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Unit-3A

Differential Equations of
First Order
2130002 – Advanced Engineering Mathematics

Humanities & Science


Department
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Introduction
 Let

Differentiate both the sides w.r.to

Differentiate again both the sides w.r.to

Continuing this process we can find order derivative of the given


function.

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Definitions
 Differential Equation
An eqn. which involves differential co-efficient is called a
Differential Equation.

Types of Differential Equations

Ordinary Differential Partial Differential


Equation Equation

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Types of Differential Equations
 Ordinary differential Equation
An eqn. which involves function of single variable and ordinary
derivatives of that function then it is called an Ordinary
Differential Equation.
e.g.

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Types of Differential Equations
 Partial Differential Equation
An eqn. which involves function of two or more variables and
partial derivatives of that function then it is called a Partial
Differential Equation.

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Order of DE
 Order of DE
The order of highest derivative which appeared in a differential
equation is “Order of D.E”.
has order 1.

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Degree of DE
 Degree of DE
When a D.E. is in a polynomial form of derivatives, the highest
power of highest order derivative occurring in D.E. is called a
“Degree of D.E.”.
has degree 2.

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M-1 Examples on Order and Degree

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Ex.1 Find order and degree of

Solution:

Here,
Taking Fourth power both the sides,

In above differential equation the order of highest derivative is

Now, DE is in polynomial form and highest power of the highest

derivative is 4

Therefore, Order is 2 and Degree is 4.

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Solution:

Here,

In above differential equation the order of highest derivative is but


the DE is not in polynomial form. So, degree of the given DE is
undefined.
Therefore, Order is 2 and degree is undefined.

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Types of solution
 General solution

A solution of a differential equation in which the number of

arbitrary constants is equal to the order of the differential

equation, is called the General solution or complete integral or

complete primitive.

 Particular solution

The solution obtained from the general solution by giving a particular

value to the arbitrary constants is called a particular solution.

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Linear and Nonlinear DE
 A differential equation is called “LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATION” if the dependent variable and every derivatives in

the equation occurs in the first degree only and they should not

be multiplied together. Otherwise it is known as “NONLINEAR

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION”

e.g. is linear.
is non-linear.

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Types of First Order and First Degree DE
 Variable Separable Equation

 Homogeneous Differential Equation

 Linear(Leibnitz’s) Differential Equation

 Bernoulli’s Equation

 Exact Differential Equation

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Variable Separable Method
If
 a differential equation of type can be converted into , then it is
known as a Variable Separable Equation.

The general solution of a Variable Separable Equation is

Where, c is an arbitrary constant.

 Note:

For convenience, the arbitrary constant can be chosen in any


suitable form. e. g. etc.

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M-2 Examples on Variable Separable
DE

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Solution:

Here,

Integrate both the sides,

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Solution:
 Here,

Integrate both the sides,

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Now,

Here,

Therefore, the solution is

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Solution:

Here,

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Integrate both the sides,

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Reducible to variable separable Eq.
 If a differential equation of type can be converted into then it
can be converted into variable separable equation by taking & .

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Solution:

Here,

Let,

Differentiate above equation both the sides, w.r.to

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Ex.13 Solve

Dividing above equation both the sides by

Therefore, by eq.

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Ex.13 Solve


Integrate both the sides,

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Leibnitz’s (linear) Equation
  Form - 1 Form -2

Form of DE

Integrating 
Integrating 
factor
factor

Solution 
Solution 

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M-3 Examples on Liebnitz’s DE

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Solution:

Comparing it with

We have,

Now,

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I.F.

The general solution is,

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Solution:

Dividing it by

Comparing it with

We have,

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I.F.

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The
 general solution is,

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Solution:

Comparing it with

We have,

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I.F.

The general solution is,

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Bernoulli’s Differential Equation
A differential equation of the form

is known as Bernoulli’s Differential


OR Equation.

Here, is real number

This type of differential equation can be converted into


linear differential equation.

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Process to reduce the Bernoulli’s DE into Linear DE

Case-1

Dividing both sides of equation by,

Let

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Process to reduce the Bernoulli’s DE into
Linear DE

Then from equation

which is a linear DE

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Process to reduce the Bernoulli’s DE into Linear
DE
Case-2

A differential of the form

Dividing both sides of equation by

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Process to reduce the Bernoulli’s DE into
Linear DE
Let

Differentiate with respect to both the sides,
Equation becomes Linear Differential equation.

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M-4 Examples on Bernoulli’s D

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Ex.3

Solution:

Divide the above equation both the sides by

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Ex.3

Let

Now, from equation

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Which is a linear differential equation.
Now, compare the above equation with

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Ex.3

The general solution is,

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Ex.3

Which is required solution.

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Ex.5 Solve
Solution:

Divide both the sides by

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Ex.5 Solve
Let

Now, from equation

Which is a linear differential equation.


Now, compare this equation with

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Ex.5 Solve

I.F.=

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Ex.5 Solve
The
 general solution is,

Which is required solution.

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Ex.7

Solution:

Divide both the sides by

Let

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Ex.7

Now,
 from equation

Which is a linear differential equation.


Now, compare this equation with

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Ex.7


Now,

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Ex.7

The
 general solution is,

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Exact Differential Equation
 A differential equation of the form is said to be Exact Differential
Equation if it can be derived from its primitive by direct
differential without any further transformation such as
elimination etc.

 Necessary and Sufficient Condition:

 The general solution of Exact Differential Equation is

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M-5 Examples on Exact DE

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Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Therefore,
 the given differential equation is Exact.
The general solution is

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Ex.8 Solve


Solution:
Here,

Compare the given equation with

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Ex.8 Solve


Here,

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

Therefore, the given differential equation is Exact.

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Ex.8 Solve

The
 general solution is

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Ex.10 Solve

Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Ex.10 Solve

Therefore,
 the given differential equation is Exact.
The general solution is

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Non Exact Differential Equation
 A differential equation which is not exact differential equation is
known as Non-Exact Differential Equation.

 i.e.

 We reduce the non-exact differential equation into exact


differential equation by multiplying it with I.F.

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Standard rules for finding I.F.
Condition Type of equation I.F.

Homogeneous

Non
Homogeneous

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Non Exact Differential Equation
 Now , multiply I.F. with the given differential equation to get new
M and N.

 Therefore, the general solution is

Where, c is any constant.

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Homogeneous Differential Equation
Homogeneous DE

A differential equation is called homogeneous
differential equation if each term has same degree.

E.g.
Here, each term is of degree 2
Therefore, this diff. equation is homogeneous.

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Non-Homogeneous Differential Equation
When the function is not homogeneous, it is called non-

homogeneous function.

E.g.
Here, each term doesn’t have same degree
Therefore, this diff. equation is Non-homogeneous.

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M-6 Examples on Non-Exact DE

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Ex.2 Solve
Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Ex.2 Solve
 Here, the given differential equation is homogenous as each term
is of order 3.

 Therefore,

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Ex.2 Solve
 Now, multiply I.F. with the given differential equation to reduce it
into exact form.

Therefore,

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Ex.2 Solve
Therefore,
 the given differential equation is Exact.
The general solution is

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Ex.5 Solve
Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Ex.5 Solve
 Here, the given differential equation is non-homogenous and it is
of the form

 Therefore,

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Ex.5 Solve
 Now, multiply I.F. with the given differential equation to reduce it
into exact form.

Therefore,

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Ex.5 Solve
Therefore,
 the given differential equation is Exact.
The general solution is

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Ex.9 Solve
Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Ex.9 Solve
 Here, the given differential equation is non-homogenous.

 Here,

Therefore,

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Ex.9 Solve
 Now, multiply I.F. with the given differential equation to reduce it

into exact form.

Therefore,

Therefore, the given differential equation is Exact.

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Ex.9 Solve
The
 general solution is

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Ex.10

Solution:

Compare the given equation with
Therefore, we get that

Now, differentiate and w.r.to and respectively.

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Ex.10

 Here, the given differential equation is non-homogenous.

 Here,

Therefore,

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Ex.10

 Now, multiply I.F. with the given differential equation to reduce it

into exact form.

Therefore,

Now, the given differential equation is Exact.

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Ex.10

The
 general solution is

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Orthogonal Trajectory
 Trajectory
A Curve which cuts every member of a given family of curves
according to some definite rule is called trajectory.

 Orthogonal Trajectory
A curve which cuts every member of a given family at right
angles is a called an Orthogonal Trajectory.

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Method for finding Orthogonal trajectory of
1. Differentiate w.r.t. x.

2. Eliminate by using and its derivative.
3. Replace by . This will give you differential equation of
the orthogonal trajectories.
4. Solve the differential equation to get the equation of
the orthogonal trajectories.

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M-7 Examples on Orthogonal Trajectory

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Ex.1 Find orthogonal trajectories of
Solution:

Here,
Now, differentiate both the sides w.r.to

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Ex.1 Find orthogonal trajectories of

Integrate both the sides,

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Method for finding Orthogonal trajectory of
1. Differentiate w.r.t. .

2. Eliminate c by using eqn …(1) and its derivative
3. Replace by . This will give you differential eqn of the
orthogonal trajectories.
4. Solve the differential equation to get the equation of
the orthogonal trajectories.

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Ex.4 Find Orthogonal trajectories of

Solution:

Here,
Differentiate both the sides w.r.to

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Ex.4 Find Orthogonal trajectories of

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