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# Module 1:

Basic Gate
Boolean Algebra
Module 1:Processor design basics

Textbooks:
1. Floyd & Jain, Digital fundamentals, Pearson education, eighth
edition,2007
2. Digital Logic Circuits Author:- J. S. Katre.
Digital Logic Circuit
Digital Logic Circuit
• A digital computer stores data in terms of digits (numbers) and
proceeds in discrete steps from one state to the next.
• The states of a digital computer typically involve binary digits
which may take the form of the presence or absence of
magnetic markers in a storage medium , on-off switches or
relays.
• In digital computers, even letters, words and whole texts are
represented digitally.
• Digital Logic is the basis of electronic systems, such as
computers and cell phones.
• Digital Logic is rooted in binary code, a series of zeroes and ones
each having an opposite value.
• This system facilitates the design of electronic circuits that
convey information, including logic gates.
Logic Gates
• A logic gates are the devices used as basic building blocks of all
the digital circuits. It is an electronic circuit having one or more
than one inputs and only one output.
• The relationship between the input and the output is based on
“certain logic". Based on this logic gates named as NOT, AND,
and Or along with NOR, NAND, EX-OR.
Truth Table:-
• The operation of a logic gate can be best understood with the
help of a table called “ Truth Table”.
• The truth table consist of all the possible combinations of the
inputs and the corresponding state of output of a logic gate.

Logic Gates
Boolean Expression :
• The relation between the inputs and the outputs of a gate can
be expressed mathematically by means of the Boolean
Expression.
Classification of Logic Gates:-
Logic Gates:-
1.Basic Gates :- NOT, AND, OR gates
2. Universal Gates :- NAND, NOR gates
3. Special Purpose Gates :- EX-OR, EX- NOR gates
Basic Gates
• In the decimal system which is used in our day-to-day life, the
arithmetic operations are used to solve arithmetic equations.
• Similarly to solve or simplify the logical expressions used in
digital circuits we need to use “logical operators". The three
main logic operators are:
1. AND operator.
2. OR Operator.
3. NOT Operator(Inverter)
Logic Gates
Universal gates
• The NAND and NOR gates are called as “universal Gates”
• Because it possible to implement any Boolean expression with
the help of any NAND or only NOR gates. Hence a user can build
any combinational circuit with help of only NAND or NOR gates.
Logic Gates
Logic Gates
Logic Gates
Boolean Algebra
• Boolean Algebra is used to analyze and simplify the digital
(logic)circuits.
• Since it is use only the binary numbers i.e 0 and 1 it is also
called as “Binary Algebra” or “logical algebra”.
• Symbol used in Boolean Algebra (usually letters) do not
represent numerical values.
• Arithmetic operation are not performed in Boolean Algebra
• Important point is Boolean Algebra allows only two possible
values (“0” to “1”) for any variable.
Boolean Algebra
• Various logical operation

## Sr.no Name of the gate Logic operation Boolean

expression
1. NOT Inversion F =A
2. AND Logical multiplication F =A . B
4. NAND NOT AND F =A . B
5. NOR NOT OR F=A+B
6. Exclusive OR Addition/Subtraction F = A⊕ B
7. Exclusive NOR NOT EX-OR F = A⊕ B
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
• Sum-Products(SOP)from:
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra
Boolean Algebra