→ Wcd = 60 (J) 35
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17. A bar of gold is in thermal contact with a bar of silver of the same length
and area. One end of the compound bar is maintained at 80.0°C, while the
opposite end is at 30.0°C. When the rate of energy transfer by conduction
reaches steady state, what is the temperature at the junction?
Thermal conductivities of silver and gold : 427 Wm-1K-1 ; 314 Wm-1K-1.
T
SOLUTION
Let T be the temperature we find . TH = 80oC Tc = 30oC
L L
The rate of energy is steady, so according to figure : kgold ksliver
80.0 − T 80.0 −30.0
A L =A L L
kgold kgold
+k
sliver
80.0 −T 50.0
↔ 1 = 1 1
+
314 314 427
↔ T = 51.2oC

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REFERENCES
• Slides form Assoc.Prof. Phan Bao Ngoc
• Slides ; extra problems form Dr.Do Xuan Hoi
• Fundamental of Physics 9th Edition ebook.
• http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/PHYS/akmekki/P
hys101-RQ-ch14.ppt
• Midterm April 2017 of Dr. Do Xuan Hoi

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