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LTE 1841: Inter-

frequency Load
Equalization
Nokia Optim Team
Classification : Interne

Inter-Frequency
Intra-Frequency

Connected Mode Load Balancing Features

LTE1140 – Intra-Frequency Load LTE1387 – Intra-eNB Inter-Frequency Load Balancing


Balancing (RL70/RL55TD) (RL40)

LTE1170 – Inter-eNB Inter-frequency Load Balancing (RL50/RL35TD/RL50FZ)

LTE1531 – Inter-frequency Load Balancing Extensions (RL60/RL45TD)

LTE1841 – Inter-frequency Load Equalization (RL70/RL55TD)

Idle Mode Load Balancing Features


CRL0632 – Basic Idle mode Load Balancing (RL40)

LTE487 – Idle Mode Load Balancing (RL50/RL35TD/RL50FZ)

LTE1677 – Idle Mode Load Balancing Extensions (RL60/RL45TD)

LTE2050 – Load Triggered Idle Mode Load Balancing (RL70/RL55TD)

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Classification : Interne

• Inter-frequency Load Balancing (iF-LB) and Idle Mode Mobility Load Balancing (IMMLB) features
offload/steer UEs towards inter-frequency/Inter-RAT neighbour cells
• iF-LB offers reactive offloading when High Load Threshold is reached
The goal of iF-LB was not to equalize the load between cells but rather to keep the load below configured
Target Load Threshold
IMMLB features impact on cell load is visible just after next enter to RRC Connected state
• Load Information available only within own eNB
No Load information exchange between eNBs => Load-Blind HO towards cell of neighbouring eNB

• UE with configured Scel are not a candidate for offload.

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Classification : Interne

Inter Frequency Load Equalization overview

• Goal of the feature: load equalization (LE) between Cell A


source cell and partner neighbour cells (Source cell)
- Partner cell – neighbour cell of the same or different eNB that Cell B
uses partner frequency layer and is AMLE allowed (Neighbour cell)
(LNREL:amleAllowed = true)
Cell C
• The same set of parameters from AMLEPR is used for all partner cells of (Partner cell)
partner frequency layer

- Partner frequency layer – frequency layer that is configured in


partnership for serving cell Cell D
(Partner cell)
• Partnership is created when frequency layer is configured in any
of Active Mode Load Equalization Profile (AMLEPR):
LNCEL:AMLEPR Load is being equalized
• Intra frequency partnership is not supported between Source cell and
Partner cells only
• Configuration of partnership is always done per frequency layer

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Classification : Interne

When feature is activated (LNBTS:actAmle = true) its behaviour can be

reflected as 5 functional blocks Source Cell


1- Load supervision and exchange:
• Measurements of CACS and exchange with neighbours Load supervision and
CAC exchange
2- Check of active AMLE state conditions
Check of active AMLE
• AMLE state of source cell is determined state conditions
3- Candidate UE selection Candidate UE
AMLE feature
selection
• When Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer or Inter Frequency Load
Balancing Retry Timer is expired UE is checked if it can be Candidate for offloading Measurement
solicitation
4- Measurement solicitation
Load Equalization
• A4 measurements of partner neighbour frequencies are triggered execution
5- Load Equalization execution
• Target Cell List is post-processed, unsuitable cells are removed
Partner Cell
• Inter frequency Handover preparation phase is started

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Classification : Interne

Load Supervision Source Cell

1- Load supervision and exchange: and CAC exchange

AMLE feature

From RL50 onwards all load types are measured: GBR, PDCCH and nonGBR
DL GBR Load Measurements
Partner Cell

• DL GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the average DL GBR utilization to the
average available PRBs for dynamic scheduling
PDCCH Load Measurements
• PDCCH load (%) is defined as the averaged ratio of utilized CCEs to total number
of available CCEs
DL nonGBR Load Measurements
• DL non-GBR load (%) is defined as the ratio of the estimated resource utilization
for non-GBR bearers to the average available PRBs for non-GBR dynamic
scheduling

Load measurements are used for determination of Composite Available Capacity that is used by
AMLE, Intra-frequency Load Balancing and others

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Classification : Interne

1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:

• Each measured DL Load (ML) is reflected as Relative Load DL GBR Measured DL GBR Relative DL GBR Available
(RL) Load Load Capacity

˗ Relative Load defines measured load in relation to configured PDCCH Measured PDCCH Relative PDCCH Available
Load Load Capacity
Target Load Threshold (TL)
˗ Target Load Threshold is configured via parameters: DL non-GBR
Measured Load
DL non-GBR
Relative Load
DL non-GBR
Available Capacity
LNCEL:LoadSettings:targetLoadGbrDl, targetLoadNonGbrDl,
targetLoadPdcch
˗ Relative load is a subcomponent in calculation of DL Available
Capacity (AC)
• Available Capacity = [100% - RL]
• DL Composite Available Capacity is the minimum of all AC:
CACDL = min(ACGBR, ACnonGBR, ACPDCCH)

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Classification : Interne

1) Load supervision and CAC exchange:

• In RL50/RL60 all types of load were always taken for


CACDL calculation
• From RL70 onwards user has impact on which type LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode
of load is taken into account for CACDL
determination
• Parameter LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode is
used to control CAC calculation
˗ allUes – DL GBR, DL nonGBR, PDCCH loads are considered allUes nonGbrPdcch nonGbrOnly
˗ nonGbrPdcch – DL nonGBR and PDCCH loads are
considered
˗ nonGbrOnly – only nonGBR load is considered

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Classification : Interne

Source Cell

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions Check of active AMLE


state conditions
AMLE feature

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be in


Partner Cell
active or inactive AMLE state with partner cell
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only when: LNCEL

1- It is not in Active Inter Frequency Load Balancing (iFLB) State (applicable AMLEPR-0
when LTE1170/LTE1531 is activated) Active mode load equalization profile identifier amlePrId
2- There is at least one partner cell configured Headroom in CAC cacHeadroom
for source cell (LNREL:amleAllowed=true) Difference in CAC of source and target cells deltaCac
Threshold for maximum CAC maxCacThreshold
Target carrier frequency
targetCarrierFreq

Note:
When LTE1841 is activated (LNBTS:actAmle = true), at least
default AMLEPR-0 has to be configured

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Classification : Interne

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be in


Source
active or inactive AMLE state with partner cell TL

• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only when:

CACS
Following criteria are met for configured partner cell:

maxCacThreshold

RLS
CRITERIUM 1: CACS < AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥ AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
CRITERIUM 3: CACT - CACS > AMLEPR:deltaCac

Note:
Each time when either Source cell CAC is updated (500ms) or source
eNB gets more up-to-date CAC of Target Cell (e.g. via Resource
Status Update), AMLE state of Source Cell is rechecked

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Classification : Interne

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be in


Partner
active or inactive AMLE state with partner cell TL

• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only when: cacHeadroom

CACT
Following criteria are met for configured partner cell:

CRITERIUM 1: CACS < AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold

RLT
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥ AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
CRITERIUM 3: CACT - CACS > AMLEPR:deltaCac

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Classification : Interne

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

When LTE1841 is enabled, source cell can be in


Source Partner
active or inactive AMLE state with partner cell TL
• Source Cell is in active AMLE state only when:

CACs
CACS
CACT

CACT
Following criteria are met for configured partner cell:
∆CAC = CACT-CACS

RLS

RLT
CRITERIUM 1: CACS < AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold
CRITERIUM 2: CACT ≥ AMLEPR:cacHeadroom
CRITERIUM 3: CACT - CACS > AMLEPR:deltaCac

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Classification : Interne

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

Source Partner
Load is equalized when CAC deviation TL

CACS
cacHeadroom
between Source cell (CACS) and CAC of CACS=60%
CACT=70%

∆CAC=10%
target Cell (CACT) is low enough maxCacThreshold

RLS
• the load difference between partner cells is
maintained according to configured delta
CAC
• Delta CAC (LNCEL:AMLEPR:deltaCac) defines
maximum allowed CAC deviation between
Source cell and Target cell
Load is equalized when:
CACT - CACS ≤
AMLEPR:deltaCac
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Classification : Interne

2) Check of active AMLE state conditions

Example: AMLE State verification:


• 3 partner cells Partner Cell (PC) of Source Cell (S)
• 2 partner frequency layers PC1
f1
PC2
f2
PC3
f2
CACPC1 CACPC2 CACPC3

CACS < maxCacThresholdf1 CACS < maxCacThresholdf2 CACS < maxCacThresholdf2


N Y Y
Y
CACPC2 ≥ cacHeadroomf2 CACPC3 ≥ cacHeadroomf2
STOP
Y N
CACPC2 – CACS>∆CACf2 STOP

AMLE INACTIVE AMLE ACTIVE AMLE INACTIVE

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Classification : Interne

3) Candidate UE Selection Source Cell

Candidate UE AMLE feature


Selection
Candidate UE Selection procedure is reused from
LTE1170/LTE1531 Partner Cell

• Each time when either


˗ [point A] Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check UE enters RRC Connected State
or UE was handed over to the cell that is in
Timer (LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer) or active AMLE state or active iFLB state

˗ [point B] Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer (Tdyn =


Int(max(#actUEs* div 60;1) x LNCEL:iFLBRetryTimer) A B B
is expired, UE selection criteria are checked time

Note:
A Inter Frequency LB Bearer Check Timer is started

B UE selection criteria are verified. Inter Frequency


Load Balancing Retry Timer (Tdyn) is (re)started
* #actUEs = the actual number of active UEs in the cell excluding UEs with configured
SCC (Secondary Component Carrier)

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Classification : Interne

3) Candidate UE Selection

Candidate UE Selection procedure is reused from


LTE1170/LTE1531
• Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer is UE enters RRC Connected State
started every time when: or UE was handed over to the cell that is in
active AMLE state or active iFLB state

˗ UE either enters RRC Connection state or


˗ UE enters cell that is already in active AMLE state or active iFLB state A B B
via Handover time
• Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer is started every
Note:
time when: A Inter Frequency LB Bearer Check Timer is started

˗ Inter Frequency Load Balancing QCI1 Bearer Check Timer is expired B UE selection criteria are verified. Inter Frequency
Load Balancing Retry Timer (Tdyn) is (re)started
˗ Inter Frequency Load Balancing Retry Timer is expired
˗ UE enters cell that is neither in active AMLE state nor active iFLB state
via Handover

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Classification : Interne

UE is a candidate for offloading only if it fulfills UE selection criteria


1- Source Cell is in active AMLE state
2- UE supports at least one partner frequency layer that is used by partner cell with which source cell is in active AMLE state
3- UE has no QCI1 bearer established (depending on LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer)
• UE with QCI1 established, analogously to iFLB feature, is considered to be candidate for offloading only when
LNCEL:iFLBBearCheckTimer = 31
4- UE has no GBR bearer established (depending on the LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode setting)
• UE with GBR bearer established can only be offloaded if GBR load is taken into account during CAC calculation
(LNCEL:loadSettings:mlbEicicOperMode = allUEs)
5- UE has no Secondary cell configured
6- There are no ongoing inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurements for the UE Required functionalities, i.e. Inter frequency
Handover and A4 measurements are supported by the UE  UE reports FGI bit 13 = 1, 14 = 1 and 25 = 1

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Classification : Interne

4) Measurement Solicitation Source Cell

AMLE feature
For UE that is a candidate for offloading A4 measurements Measurement
Solicitation
are started, provided that maximum number of concurrent
A4 measurements (LNCEL:iFLBA4ActLim) is not reached Partner Cell

• s-measure in measConfig is set to 0 ReportConfigEUTRA (A4)


˗ s-measure=0 causes instant start of UE measurements (regardless of RSRP level of Parameter Name Set values
serving cell) > Trigger Type event
• ReportConfigEUTRA is added in reportConfigToAddModList >> eventId eventA4

˗ A4 configuration is hardcoded and not modifiable >>> a4-Threshold

• Activation of A4 is done by adding selected measObjectIds and reportConfigIds to >>>> threshold-RSRP 0 (-140dBm)
>> hysteresis 0
measIdToAddModList
>> Time To Trigger (TTT) 40ms
˗ Partner frequency layers (measObjectIds) that are supported by the UE and for > Trigger Quantity RSRP
which at least one partner cell is in active AMLE state with source cell are added
> Report Quantity Both(RSRP & RSRQ)
• UE is informed about changes in measConfig via RRC Connection Reconfiguration > MaxReportCells 8
message
> Report Interval 60min
˗ Measurement gap handling (if needed) is included > Report Amount 1

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Classification : Interne

4) Measurement Solicitation
A4 event activation A4 event deactivation
• Set s-measure = 0 • Set s-measure = threshold1
• Add measIDs in measConfig • Remove measIDs in MeasConfig
A4 Measurement Reports (MR) are expected to be • Measurement gap handling • Measurement gap handling
• Send RRC Connection • Send RRC Connection
Received within max 3s (supervision timer) after Reconfiguration Reconfiguration

A4 measurements start RSRP RSRP


Neighbo
• If at least one MR was received before supervision timer r
Lowest possible A4 A4 Report
expiration, Target Cell List (TCL) is created RSRP threshold allows
Sent
˗ The lowest possible threshold-RSRP is used. It ensures that almost for measurement of
most of neighbor cells
all cells are reported via A4 report A4-threshold
˗ further filtering process is required to remove cells that are = -140dBm
TTT=40ms
unsuitable due to RSRP and/or RSRQ criteria
time
• Whenever inter-RAT or inter-frequency measurements are
started, A4 is deactivated and UE will not be offloaded due Note:
All cells with RSRP > -140dBm are reported . Further post-
to LE processing and filtering unsuitable cells is required.
˗ UE can still be Handed over to different cell via either Coverage or
Better Cell Handover

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Classification : Interne

Source Cell

5) Load Equalization execution


AMLE feature

Target Cell List (TCL) postprocessing Load Equalization


execution
STEP 1: Removing unsuitable cells from TCL
Partner Cell
• Cells with unsufficient level of RSRP/RSRQ according to filtering parameters setting:
LNHOIF:thresholdRsrpIFLBFilter and LNHOIF:thresholdRsrqIFLBFilter
• Cells from different RAT (including cells of Home eNB when LNBTS:actHeNBMobility is
activated)
• Cells that are blacklisted for Load Based HO (LB HO)
• Cells with unknown CAC and with too low CAC [CACT < AMLEPR:cacHeadroom] *
• Cells for which CAC of Source cell is too high [CACS > AMLEPR:maxCacThreshold] *
• Cells that do not fulfill: CACT - CACS > AMLEPR:deltaCac *
• Number of AMLE HOs towards given cell, between two CAC updates from this cell, is All unsuitable cells are
higher than LNCEL:amleMaxNumHo removed from TCL

Note:
* Whenever more up-to-date CAC is available, AMLE state of each cell is verified again

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Classification : Interne

5) Load Equalization execution

Target Cell List (TCL) postprocessing


STEP 2: TCL sorting
• If there is at least one cell on TCL after STEP1, list is sorted according to
descending ∆CAC
• First candidate that is at the top of TCL is a partner target cell with the
biggest CAC deviation with source cell

The highest delta CAC value


determines which target cell is the
first candidate to accommodate UE
from the source cell

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Classification : Interne

5) Load Equalization execution Source Cell Target Cell

HO preparation phase
• First cell from the top of TCL is considered to be the first Handover Request
Target Cell Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell

• Intra-eNB, X2 or S1-based handover is prepared towards the


chosen target cell with Handover Cause =“Reduce Load in Radio Admission
Serving Cell” Control

• Radio Admission Control (RAC) is responsible for verification


if given handover can be admitted Handover Request Ack.

˗ Case 1) Successful HO preparation phase End of HO preparation phase

• If target cell provides sufficient number of resources to serve


the UE, HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE message is X2 based Handover message flow
sent to source eNB  Handover Execution phase is
NOTE: For simplicity, only X2 Load Based Handover is
performed described. In case of different types of HO (intra-eNB,
S1 based HO) proper HO messages are used

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Classification : Interne

5) Load Equalization execution Source Cell Target Cell

HO preparation phase
Handover Request
˗ Case 2) Unsuccessful HO preparation Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
phase Other
Admission
• If RAC of target cell rejects the HO Request, HO Preparation Failure
Control Target Cell
HO Preparation failure with proper cause is
sent Cause: No Radio Resources Available in

prohibitLBHoTimer
Target Cell/Transport Resources
- If RAC admits only some of UE`s bearers, Unavailable
LBHO is cancelled by source cell (cause: Handover Request
Handover Request
Cause: Reduce Load in
Partial HO) Cause: Reduce Load in Serving Cell
Serving Cell
• Target cell in which RAC rejects (or partially Handover Request
admits) LBHO is blocked by source cell to Cause: Reduce Load in Serving
avoid next LBHOs during time defined by Cell
LNBTS:prohibitLBHOTimer
• In such case, HO towards the second cell in NOTE: For simplicity, only X2 Load Based Handover is
TCL (if any) will be triggered described. In case of different types of HO (intra-eNB,
S1 based HO) proper HO messages are used

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Thank You