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# HIGHER ORDER

SYSTEMS
Marcelino, Ian Joseph E.
Moreno, Mika Nicole R.
Reyes, Chelsea Lois G.
HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS:
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Second-order systems or quadratic lags are described by a second-
order differential equation that relates the output variable y to the
input variable x (the forcing function) with time as the independent
variable.
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HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS:
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The Transfer Function of a second order system in terms of deviation variables can be
expressed by the equation shown below:

WHERE:
Kp – gain
� – time constant
ζ – damping ratio
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Examination of Characteristic Equation:

roots

## 0<1 Underdamped Two complex

conjugate roots
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## Step Response of Second-Order Systems

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The response of a second-order system on a step response is shown below. The
equation for the response is different for different values of the damping ratio, ζ .
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The response of a second-order system on an impulse response is shown below. The
equation for the response is different for different values of the damping ratio, ζ .
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Examples of Second Order Systems:
MASS SPRING DAMPER SYSTEMS
The response can be
underdamped, critically damped,
or overdamped, depending on the
value of the damping coefficient, c.
For an underdamped process, the
response of the system will be
oscillatory.
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Examples of Second Order Systems:

## U-Tube Manometers Pneumatic Valves

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Step Response of an Underdamped Second Order System
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 1.) Overshoot is a measure of how much the

response exceeds the ultimate value following a
step change and is expressed as the ratio A/B.
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 2.) The decay ratio is defined as the ratio of the

sizes of successive peaks and is given by C/A.
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 3.) Rise time is the time required for the

response to first reach its ultimate value
and is labeled tr.
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 4.) Response time is the time required for the

response to come within 5 percent of its
ultimate value and remain there.
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 5.) Period of oscillation is the radian frequency

(radians/time) is the coefficient of t in the sine
term.
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Terms used to describe an Underdamped System:

## 6.) Natural period of oscillation occurs if the

damping is eliminated the system oscillates
continuously without attenuation in amplitude.
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EXAMPLE:

## A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into the system having

a transfer function:

## Determine (a) ultimate value of Y(t), (b) percentage overshoot,

(c) maximum value of Y(t) and (d) period of oscillation.
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EXAMPLE:
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EXAMPLE:
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EXAMPLE: